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Chapter 4

by: Abigail Towe

Chapter 4 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001

Abigail Towe
GPA 3.6
Functional Human Anatomy
Tamara L. McNutt-Scott

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About this Document

Functional Human Anatomy
Tamara L. McNutt-Scott
Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chapter 4 5555 Tissue Level of Organization 3 A group of cells that carry out a common function E tissue Histology study of tissue and their relationships within organ Observe 4 principal tissue types which are formed from 3 primary germ layers The three germ layers of an embryo endoderm mesoderm and ectoderm encompass the precursors of all structures and organs of the entire body generated by a process called gastrulation occurs at the early stage of the embryonic development gastrulation occurs at wk3 of development is a critical pd Tl39 39lill l39 E I lili 1T mini W52 section gural madam rat amalgam madam minder 74 JL httpembryologymedunsweduaunotesweek36htm Primary germ layers and their derivatives Ectoderm Mesoderm 73 l39l u r quoti Epithelial tissue Nervous tissue l Epidermis of skin and epidermal Epithelial lining of respiratory tr ct Gl derivatives hair nails sweat glands tract urinary tract reproductive tract mammary glands tympanic cavity auditory tube Nervous tissue and sense organs Liver most of Pituitary gland Gallbladder Adrenal medulla Pancreas Enamel of teeth Palatine tonsils portion of Lens of eye Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Dermis of skin Thymus Epithelial lining of blood vessels lymph vessels serous membranes Muscle tissue Connective tissue Adrenal cortex Heart Kidneys and ureters The four primary tissue types vary in structure of specialized cells 3 a cell function u ECM presence Areclar Connective Tissue s 39 4 39 a at 39 a 5 I 39 E p It i Wi x4 i if 2 479 O v H i 77 TL i if 139 x n v V k E a K 39 2 1 239 1 V Q 4 7 K V M 11 T y i 1 Cubcdial gg i 4 i 5 3 1o 5 39 t 3 e i a 2 A 5331 quot 1 f a quot ligh v serves as covering for body surfaces amp lining the body cavities forms the external and internal lining of many organs boundary between environments thus nearly all substances receivedreleased by the body pass through the epithelium transepithelial transport epithelium one or more layers of closely packed epithelial cells that forms a barrier between two compartments having differing components O 0 O Cellularity 333 closepacked cells little ECM Polarity apical and basal surfaces differ in compositionfunction Attachment rest upon and supported by CT connection via a basement membrane noncellular entity basal laminae secreted by epithelial cells noncellular adhesive sheet selective filter scaffolding for cell migration lamina lucida amp lamina densa reticular lamina secreted by connective tissue ECM material support Avascularitv NO blood vessels nourishment by diffusion Innervation some regions richly innervated but restricted High Regenerative Capacity due to lossdamage continually replaced by deepest epithelial cells stem cells 5 Specialized Structures Due to location at free surfaces epithelial tissues exhibit some distinct structural characteristics Epithelium rests on a layer of CT adheres firmly to secure epithelium in place amp prevents tearing basement membrane comprised of laminae that strengthen attachment amp form molecular barrier iunc ons physical support anchor epithelium to CT regulate movement of large molecules 3e pseudostratified columnar epithelium 9 Cilia t d l a Cl 393 e Mucus Layer JEpl39ilgwx 4 y 39 e 59 45 r 393 r 11ml ix 9 w 391 h 3 l is 777x 7A as g 3 A httpwwwpathguycomhisto087htm connective tissue just underlying a surface epithelium of an internal organ is called the lamina propria Specialized Structures 3 Factors present that assist to bind cells closely together glycocalyx tonguengrccve