Chapter 2 notes
Chapter 2 notes 1230.0
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1230.0 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lynne Hewitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS in Language at Bowling Green State University.
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Chapter 2 Communication Across the Life Span Communication can be intentional or unintentional Messages can also be misunderstood by the receiver and can have negative consequences Language is a composed set of symbols Language is standardized The speakers of any particular language share similar meanings for certain groups of sounds letters or hand movements An important aspect of language is the way we group words together For meaning conversations both speakers need to agree on word meanings and meanings that are depend on word order Senders encode their thoughts into some form of language code during language production Speech is the most common means of expressing language In Speech sounds words and sentences that express thoughts are formed by sending commands These commands are received by muscles that control Respiration diaphragm Phonation larynx Articulation tongue lips and jaw When listening sound waves follow this sequence Sound waves enter the ear Turned into electrical impulses in the cochlea Impulses are carried to the brain via the auditory nerve and pathway Sounds waves are recognized by the brain as speech and turned into words and sentences Speech production depends on two critical components Phonemes Syllables Language has two basic types of sounds Consonants Vowels Phonemes are sounds of a language that cause changes in meanings Consonants and vowels differ in their most basic manner of production Vowels are produced with less constriction in the vocal tract Consonants are produced with different degrees of blockage in the vocal tract Vowels in English are classified by jaw height and placement of the tongue in the mouth English consonants are produced by altering the manner and place of articulation or voicing Manner of Articulation is the different ways a speaker can block air ow through the oral cavity with different types of constrictions Different manners of blocking air ow lead to different sounds Placement of Articulation is when a speaker produces blockages in different places of the oral cavity The consonants of English are often depicted by symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet Consonants also differ in voicing meaning they can be voiced or unvoiced Voiced sounds are produced by vibration of the vocal folds Unvoiced sounds are produced with the vocal folds open The International Phonetic Alphabet is a special set of symbols used in phonetic transcriptions It represents the sounds of speech in the transcription It is helpful in maintaining records of a child s speech development and to compare it with the standard adult production Syllables are units of speech that consist of consonants and vowels They are essentially small chunks or segments of words that make it easier to sound out They usually consist of combinations of consonants and vowels but could be vowels alone Syllabic complexity is increased by adding consonants before the vowel of after it Language has three interrelated parts Content the meaning of the language Form the structure of the language Use the way speakers select different forms to best fit the communication context This is the component of language related to meanings Semantics is a form of linguistic representation it represents Objects Events Relations between the previously mentioned Ideas Feelings Children s ability to process language affects the rate of development of their lexicon A lexicon is a mental dictionary of words What makes word learning hard is that many words have multiple meanings This is the structure of language It involves three linguistic systems Phonology o Morphology Syntax Phonology is the study of the sounds we use to make words Morphology is the internal organization of words A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit that has meaning There are two types of morphemes Free meaning it can stand alone as a word Bound meaning it is a grammatical tag or marker In English bound morphemes can be placed at the beginning or end of words Syntax is the linguistic agreements for organizing word order In other words syntax is a formal term for grammar Sentences that are ungrammatical can still make sense but only if we know how the sentences is supposed to be set up This concerns the goals of language and the ways we choose between alternative combinations of words and sentences Pragmatics help us to decide what to say to whom how to say it and when to say it We choose different sets of words that will best communicate our meanings to audience Communication ability begins in childhood continues to change through adulthood plateaus around 50 and then begins to decrease Communication skills decrease as a result of hearing loss and the loss of mental functions There are different time periods of language The period from 0 to 24 months as the from crying to short phrases stage The period of 2 to 5 years is the early sentences to stories stage Schoolage years start in kindergarten and continue through high school Finally children reach the stage of adult language Knowledge of speech and language development is important to SLPs Audiologist and deaf educators To identify atypical behavior we must first know what is typical There is a significant amount of variation in the rate of communication development Some children develop language faster Some adults decline in language skills faster There is also variation in the way language develops Some children take risks and attempt to say words that are difficult for them to produce Others prefer not to produce words until they are sure they can say them correctly There is also variation in communication style Some speakers talk too much Others don t talk enough As a result it is very difficult if not impossible to pinpoint normal Since there is so much individual variation we talk of typical development instead of normal We also provide age ranges for the first appearances of speech and language behaviors Children do not seem to understand the different words until they are around 6 months