Psych: Chapter 2 notes
Psych: Chapter 2 notes PSY 1113
Collin County Community College District
Popular in Elements of Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by elzbietaag on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
7J L75 i j Mm m m i Psychology 9115 Chapter 2 Psychoogy s Scienti c Method 0 The Scienti c Method gt Five steps 1 Observing some phenomenon 2 Formulating hypothesis and predictions 3 Testing through empirical research 4 Drawing conclusions 5 Evaluating conclusions gt Vocabulary Variable anything that can change Theory a broad explanation or prediction about the topic of interest 0 Must be falsi able Hypothesis a prediction that is stated in a way that allows it to be tested Operational de nition the translation of a hypothesis into speci c testable procedures 0 Ex helping behavior 0 Research Descriptive gt Naturalistic observation behavior is observed in its natural environment with no interference you just go and watchand that s it Examples way kids play with other kids who gets left out boys vs girls playing games on the playground what makes people aggressive You can see their true nature this way Advantages natural spontaneous behavior Disadvantages researcher has no control 0 You cant control what you see 0 You might not see what you want to see gt Surveys a representative sample of people re asked questions about various topics Advantages quick and inexpensive Disadvantages Sample may not be representative Bias may skew results 0 People may not respond honestly gt Case Study behavior of one person or a group of people is studied indepth Advantages Provides detailed descriptive information Psychology 0 Useful for forming hypotheses Disadvantages May not apply to other peoplegroups Time consuming and expensive Researcher bias 0 Research Correlation gt The relationship between two variables is examined to determine if they are associated gt Correlation coef cient 1 to 1 tells us the strength and the direction of the relationship Positive varies together moves in the same direction 0 Height and weight Negative varies opposite moves in the opposite direction 0 Activity and weight Larger relationship closer to 1 don t worry about the positive or negative just look at the number to see how strong the correlation is I wwwtylervigencom 9 Research Experimental gt Treatment manipulation used by an experimenter gt Experimental group group that receives treatment manipulation We can have multiple experimental groups gt Control group group that does not receive treatment manipulation Give something that looks exactly the same Placebo Placebo effect you think you re feeling better just because you re getting medicine gt Random Assignment The only reason we can say one thing caused another thing We have to make the groups identical Even out the playing eld gt Validity External validity does the study measure the realworld issues it is supposed to measure gt Psychology Internal validity are changes in the dependent variable due to manipulation of the independent variable Experimenter bias the experimenter s expectations can in uence the research Depend characteristics anything that tells the participants how the researcher wants them to behave 0 Research Ethics gt IRB independent research board evaluated all experiments for adherence to APA guidelines Informed consent Protection of participants from physical and mental harm Right of participants to privacy Voluntary participation Debrie ng at conclusion of study Deception
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