nature of PM with adjacent cells intercellularjuncticns m Micmvill iquot 339 quot If E httpcellbioutmbeducellbiomembrane3htm lntercellular Junctions Tight junctions zonua occludens encircle epithelial cells near apical surface completely attaches to neighbor impenetrable junction fx to prevent passage Awwureemnace r 439 between cells Adhering junctions zonua adherens I deep to tight jx form around cell kind of like appelt I g I x i fx to support apical surface amp provides a passageway between cells in direction of basal Lateral surface Basal surface Epithelium 7 1 Basement membrane Connective tissue surface M i n d With m i C I a m e n a Epitheliumconnective tissue junction Desmosomes macua adherens mechanical couplings or adhesive spots andigshemrcye as anchoring Junctions cell velcro hemidesmosomes basal surface anchor to BM 0 a connection between individual cell and entire epithelium is advantageous because the stressegar1i39 g be distributed across epithelium Gap junctions promotes communication Membrane protein i Plasma membrane Microfilament I Adhering junction lntercellular space o neXUS fx to allow direct communication between adjacent cells connexons transmembranous proteins lntercellular space Hemidesmosome Desmosome Protein filaments Protein plaque Intermediate filaments Plasma membrane Gap junction Pore Connexon Ultrastructure of the httpwwwbueduhistologyp20604loahtm r quot44 a 1 K k i I v ievim 1 C i quot quotEa2 05quot quot 39quot 31 s C NWquot Pol 9 V 54 n I 4 A quot 17 viquot a 1 5 lt5 39r Ct 1quot rV n I 39 a f n quot r 1 39 mvcfovnllp s border 397 quot7 I 1 1 39 andn m 39 P39striqtedporde n r t I 39 3 I I 39 ofgllghtinmcmscow l 39 r 1 M a I J 39 39 39 I I I 39 39 r w quot I v I I I 39 I 39 h I 39 39 39 Jumumal fzbmpiyexv 5 39 terminai Web lateral plasmalemmae Cell lumen of mtestine f39tem39llnalbarf quot 7 lightmvigroscopy 9 of quot9 39 fquot ce 3ff Lglnt rdigitatbh9y ofenterocytesf m9 39 trastructure of the Cell 3 l l 1 q l 39 ui zomlaloccludens Em fw 39 quot tightjunction I 39 32r39 sim 92 W JunCtional Compl x quot 39 39 zonula adherens V i macula adherensv desmosome t quothtercellular space 39 with desmogleins 39 39I ense39plal cof desmosome I 39 into whic intermediate filamentsloop junctional complex is a combination of intercellular junctions typically lying near the cell apex represented in this micrograph by a tight junction adhering junction amp desmosome near the apical surface of two adjoining epithelial cells 10 Ultrastructure of the Cell quotfsbundl bf actin filament extenSIons of microwm cores in to termma l web v 39 g i 39 y 3 r zonulaadherens microfilaments r A quott of fine lqmgnts 39 agncludmg actmand 39 1 actnpasspclated proteimj Fl malemmg f r macula adherens V i I quot goon between 39Intercellular Junctions desmosom39e z39ense plaque 9f destSOme Includes desmoplaklns a concentration 9f Intermediate filaments of cytokeratm Insertingjnto plaque 39 ei te rm di te filar ents NF NOTEiht rceIIIUIarj unCtionS 39 P V aSSOCiation with cytOskel39eton 11 observe several functions but not one epithelial cell performs them all 039 Physical protection externally amp internally exposed surfaces dehydration abrasion destruction by chemical physical or biological agents Selective permeability regulate material movement into amp out of cellstissues fransepifheia transport different permeabilities change with environment amp needs of body Secretions specialized to produce secretions exocrine glands individual or multicellular Sensa on free nerve endings for detection of stimuli at surface 12 C assWM mmmc Nucleus Squamous cell Lateral surface quot ff39 Nucleus Basement membranet a quot Basal surface Stratified epithelium a Epithelium classified by layers EpmnemalTkx M 3 Cuboidal cell Columnar cell b Epithelium classified by shapes essentially classified according to 1 number of cell layers amp 2 cell shape must also consider