PSYCH 306-Chapter 3
PSYCH 306-Chapter 3 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chapter 3 Hormones and Sexuality 3 The Endocrine System 0 O O Hormones are important for growth metabolism water retention reaction to stress Endocrine system network of ductless glands that secrete their chemical substances hormones Hormones chemical substances that are secreted by ductless glands into the bloodstream They are carried in the blood to other parts of the body where they exert their effects on other glands or target organs The testicles release testosterone Ovaries release estrogen and progesterone Adrenal gland also produces small amounts of these hormones this all three hormones are found in men and women Pituitary gland causes the testicles anol ovaries to release the hormones Located at the base of the brain Releases 8 different hormones Two of these have their effect on the ovaries and testicles called gonadotropins Folliclestimulating hormone FSH stimulates the maturation of a follicle an immature egg in one of the ovaries and the production of sperm Luteinizing hormone LH triggers ovulation and in men it stimulates the testicles to product male hormones Prolactin a hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production in the breasts I Oxytocin a pituitary hormone associated with milk release labor and orgasmic contractions and erotic attraction and touch quotlovequot hormone Pituitary gland was once called the master gland Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH a hormone released by the hypothalamus in the brain that causes the pituitary gland to release the hormone FSH and LH In women increases in blood levels of GnRH from the hypothalamus cause an increase in the release of FSH from the pituitary gland which in turn results in increased blood levels of estrogen from the ovary The increased estrogen levels then work to decrease the production of GnRH There is a similar feedback loop among GnRH LH and progesterone lnhibin a hormone produced by the testicle and ovaries that inhibits release of folliclestimulating hormone from the pituitary gland 3 The Menstrual Cycle 0 O O The monthly cycle of hormonal events in a woman that leaders to ovulation and menstruation During this phase of growth the endometrium of the uterus thickens and becomes highly vascularized in preparation for implementation of a fertilized egg If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm endometrial tissues are discharged from the body accompanied by bleeding and a new follicle then begins with the nal stage of maturation This process will end at menopause 400 menstrual cycles Average length of cycle is 28 days Preovulatory Phase Days 513 Also referred to as the follicular or proliferative phase The pituitary secretes high FSH which stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary He growing follicle secretes high levels of estrogen Estrogen also stimulates the release of LH Ovulation Day 14 The LH surge signals the onset of ovulation within 12 to 24 hours A mature follicle Graa an has moved 0 the surface of the ovary Ovulation the follicle ruptures and the egg is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity Corpus luteum the follicular cells that remain in the ovary after the follicle expels the ovum during ovulation They begin to secrete progesterone in large quantities in the postovulatory Hormonal changes induce a change in the quantity and consistency of cervical mucus from white and sticky to clear and slippery like an egg white to provide a more hospitable environment for sperm An egg remains ripe for only 24 hours but sperm can live up to 5 days in the uterus so the fertile period for women is 5 days before ovulation Postovulatory Phase Days 15 to 28 Also referred to as the luteal or secretory phase The cells of the corpus luteum begin to secrete large levels of progesterone after ovulation which inhibits further release of LH from the pituitary and further prepares the thickened endometrium in case the egg is fertilized If the egg is fertilized it continue its trip through the fallopian tube and implants itself in the endometrium The development of the placenta produces the hormone human chronic gonadotropin HCG which ensure that the corpus luteum will continue to maintain the endometrium o Menstruation Days 14 With the decline in the levels of estrogen and progesterone there is loss of the hormones that were responsible for the development and maintenance of the endometrium The endometrium is shed over a 3 to 6 day period Menstruation is the discharge of endometrium tissue cervical mucus and blood The loss of estrogen results in FHS and a new cycle begins 09 Length of the Menstrual Cycle 0 0 During adolescence most girls cycles average longer than 28 days Considerable variety in women 0 Menstrual Synchrony and Pheromones O O O Pheromones chemical substances secreted externally by animals that convey information to and produce speci c response in members of the same species Roommates have similar menstrual cycles Studies found that women who had regular sexual experiences with a man had a more regular menstrual cycle 0 The Menstrual Cycle and Sexual Desire 0 Estrous cycle the cycle of hormonal events that occurs in most nonhuman mammals The females are sexually receptive to males only during ovulation An increase in women s sexual activity and fantasies in the days leading up to ovulation Many studies have found that men nd women to be more attractive during ovulation Women can be sexually aroused during anytime of the cycle unlike other species 0 Attitudes About Menstruation Historical Perspectives o Biblical Hebrews regarded a menstruating woman as unclean or impure and believed that she could transfer her unceaniness to a man during sex 0 Girl was required to leave the house during menstrual cycle 0 Attitudes About Menstruation Today 0 Negative feelings of men and women 0 Many people believe menstrual myths women should not swim exercise avoid bathing 0 Menstrual Problems 0 Amenorrhea the absence of mensuration for 3 months or longer Menarche the term for a girl s st menstrual period Girls with high body fat start menstruating earlier Common among female athletes eating disorders 0 Premenstrual Syndrome PMS Physical andor emotional changed that many women experience in the last 3 to 14 days before the start of their menstrual period Bloating breast tenderness abdominal swellings swollen handfeet weight gain constipation and headaches Premenstrual dysphonic disorder PMDD a severe form of PMS that markedly interferes with social relations work or education Women with PMS or PMDD generally have normal hormone levels and normal estrogenprogesterone ratios I Ovarian hormones act in combination with a brain chemical called serotonin to produce the symptoms 0 Dysmenorrhea painful menstruation Backaches headaches and feeling bloated 0 Heavy Bleeding Menorrhagia heavy vaginal bleeding Treatments include birth control tranexamic acid 0 Endometriosis the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus Causes adhesions and abnormal growth that binds organs together 0 Toxic Shock Syndrome SSS caused by toxins produced by a bacterium Fever vomiting diarrhea fainting low blood pressure can result in death The staphylococcus bacteria needs oxygen to multiply air pockets in tampons contain oxygen oz Regulation of Male Hormones 0 Release of GnRH from the hypothalamus causes release of FSH from the pituitary Increased in blood levels of FSH stimulate production of sperm on the seminiferous tubules of the testicles FSH production is inhibited by increases in blood levels of inhibin produced by men in Sertoli cells in the testicles Testosterone production increases when GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates release of LH High levels of testosterone then inhibit the production of GnRH Levels of FSH LH and testosterone are relatively stable The difference between men and women are the hypothalamus not the pituitary glands oz Testosterone and Sexual Desire 0 O In humans there is evidence of testosterone playing a role in sexual desires The loss of estrogen and progesterone does not reduce sexual desire in most women
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