Week 3 Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4130 at University of Georgia taught by James Stringham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Physio Comp Psych in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
brain uses 20 of resting oxygen Burns 20 of your calories more if you are thinking hard The Autonomic Nervous System Contains efferent neurons that control glandular activity and internal organ functioning Two divisions 1 sympathetic nervous system SNS and 2 Parasympathetic nervous system PRNS The SNS activated by conditions that promote arousal particularly in situations involving emotional reactions to stressors Stimulation of the SNS prepares an organism to respond to challenging or dangerous conditions Fight or ightquot response The PRNS activated by conditions of recovery or the termination of stressors allows the organism to replenish energydepleted stores The SNS and PRNS are generally antagonistic and serve to balance the overall state of arousal SNS rapid activation due to short preganglionic axonsmass effect on organ activation PRNS relatively slow activation due to long preganglionic axonsspecific organs affected Ganglion a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies Protective Features of the Central Nervous System 3 major protective features 1 The skull and vertebral column Provide bony physical protection for the soft tissue of the nervous system 24 individual vertebra fused regions of the sacral and coccygeal regions see right 2 The meninges Found between the skull and the brain and between the spinal cord and the vertebral column ie spine Outermost layer dura mater Thick durable exible Middle layer arachnoid mater Thin weblike sheet of tissue Subarachnoid space filled with CSF found between arachnoid mater and Innermost layer Pia mater Thin membrane that adheres to the surface of the brain Meningitis an infection or in ammation of the meninges caused either bacteria a virus or a fungus Can be fatal Excruciating headache stiff neck fever extreme sensitivity to light Similar to u symptoms 3 The ventricular system A series of hollow interconnected chambers in the brain and spinal cord Consist of 4 total ventricles The lateral ventricles and the 3rd and 4th ventricles The ventricles contain CSF which resembles blood plasma CSF cushions and protects the brain from injury provides buoyancy against gravity and contains nutrients needed by the CNS CSF is constantly manufactured by cells in the choroid plexus a rich network of blood vessels inside each ventricle The absorption of CSF into the bloodstream prevents excess accumulation the BBB is another protective featurewe ll discuss in Ch 4 The Brain Three main functions Recognizing detected stimuli Analyzing the information Executing the appropriate response Anatomy 3 primary divisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain The Hindbrain The hindbrain is divided into two major sections the myelencephalon and the metencephalon Myelencephalon contains the medulla oblongata which controls basic life functions eg respiration heart rate vomiting salivation Reticular formation reticular activating system begins in the medulla extends to other areas of the brain and is involved in arousal also extends to midbrain Metencephalon consists of two major structures Pons a bridge for many fibers passing from one side of the brain to the other Sensory fibers fibers from the cortex to cerebellum and fibers that relay information on sleep arousal and dreaming pass through it Cerebellum involved in the development and coordination of movement Raph system located along the midline of the hindbrain between the medulla and the midbrain Plays a crucial role in sleep and arousal The Midbrain Tectum quotroofquot relays visual and auditory information and controls simple re exes eye and ear orientation movements superior colliculi little hillsquot relays visual information visual re exes Orients the head and eyes to all types of sensory stimuli inferior colliculi relays auditory information auditory re exes Tegmentum oor coveringquot substantia nigra black substancequot integration of voluntary movements Dopaminergic neurons here red nucleus controls basic body movements reticular formation controls arousal and consciousness brain stem midbrain hindbrain minus the cerebellum The Forebrain The Diencephalon Epithalamus contains habenula olfactory functions and pineal gland produces melatonin Melatonin sleep hormone Thalamus sensory relay center Medial geniculate nucleus MGN relays auditory information Lateral geniculate nucleus LGN relays visual information Other nuclei connect to areas not involved in sensation eg the ventrolateral nucleus receives information from the cerebellum and relays it to the motor cortex Hypothalamus detects need states eg hunger and thirst controls the autonomic nervous system and controls pituitary hormone production and release Links nervous system to endocrine system via the pituitary gland releases MANY hormones responsible for among other things growth growth hormone secreted from anterior pituitary FAT RAT In the rat on the right the ventromedial hypothalamus has been damaged This leads to an inability to feel quotfullquot after eating called satiety The rat therefore seeks more food and gets bigger and bigger The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates circadian rhythm The Brain Forebrain The Telencephalon The telencephalon end brain consists of three parts 1 Limbic system Amygdala fear aggression anger Cingulate gyrus control of emotional behavior unpleasantness of pain Hippocampus plays an essential role in memory processes 2 Basal ganglia play a major role in initiating voluntary movements maintaining posture and muscle tone Also learning or choosing appropriate motor or behavioral quotprogramsquot Widespread connections to cortex and other areas of the forebrain Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus 3Cerebral cortex The shriveledup awesomeness that makes us superior beings Seriously though the cerebral cortex is the convoluted outer layer of the forebrain that processes sensory information controls thinking decision making stores and retrieves memory and initiates motor responses The cortex is divided into two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and each hemisphere has four lobes Frontal lobes anterior to the central sulcus is the motor cortex involved in muscle movement The area for programming and sequencing of motor movements for speech production Broca s area is also in the frontal cortex The prefrontal cortex