specializations TABLE 42 pp 85 During development glands originate as small invaginations from the epithelium into the underlying CT that give rise to these specialized secretory structures individual or multicellular Composed primarily of epithelial tissue Perform a secretory function products used elsewhere or for elimination active process involving protein production by RER Golgi packaging into secretory vesicles amp then release from cell Classified as exocrine or endocrine observe route of secretion Blood in Eh emieal39 i I j allariea r u 555mm mmmm r 34 infi mam m l g M n i c 14 Exacrene Hand Enducrne Gland Exocrine Gland Structure Unicellular Microvilli 0 Ir atquot o 0 l 439 u c I O t t ORQquot x aquot 39 a 1 Secretory vesicles containing mucin 1 Hap 3 fur h i v 39 35633 393 T M 30000x Nucleus singleindividual exocrine cell within a predominately nonsecretory epithelium that tend to be located near the surface of the epithelium most common type Goblet cell produce mucin 15 Comprised of several cells that Stromaliitltl work together to form a secretion 39 begt then released onto epithelium 1 f1 r l Secretory stroma 39 3 CT framework Secretory parenchyma a functional portion composed of acinus and duct acinus supported by a fibrous Acihus Duct secretory portion conducting portion U I e b septatrabeculae partition into lobes ducts vasculature nerves 16 Utilize 3 criteria 1 duct unbranched form amp structure simple or branched tube tubular sac compound Duct 553 like acinaralveolar Simple tubular Simple branched tubular Simple coiled tubular Simple acinar Simple branched acinar Or m n I O n a Simple glands 2 organization of secretory portion Secretory portions Compound tubular Compound acinar Compound tubuloacinar b Compound glands 17 milll Tl s ff7 7 ll ii i ill 33 Utilize 3 criteria secretion type look at nature of secretion serous nonviscous waterY mucous mucin and mixed both serous amp mucus cells v 39 f39 V Mandibular gland mixed Palotid gland serous httparblcvmbscolostateeduhbookspathphysdigestionpregastricsalivaryhtml 1 8 lassi ieation or Exocrine lanols Utilize 3 criteria secretion method means to discharge secretion Secretory vesicle Nucleus Secretory vesicles releasing their contents via exocytosis a Merocrine gland Disintegrating cells with contents becoming the secretion Nucleus of secretory cell Pinching off of apical portion of secretory cell Cells 7 dividing b Holocrine gland c Apocrine gland 19 Connective Tissue 39 Most diverse abundant widely distributed and structurally variable ssue Designed to support protect and bind organs bodytape o panty hose of the body httpwwwsomaxsportscom microfiber htm 20 Characteristics of iii Connective Tissue ESquot Although diverse all CT s share three basic components cells observe specific cells types dependent on tissue type 39 r not in direct contact with each other protein fibers strengthen and support collagen elastic amp reticular ground substance nonliving material produced by httpwwwpathguycomhistoOO1 htm CT 39 proteins 8 carbOhydrateS With This is fibrocartilage from an intervertebral disk variable amts Of water The collagen fibers give strength and shape viscous semisolid solid while the abundant ground substance between them makes the disk springy and resilient 21 Functions of Connective Tissue Performs a wide range of functions physical support protect delicate tissue and soft organs support amp structural framework esp impt to soft organs structures like trachea ear capsules binding of structures ligaments tendons storage major energy reserve Ca amp phosphorus reserve in bones transport nutrients wastes gases hormones blood cell etc immune protection many CT types contains WBC s 22 Mesenchyme 39 Ms 39l O 1 39 quotI 3 391 7 l quot 4 t 39 gi 39 39 39 s quot I V 0 39Ep httpwwwanatomydalcaHumanHistologyLab3308LMhtml httpwwwmeddeanlucedulumenMedEdHIstoHlstolmageshl4O1Jpg The part of the embryonic