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Chapter 5 PowerPoint

by: Abigail Towe

Chapter 5 PowerPoint 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001

Abigail Towe
GPA 3.6
Functional Human Anatomy
Tamara L. McNutt-Scott

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Functional Human Anatomy
Tamara L. McNutt-Scott
Class Notes
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
CHAPTER 5 333 lntegumentary System 39 Most highly visible organ system Cutaneous membrane epithelium connective tissue Represents the skin and all its denva ves nails hair sebaceous glands amp sweat glands Barrier protects against outside world strong flexible selfrenewing Indicative of overall body health dermatology Structure and Function of lntegument body s largest organ constructed of different tissue types that collectively perform specific activities a structure covers entire body surface amp accounts for about 78 of body weight thickness 15 mm to 4 mm or more depending on location consists of 3 layers epidermis dermis amp hypodermis also hypodermis subcutaneous layer not part of integumenary system though Layers of the lntegument hair cutaneous membrane glands sebaceous amp sweat sensory elements arrector pili muscle Hair shaft Sweat pore lt E 39d 39 pi ermls Epidermal ridge 2 Dermal papilla Papillary la er lntegument y Arrector pili muscle Sebaceous oil gland lt Dermis Sweat gland duct Reticular layer Merocrine sweat Subcutaneous layer Adipose connective tissue Hair follicle actile sensory receptors Areolar connective Sensory nerve fiber coo lntegument Functions coco Serves many varied functions on o protection secretions sweat amp melanin skin color sweat is acidic to repell fungi and other things as defense 0 Chemical acid mantle bacteriocidal agents human defensin cathelicidins o physicalmechanical continuity keratinocyte components gives a lot of protection absolute NO because it s selectively permeable o biological epidermal dendritic Langerhan s cells macrophages prevention of water loss TEWL transepidermal water loss slow penetration of interstitial fluids that move up through epidermis and then evaporates at the top insensibe perspiration release of water vapors through sweat glands normal sweat sensible perspiration visible prespiration body temperature regulation dermal vessels metabolic regulation produce vitamin D immune defense 0 epidermal dendritic Langerhan s cells sensory reception cutaneous sensory R s exteroceptors excretion elimate waste 4 via sweat Epidermis coco keratinized stratified squamous 3 39 epithelium e keratins Dead fibrous protein serves as tmtumcomeum 39 Sweat gland duct structural intermediate filaments Stratum Iucidum two types of gene code for either Strammgranuosum half of the double filament Siammspmosum t structure of keratin Ji each double filament may Squotat mbasa39e K V intertwine with similar structures to form relatively strong superstructures fibrils the process of keratin deposition is termed keratinization takes place during the progression of keratinocytes through strata avascular observe specific strata or layers Living keratinocyte Melanocyte Epidermal dendritic cell Basement membrane Dermis Tactile cell Sensory nerve ending 9 1996 Jason R Swmsm 5 httpwwwbiodavidsonedupeoplekaberndseminarStudfoldJRKepidermbullosahtml Epidermal Strata Stratum basale deepest epidermal layer amp attached to underlying dermis via a wavy border cthypes single layer of cuboidal cells keratinocytes which are mitotically active produce keratin connected by desmosomes melanocytes melanosomes melanin ammem tactile Merkel cells dermalepidermal junction associated with sensory neuron D Merkel disc httpanatomyiupuieducourseshistoD502D502f04LabsfO4Lab18s7240x2jpg Epidermal Strata Stratum spinosum several cell layers thick contain network of intermediate filaments which span cytosol amp attach to desmosomes prekeratin filament bundles tonofiaments attached to desmosomes other cell type Langerhan sepidermal dendritic cells arise from bone marrow amp migrate to epidermis layer with highest numbers slender processes form network among keratinocytes 0 O 0 O O 0 O Ii t q 1 V to 9 i 3 A h f l k g I 39 1 a t httpeducationvetmedvteduCurriculumVM8054LabsLab14EXAMPLESExspinoshtm 7 Epidermal Strata Stratum granulosum thin strata of flattened keratinocytes keratinzation keratohyalin granules profilaggrin soft keratin proteolyzed to filaggrin lamellated granules waterproofing glycolipid cements cells together PM thicken nucleus