controls complex intellectual functioning such as planning and sequencing of behavior Parietal lobes The anterior portion somatosensory cortex analyses sensory information such as pain pressure and body position The posterior portion is involved in spatial perception Temporal lobes includes the primary auditory cortex a visual area and language centers Occipital lobes Vision Period Somatosensory and Motor Cortexand Wilder Penfield Somatosensory cortex anterior portion of the parietal lobe Motor cortex area of the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcus The face and hands have a large amount of representation in these areas This representation allows for great sensitivity and motor control for these areas of the body The 6 layers of the neocortex about 4 millimeters thick layers differentiated primarily by cell type Nissl staining reveals only cell bodies of neurons specifically the endoplasmic reticulum A basic dye eg cresyl violet binds to negatively charged nucleic acids like RNA and or DNA Camillo Golgi Golgi stain entire neuron is stained by impregnating fixed nervous tissue with potassium dichromate and silver nitrate Genetics The Basics Genetics The study of heredity or inheritance Gene A unit of heredity a region of DNA that directs the making of a protein Genes are located on chromosomes structures contained within the nucleus of each cell except red blood cells which lack a nucleus 22 pairs 1 each from Mom amp Dad PLUS the sex chromosomes A gene is a portion of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA the large doublehelix molecule 4 nitrogencontaining bases bases are substances that form salts when they interact with acids 1 Adenine 2 Thymine 3 Cytosine 4 Guanine Hydrogen bonds A T C G All attached to a sugar called deoxyribose DNA determines physical characteristics such as hair color eye color and blood type and also behavioral characteristics such as emotional disposition and intelligence DNA molecules provide the information to build proteinsand so it is involved in EVERY aspect of the body s structure and function How Via direction of RNA ribonucleic acid a singlestranded molecule Like DNA RNA contains 4 bases 3 are the same adenine cytosine guanine The fourth uracil binds to adenine A U C9 G A protein consists of a string of amino acids Different proteins have different amino acid sequences Each amino acid in the protein is determined by a sequence of three bases in the DNA molecule Triplet of bases governs the specific amino acid inserted into a protein during its synthesis Example the DNA triplet thymineguaninethymine TGT leads to the insertion of the amino acid cysteine in a protein molecule There are 20 quotstandardquot amino acids that can be combined to make a protein The sequence of amino acids determines each protein s unique 3dimensional structure and its specific function The process of DNA triplet sequences amino acid instructions to RNA proteins is very COMPLEX Sometimes things go wrong and certain proteins aren t made or are incorrectly transcribed Example Phenylketonuria Normally our genetic material facilitates production of an enzymatic protein called phenylalanine hydroxylase that metabolizes the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine Build up of phenylalanine can cause major problems ie mental retardation seizures Tyrosine is metabolized to produce among other things the neurotransmitters dopamine norepinephrine and epinephrine ie noradrenaline and adrenaline Thanks Mom amp Dad Inheritance Meiosis the process by which gametes sperm and egg cells with half the number of chromosomes found in other cells are formed When a baby is conceived genetic material is combined from both gametes to form a full set of chromosomes Allele an alternative form of a gene Can be two forms 1 Dominant the form of a gene that determines the expression of a physical characteristic when either or both members of a pair of alleles are in that form 2 Recessive same as above except that BOTH members of a pair of alleles are in that form So each of our genes or combination of them is responsible for a physical outcome that presumably makes us more likely to survive in an evolutionary sense Many diseases are due to a quotbrokenquot gene that can be covered upquot by having an effective gene on the homologous chromosome 9 heterozygous homozygous PlusEPIGENTICSthe other effect of the environment on our genes DNA is like a scriptnot a predetermined outcome The information is always the same but how it is interpreted can be different depending on the environment Dutch hunger winter 194445 Babies in last trimester of growth vs Babies in first trimester of growth Long term Babies born during shortage stayed small their entire lifeless obesity than normal Babies conceived during shortage seemed healthy but had higher rate of obesity These same effects were seen in the children of these babies as well The Evolution of the Nervous System Why do we have a nervous system Why did a nervous system evolve in the first place We know that a nervous system allows an organism to react and adapt to its environment Evolution a nervous system must contribute to survival of the species Those organisms with a nervous system were able to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions and react appropriately to threatening situations Simply put organisms that exhibit adaptive traits survive long enough to reproduce In evolution She who leaves the most babies winsquot Adaptive traits often happen quotaccidentallyquot Genetic mutations can be advantageous and become an essential part of a species genetic makeup Example Lactose tolerance into adulthood in most Northern Europeans Over the last 20000 years domestication of cattle Extra Somatosensory and Motor Cortex the bigger parts on the diagram are more sensitive The Cortex roughly 6 layers and different kinds of cells in different layers Nissl vs Golgi Stain Golgi was able to stain the entire neuron In the final weeks of pregnancy the baby s brain grows by 50 brain keeps growing about 18 months to 2 years after born Born with 200 BILLION NEURONS Genetics The Basics genetics study of heredity 0 gene unit of heredity region of DNA that direct the making of a protein 0 genes located on chromosomes I red blood cells lack a nucleus protein consists of a string on amino acids 0 there are 20 amino acids Tyrosine is crucial to formation of neurotransmitters o Phenylketonurics cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine Epigenetics turning genes on a off
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