By the end of their first year of life infants can usually understand about 20 different words Once children have built an adequate lexicon they being to combine words into few word utterances This happens around 18 months At birth children prefer to listen to speech that other types of complex sounds They listen longer to the sound patterns of their own language as well Speech is secondary to biological functions like respiration and feeding An early phase of vocal development is called cooing Cooing is when infants produce a number of types of sounds such as Growls Raspberries Squels Adultlike vowels Around 7 months infants start to make syllablelike strings called canonical babbling They tend to either repeat rhythmic syllables over and over reduplicated babbling Or they combine different syllables variegated babbling Eventually their babbling beings to take on adultlike intonation patterns This is known as expressive jargon As children approach their first birthday they begin to use their first words The ability to sequence actions is a critical foundation in language Sequenced behaviors in symbolic play are important prerequisites of morphology We communicate to our children the moment we see them We build conversations with them by treating everything they say and do as if it was true intentional communication Children communicate without words before they communicate with words One form of unintentional communication is looking at a parent then looking to an object and then back to the parent before looking back at the object and so on until the parent gets what the child wants It shows children that communication gives them some degree of control over their environment Children s vocabulary grows exponentially during the preschool years During this period children continue to expand their noun and verb vocabularies From age 2 on children being to produce speech sounds with increasing accuracy The earliest set of phonemes acquired by children is m b n w d p h These are typically acquired by the time children are 3 The next set of phonemes include t 13 k g f v ch j Typically seen between 3 and 5 The last set of phonemes include sh voiceless th s z voiced th 1 r g as in garage These are the late eight sounds as they don t appear until age 7 or 8 Children will use these phonemes inconsistently for a long time until they are mastered Speech sound acquisition is a gradual process This becomes important when children being to express more precise meanings with multiword utterances Gender vocabulary knowledge and parent input play large roles in grammatical development Before children can produce short sentences adults assume most of the responsibility for conversing with them One important development during preschool is the beginning of narration That is the ability to express a chain of events in the form of a story Toward the end of the preschool period children start to tell stories that contain fictional elements Children s vocabularies continue to expand dramatically during the schoolage years Schoolage children have a greater understanding of relationships between concepts They also have increasing knowledge about the meanings of words Beyond the age of 5 years children s speech continuously becomes more adultlike In the late preschool years and early schoolage years children become aware and begin to mentally manipulate the sound structure they hear and say By the time they are in 2nd grade children should be able to segment words into all their constituent phonemes and delete phonemes Children use a greater variety of complex sentence forms during schoolage years They become adept at putting multiple clauses into single sentences An important part of language development during the schoolage years is learning literate language structures A number of important changes in language use occur during the schoolage years They engage in longer conversations and become more adept in shifting topics and style of speech Also their narratives become longer and more complex Children also improve at persuasion and negotiation during the school age years By the end of schoolage years development in language form content and use has reached a very high level of complexity Vocabularies continue to expand through adult years Shared vocabulary is often used to create social and economic bonds between members of a vocation or people with shared interests Neurological changes may lead to declines in some semantic functions in later life The number of different words that are used decreases as does the speed at which those words can be recalled Older adults who have remained mentally active and have better memory show fewer declines in semantic abilities than older adults who watch more television As part of the aging process muscles and cartilage stiffens Physiological changes lead to some changes in the voice Respiratory support for speech diminishes so that it may be necessary for some speakers to pause more frequently Older speakers tend to produce consonants less precisely than younger speakers Speaking rate may also slow Articulatory changes in speech production of older adults are not considered problematic Older speakers demonstrate some changes in their use and understanding of morphology and syntax They tend to use a diminishing variety of verb tenses and grammatical forms They may also produce grammatical errors more frequently than younger speakers Some changes are more closely related to changes in the lexicon and pragmatics This difficulty relates to a decline in memory processing ability and vocabulary Throughout their adult lives individuals continually refine their discourse to match the needs of the situation Communication style is also related to social and cultural expectations With aging comes shifts in Income level Social Status Leisure time Many older adults relocate to settings like retirement communities and nursing homes where there are few younger individuals Changes in discourse style can include dominance of conversations unwillingness to select topics of interest to listeners increased verbosity failure to take the listener s perspective and a more rambling style of talking These changes could be related to memory loss a desire for prolonged contact and decreases in opportunities for socialization with a wide range of people