present until keratinzation is complete then nucleus and other organelles autodegrade Epidermal Strata Stratum lucidum g present only in thick skin thin layer of clear flat M w e e er e a e observe keratohyalin granules begin to associate with keratin filaments causing aggregation into parallel arrays eleidin this layer provides additional support amp cushioning adds to thickness Epidermal Strata Stratum corneum Skin thick trichrome broad layer THICKEST J J LAYER 3 7 39 2030 cell layers thick WWW largest of epidermal thickness 39 39 layer of dead anuoleate oells densely mlquot 5 stratum d granulosum H Ittfidum provides barrier H M what have we built before 39 f quot 5quot reaching this stratum 39 39 stratum T Jasales Ft 3 c we built a keratin network in I v parallel array and some are quotquot2 4 A 3 A aegis quot attached to desmosomes it s e f e f e waterproof temperature regulation passive process httpwwwridgesandfurrowshomesteadcomfrictionskinhtml 1O Life Cycle of a Keratinocyte 2wkslt functions primarily as an intermediate filament factory 2 WkS httpanatomy iupuieducourseshistoD502D502f04lecturefO4integumentf04integumentf04 html totally new epidermis every 25 to 45 days self renewing surface continually renewing Ddifferentiate amp pushed by cell divisiongrowth from deeper layers 11 Variations in the Epidermis 39 Thickness classified as thin or thick skin based on number of strata in the epidermis o contains 5 layers found on palms of hands soles of feet amp corresponding surfaces of fingers amp toes observe sweat glands but not hair follicles or sebaceous glands o covers most of body amp is comprised of only 4 layers lacking the stratum lucidum observe hair follicles sebaceous glands and sweat glands 12 Variations in the Epidermis 0 Skin color combination epidermal pigmentation melanin activity of melanocytes amp color of melanin ranges in color from yellow reddish tan brown amp black o carotene yelloworange I ImPaCtS an I acquired via diet accumulates 39nd39V39duaIS Skln in keratinocytes color if fen 1 dermal Circulation gt hemoglobin ffquot erythema reddening of skin s a a surface because blood goes it g a a bi hernumbers m quot Hilfmkyn quotII N39quot toward surface to cool off body i h m it 39 39 skin color r I J51 112 E212 if quotm quotj I 2 SI because not flushing capillary Ejgi i i A i if beds in epidermis blood ia2n3n v Human Sign ColorDistribution httpanthropalomareduadaptadapt4htm 13 Variations in the Epidermis Skin markings nevus or mole localized overgrowth of melanin forming cells freckles localized areaslof excessive melanocyte actIVIty hemangioma congenital anomaly due to proliferation of blood vessels that form a benign tumor friction ridges formed by large foldsvalleys of both dermal amp epidermal tissue func on traction with friction good for grapsing things sweat glands but no hair follicles to help with grasping things 14 httpwwwchsdorg1999cfm Skin thin HampE Q Q Q epidermis C C C C CCCCC C C C C C C C C D I i on ermis g w I i 39 Thrie39rmish Q39 1 C i if a i v EizttpMIgvwwlabanhbuwae uaumb40 Q s er jquot ore ages ntegumentary ntegum tm epidermis 05 to 3 mm 55 J1m3ws f th reticularlayei x W 39 composed of CT with f g j collagen fibers also find 39 2 i s r elastic amp reticular fibers comprised of two layers papillary closer to i P epidermis aaaaaaaaa H reticular near subcutaneous s quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot e39j Dermis Papillary Layer most superficial zone of areolar CT dermal papillae interlock with epidermal ridges increase area of contact between layers site of capillary loops that supply nutrients to cells of epidermis subpapillary vascular plexus tactile R s meissner s ccrpuscle orange arrow 0 tOUCh 3 quotGil rr39 3 gag4 A httpwwwcytochemistrynetmicroanatomyskinskinand mammarygandshtm Dermis Reticular Layer 339 deeper major portion of dermis extends to hypodermis composed of dense irregular CT with large bundles of collagen fibers projecting in Retiw39aquotr39quot39 v rg quot many directions func on 39 l httpw3ouhsceduhistologyGlass203lides4310jpg 17 Striae Wrinkles amp Lines of Cleavage collagen amp elastic fibers in dermis contribute to the observed physical characteristics of skin can exceed limits of skin s elastic capabilities when this happens tears in the collagen fibers occur producing striae or stretch marks age amp UV radiation causes collagen fibers to decrease flexibility and thickness of skin leads to wrinkles 18 Striae Wrinkles amp Lines of Cleavage lines of cleavage or