mesoderm consisting of loosely packed unspecialized cells starshaped set in a gelatinous ground substance containing fine fibers from which connective tissues and the circulatory and lymphatic systems vessels and some organs develop 23 Connective Tissue Classification 1 Connective tissue proper Loose connective Dense connective tissue fewer fibers tissue more fibers more ground less ground substance substance I l 1 Areolar 1 Regular 2 Adipose 2 Irregular 3 Reticular 3 Elastic Connective Tissue Classification Common origin mesenchyme 2 Supporting connective tissue l 3 Fluid connective tissue Cartilage Bone semisolid matrix solid matrix 1 Hyaline 3 Elastic 2 Fibrocartilage 1 Compact 2 Spongy Blood observe that CT is typically classified into 3 broad categories 24 Body cavities have membranes that line both the internal and external surfaces within that cav y Comprised of both epithelial sheet and underlying CT layer Membrane Types mucous membrane 0 mucosa lines cavities open to exterior epithelium amp underlying lamina FEW Ia serous membrane serosa lines cavities closed to exterior composed of parietal layer line inner surface of body cav y visceral layer covers outer surface of visceral organs cutaneous membrane skin synovial membrane joints or articulations Body Membranes i 11 me I 1 Epithelium l l li39v3l l fi quot11 339 1 i 37 I Lamina p39ropria Q39 57 lt 03quot quot Ar areolar tissue a Mucous membrane imitate Mesothelium Ixim 397quot39f J Areolar tissue b Serous membrane j Epithelium gt N I 1445 4 xii3 Areolar ti33ue 21 I f5 3 391 7 339 Dense irregular 9 quot 5 1 7 connective tissue c Cutaneous membrane Articuiar hyaline cartilage Synovial fluid Capsule Capillary Adipocytes Areolar t39ssue Synovial 39 I membrane quotEpitheliumquot d Synovial membrane 25 l Comprised of specialized cells that are often referred to as fibers when stimulated undergo internal changes that cause shortening of the cell due to unique function observe differences from typical cells with respect to cellular organization cellular organelles amp other properties 26 comprise myocardium striated shorter branched uninucleate intercalated discs involuntary pacemaker cells 3 A 7 l X l l l quotquotx quotquotx quotquotx l 7 l t l t s l l l l l l l l l l d l l 77 t V 5 V 5 7 g l 77 n ki Q 777 1 1 177 Often referred to as neural tissue Consists of neurons and glial cells neuron communication cell soma dendrites axon glial cells support cells oligodendrocytes astrocytes microglia ependymal cells Schwann cells satellite cells Gal Gel L I H 3 1 Jr a 1 7 HL 7 39l 39 1 V q H 39If l D c L E c quot a r a 3 a C U I W F a iii tquot Cells httpwwwshydragercomhtmlmsaandparkinsons5html 28 Characteristics of Nervous Tissue Designed to detect stimuli process information quickly and rapidly transmit electrical impulses for overall body communication httpwwwmhhecombiosciaphistologym hneuronsjpg 29 Tissue Change and Aging 39 Tissue Change metapasia mature epithelium changes to a different form of mature epithelium hypertrophy increase in the size of an existing cell hyperpasia an increase in cell numbers neoplasia growth proceeds out of control and a tumor of abnormal tissue develops benign or malignant atrophy shrinkage ofatissue 3O Barrett s Esophagus an example 395 o o 390 O I o tl 39 39 I ti 39 39 o O I 9 39 39 39 I I If ovn 39 39 39 V 9 m c D httpwwwbarrettsinfocomcontent3bwhatishistology htm Insxi nonnal esophagus nonnal stomach 31 0 O CO I I O Tissue Aging 33339 All tissues change as a result of aging proper nutrition good health normal circulation relatively infrequent wounds eventually support maintenance amp replacement of cell and ECM become less efficient Physical damage chemical changes physiological changes can also alter the structure and chemical composition of many tissues httpwwwsciencemuseumorgukexhibitionslifecycle30asp 32


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