Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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Date Created: 05/09/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 428 Proteins as energy source Proteins do not have a specialized storage form for energy carbs glycogen and fattriglycerides When proteins need to be used for energy they are taken from the blood and body tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle Adequate amounts of carbohydrate and fat spare protein During times of low carbohydrate and fat intake the body breaks down proteins into individual amino acids which break into building blocks for glucose gluconeogenesis Protein is only emergency energy Functions of Amino Acids Synthesize proteins major role Provide nitrogen for nonessential amino acids Increase fat stores from excess protein Provide glucose emergency or excess Protein Digestion Mechanical digestion of protein occurs through chewing crushing and moistening in the mouth When proteins reach the stomach they are broken apart by hydrochloric acid and then by the enzyme pepsin which begins breaking proteins into single amino acids and smaller polypeptides In the intestine the polypeptides react with proteases which digest them into single amino acids The amino acids are transported into the bloodstream to the liver and on to cells throughout the body as needed How Much Protein Should We Eat Proper protein intake depends on 0 Activity level 0 Age 0 Health status Example each day a sedentary adult requires a 08g of protein per kg of body weight Do Athletes need more Proteins Recent studies show that protein needs are higher for athletes Athletes require more protein for several reasons 0 Regular exercise increases the transport of oxygen to body tissues requires more protein hemoglobin 0 During intense exercise we use a small amount of protein for energy 0 We use protein to make glucose to prevent hypoglycemia during exercise 0 Regular exercise stimulates tissue growth and causes tissue damage which require additional protein 0 Check current intake most Americans already consume more than twice the RDA for protein 0 Eating more protein or taking protein supplements above the RDA does not cause muscles to become bigger or stronger only regular strength training can achieve this goal High Protein Diets May increase the risk for health proteins Heart disease high protein diets composed of predominantly animal sources are associated with higher blood cholesterol levels due to saturated fats Bone Loss Animal foods contain more of the sulfur amino acids that make the blood more acidic and calcium is pulled form the bone into the blood to buffer acids Kidney disease the more protein we eat the more protein the body needs to break down High protein can be stressful to the kidneys High Protein and Weight Loss Rationale high simplecarbohydrate diets white our refined sugars has caused the rise in obesity in the US High protein lowcarbohydrate diets can cause numerous health risks 0 Low blood glucose due to limited carbohydrate intake leads to low energy levels diminished cognitive functioning and elevated ketones 0 Increased risk for heart disease because highprotein diets that rely on animal sources of protein are typically high in saturated fat can choose low fat protein Problems Associated With Excess Protein Consumption Direct Problems from the protein itself 0 Mineral excretion especially iron and calcium 0 Kidney and liver damage 0 Dehydration 0 Increased risk of arthritis and gout o Kidney stones Indirect Problems from the protein source 0 Heart disease 0 Obesity The body cannot store excess amino acids Excess means beyond what the body can use to make proteins Indirect Problems of Overconsumption of Protein Good Sources of Proteins Meats dairy products soy products legumes nuts and certain whole grains Soy is a complete protein all essential amino acids Legumes excellent source of protein o Rivals that of meat 0 High in fiber iron calcium and many B vitamins 0 Low in saturated fat and cholesterol Soy Protein Soybased foods start with soybeans Provide all essential amino acids Have twice as much protein as any other legume Only contains unsaturated fat and no cholesterol Soy based goods soy milk tofu tempeh miso edamame May reduce risk heart disease cancer and osteoporosis Protein Deficiency Problems 1 Mineral excretion calcium and iron 2 Kidney and liver damage 3 Increased risk of arthritis and gout 4 Dehydration 5 Edema Most of these problems mimic protein toxicity because the body is using protein AA s for energy In the US protein deficiency energy deficiency Amino Acid Supplements Many athletes and gym goers believe in protein supplementation 0 We use very little protein for energy during exercise 0 Americans already consume more than 2 times the RDA for protein we already get more than enough to support strength or endurance training and performance 0 Little evidence that protein supplements can build muscle or improve strength 0 Claims for amino acid supplements are unfounded Drawbacks o Supplements can be very expensive 0 Taking high amounts of cyeteine cause nausea dizziness fatigue insomnia 0 Taking high amounts of Methionine is toxic and can cause liver dysfunction Reasons for vegetarianism Religious reasons some Hindu Buddhist and Christian Ethical personal philosophy reasons morally wrong to eat animals Food safety reasons foodborne illness or bacteria E coli Salmonella Health benefits 0 Reduced risk of obesity type 2 diabetes heart disease etc Reduced consumption of meat and dairy products can result in inadequate intakes of nutrients Challenges of Vegetarianism
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