tension lines represent the predominate orientation of CT fibers in parallel bundles in the 9 reticular layer of the 1 r derms clinical and surgical significance to c till414 1 a r 1 I 39 I t i j 39 73 1quot i 1 39 vi l 39 39 I quot 39 r 157 4 1 I y l 39 a gquot quot l l l l f 3 l tilt Ky I I IN I39ll 39i I ll l I It M i l 39 I i r J 9 tquot va e nes is more likely to heal quickly and not gape open A i g l F 3 i o v quot A i 7 1 t lt AhaA ii i orientation of fibers resist applied stress placed upon skin during movement 19 Innervation and Blood Supply extensive innervation in dermis involved with sensory receptors in dermis and epidermis controlincrease blood flow which increases gland secretion rates dermal vasculature supplies nutrients to dermis dermal structures amp epidermis larger vessels at reticular layer and hypodermal border then branch into dermis role in body temperature regulation Heat kept in and trimmed Cold Hwiro39tmfnl Hypodermis or Subcutaneous Layer me also known as super cial fascia NOT typically considered part of integument composed of areolar CT and adipose tissue which tends to dominant subcutaneous fat fibers of dermal reticular layer extensively interwoven with those found in hypodermis stabilize position of skin amp bind to underlying tissue other functions protective padding t energy reservoir thermal insulation observe differences in thickness amp distribution between males amp females guys neck back buff 21 Epidermal Accessory Organs 39 httpwwwkeratincomaaaa001 shtml Stae 0 first begins on head Represented by nails hair sweat glands and sebaceous glands derived from epidermis amp thus considered accessory organs or appendages of the integument A 4 7 A LJ mesoderm de ved The very first stages of hair follicle embryogenesis are shown in the pictures above At stage 0 before hair follicle development the epidermis and dermis are uniform At stage 1 a few dermal fibroblastlike cells aggregate below the epidermis and the epidermal cells above the aggregation become larger At stage 2 the epidermal cells start proliferating and push down into the dermis following the dermal papilla cells D DP 22 Nails Scalelike structuremodification of epidermis which form on the dorsum surfaces at tips of fingers andtoes function nail root is where nail body 39 39 39 I I I k I Lunula protection of distal tips of or39nt336ii39Pr3m0 i eponychium covers nail rootbed amp places shine onto nail body phalangeS growth amp can see as white Freeedge prevent damagedistortion misditzissismquot i during activities like grasping hard derivatives formed from stratum corneum of epidermis i hyponychium prevents dirt amp bacteria from entering under nail into nail bed creates a seal before underlying epidermis densely packed cells J hard keratin cysteine parallelarrangement of fibers o keratin can be soft or hard insoluble protein but can be very flexible Hyponychium b nail bed contains deeper living layers of epidermis 23 H 39 Hair papilla nutrientsforms plexus in a I r the hair itself g g C O O O o found almost everywhere on body melanocvtes gives hair its color o zones hair bulb a ma arrector pili muscle smooth muscle 39 I p p because involuntary connects to root Site of hair growth epithelial cells region and to epidermal ridge m V o deepest portion of hair root remainder of hair in follicle shaft portion of hair that extends beyond skin surface Cuticle hair follicle Medula Cortex oblique tube that surrounds hair cells organized into concentric layers Arrector Connective pili muscle outer CT roots eatn which kind of 223 wraps the whole structure around E ithelial inner epithelial root sheath which tissue root wraps around the hair itself Sh aih w Matrix Hair papilla a Constructed of which tissue 24 Hair Type amp Distribution Observe 3 types of hair lanugo fine nonpigmented downy hair appears on fetus in last trimester lost nearafter birth velum hair fine pigmented hair replaces lanugo hair primary human hair facial hair terminal hair course pigmented hair eyebrows eyelashes hair on skull Vellus hair Terminal hair shape of hair shaft determines hair texture smooth straight hair oval wavy hair flat kinky hair 25 Hair Color Growth amp Replacement Color melanin synthesis in matrix genetically determined but influenced by environmental and hormonal factors Growth amp Replacement hair growth is cyclic cycle depends on what hair hair growth rate and duration of hair growth cycle vary Amigaquot kidlaqz ql loca on anagen growing phase length depends on hair catagen resting phase synthesis of hair protein stops hair papilla becomes disconnected from the bulb 39r Semcenm Club In alarm 39 W r j i telogen shedding phase mm is l39pt39iel39ai f g characterized by hair with a 533 0 mm 6 WWW 39 m short club root club hair 26 new hair growth begins inside follicle internal to older hair which is pushed ahead and eventually falls from follicle O O O O O O 0 male pattern baldness o O O O 39 O O O O 0 Hair Loss alopecia hair thinning occurs in usually as a result of aging 1 male pattern baldness hair lost from select regions of the scalp a opecra areata 27 you can lose up to 100 hairs and be normal Functions of Hair protection heat retention 0 because highly vascularized o scalp having hair keeps heat in facial expression eyebrows sensory reception hair root plexus visual identification chemical signal dispersal pheromone dispersal secreted in select sweat glands released onto hair 28 Exocrine Glands in the Skin 39 Sweat pore Sweat gland duct Hair follicle Sebaceous gland Merocrine sweat gland Arrector pili muscle Apocrine sweat gland sweat gland duct Apocrine sweat gland duct 1 Hair follicle Sebaceous glands d Sebaceous glands 29 Sweat or Sudoriferous glands produce a watery sections which performs several specific functions secretory unit contains myoepitheia cells merocrine eccrine most numerous amp widely distributed simple coiled tubular gland which discharges secretion onto skin surface product sweat mainly water with chemicals electrolytes nitrogenous waste func ons thermoregulation as it evaporates it takes heat with it because high heat capacity secretion protection apocrine activated at puberty coiled tubular glands that release product into hair follicles localized to specific regions secretion is viscous cloudy amp composed of proteins and lipids distinct odor upon degradation by skin bacterial flora Epidermis Dermis 30 Merocrine Sweat Glands 4m sian a 39 i 39 httpneuromedianeurobiouclaeducampbeIIskinwphtm httpwwwabanhbuwaeduaumb140CorePagesIntegumentaryIntegumhtmlabsebaceous 31 Sebaceous glands mode of secretion holocrine leads to cell breaks down sebum oily waxy secretory product that acts like a lubricant for skin and hair preventing it from becoming dry brittle cracked has bactericidal properties become active at puberty also referred to as a pilosebaceious unit w a a sixquot 39 39 b l hair follicle with hair missing 1313255 i c r 3952 9 r 39 r39 httpneuromedianeurobiouclaeducampbellskinwpimagessebaceous20glandjpg 32 Ceruminous glands modified sweat glands located in external ear canal secrete cerumen earwax httpneuromedianeurobiouclaeducampbellskinwpimages176skingif eardrum trap foreign particles amp iauatingMam magQIgnq g S m a n sects gmenobhlalr connective 39 J 439quot tissue quot Mammary glands modified apocrine sweat glands 21 39 o y39 39 f o secretory prOdUC E mlk Used t0 y fq i tf 3 nourish young 32 was r V A39 75 h 3 359 39 39 39 39 r I H r 7 vl Cer minous l h 139 1 M 2 quot2 f l Pg 52quot 39 39 a r i 39 n i 5 A Ca r t A 1 H x lj 533931 33 httpwwwlabanhbuwaeduaumb140CorePagesFemale Reprofemalereprohtm Integument Repair amp Regeneration i 39 wggnd Ar39 g 39 7 173 7 11 1 Tissue repair repairoccurs via regeneration restores organ func on replacement of Epidermis Dermis 5 Leukocyte d U G 6 Cut blood vessels bleed into the wound Blood clot forms and leukocytes clean wound same tissue type if damage severe scar tissue forms fibrosis effectively binds area together but function not restored Blood clot Granulation ssue Macrophages Regrowth of blood vessel Fibroblast Regenerated epidermis Scar tissue fibrosis Fibroblast 1 Blood vessels regrow and Epithelium regenerates and granulation tissue forms connective tissue fibrosis occurs when out to surface of skin blood vessels are cut and cause blood to fill wound leukocytes are brought to area to repair blood clot closes it off and reestablishes integrity macrophages come in and neutrophils take away damaged tissue and prep for rebuilding goal clean then repair the repair is granulation tissue reforming and blood vessels regrowing pinking area but under a scab the scab protects the repair that s occurring underneath and should fall off naturally Prep for exam chapters 1245 39 045 MC 03 2 fill in the blank amatching section anything from lecture or asked to read from textbook oexamples i took away the peroxisomes of the sac what function was lost detoxification possible answers oscenario questions 35


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