Psychology 101 (May 5th-9th)
Psychology 101 (May 5th-9th)
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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Jomay Notetaker on Friday May 9, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.
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Date Created: 05/09/14
ay 5 2014 H I Amnesia Infantile childhood o 25 years of age Korsa koff39s Alzheimer39s disease 0 Symptoms include forgetfulness poorjudgment confusion and disorientation o Patients have plaques and tangles in their brain I Plaques clumps of protein fragments that build up on the outside I Tangles Search of Engram o Hippocampus acts to consolidate new info convert short term memories into permanent long term memories o Amygdaa emotionally arousing aspects of events Flashbulb memories o Memories for highly emotional and unexpected events Improving memory 0 Overlearn o Associate o Distribute practice Algorithms o Formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions Heuristics O Shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions Cognitive illusions o Representativeness I The tendency to judge the likelihood of an events occurring by how typical It seems D Increased speed in decision making D Ignore numerical probabilities or quotbase ratesquot Gambler39s fallacy The belief that random process are selfcorrecting so that temporary deviations in one direction will be matched by later deviations in the opposite direction o Availability The tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how easily instances of that event come to mind o Anchoring The tendency to use one stimulus as an quotanchorquot or reference point in judging a second stimulus or making a new numerical estimate o framing The biasing effects on decision making of the way in which a choice is worded Depends on the context Psych 101 Page 1 May 7 2014 Motivation and Emotions Motivation 0 A process that influences the direction persistence and vigor of goal directed behavior Instinct 0 An inherited characteristic hat automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Homeostasis and drives Homeostasis 0 Internal physiological equilibrium that requires I Sensory mechanism I A response system I Control center Set point 0 Fixed level that maintains homeostasis Drives 0 Internal tension that motivates an organism 0 Problem we often behave in ways that increase rather than reduce arousal Approach and avoidance motivation Behavioral action system BAS 0 Produces movement toward positive goals in anticipation of pleasure Behavioral inhibition System BIS 0 Produces fear and escape avoidant behaviors BAS and BIS involve different neurotransmitter systems ad different brain regions Cognitive processes Expectancy x value theory o Behavior determined by I Strength of the expectation that behavior will lead to a goal I Incentive value that a person places on goal Extrinsic motivation 0 Performing an activity to obtain an external or to avoid punishment Intrinsic motivation 0 Performing an activity for its own sake Psychodynamic view 0 Unconscious motives affect how we behave 0 Sexual and aggressive motives 0 Motives for selfesteem and social belonging 0 People are not always aware of the factors that motivate them Masow39s hierarchy of need s o Deficiency needs at the bottom 0 Growth needs at the top 0 Sef actuaization the ultimate human motive to fulfill our potential The Physiology of hunger Metabolism 0 The body39s rate of energy caloric utilization o Basal metabolic rate Psych 101 Page 1 Signals that start meal 0 Stomach contraction corresponds to feelings of hunger Q o Changes in glucose supply provide a signal Environmental and cultural factors o Food availability o Food taste and variety o Food cues sight and smell 0 Cultural norms Obesity o 25305 of Americans are obese another 3025 are overweight Genetic factors 0 Genetic account for 4070 of variation I Basal metabolic rate I Tendency to store angry as fat or lean tissue Dieting weight loss o Being overweight alters body chemistry and energy expenditure I Increased insulin levels I Weight makes exercise more difficult I Dieting slows basal metabolism Eating disorders o Anorexia nervosa I An intense fear of being fat III Severely restricting food intake to the point of selfstarvation III Produces bone loss stresses the heart and increases the risk death Psych 101 Page 2 May 8 2014 Thursday May 8 ZQJ14 11233 AM Bulimia Nervosa 0 Cycles of binge eating and purging 0 Most bulimics are normal weight 0 Can produce physical consequences Sexual Motivation Rise in premarital sex 0 Changing social norms 0 Tendency to delay marriage 0 Trend is leveling off and may be reversing Sexual response cycle o Excitement I Something probes sexual interest Notice physiological I Virginal swelling lubrication 0 Plateau I Nipples become hard Etc 0 Orgasm I Physical changes peak 0 Resolution I Relaxation sense of well being Psychology of sex 0 Arousal typically begins with desire and a sexual stimulus 0 Sexual fantasy affects physiological functioning I Males fantasize about sex more often than females 0 Sexual dysfunction I Chronic impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person I Multiple causes III Injury III Medication III Recreational drugs III Sexual assault psychological fears 0 Cultural and environmental influences I Psychological meaning of sex depends on cultural contexts I Cultural norms affect sexual practices and techniques Motivation 0 Purpose for or cause of some action 0 Function of emotion I We use mood to make judgments I Provide info about the world I The objectives toward which we strive Emotion 0 Important adaptive functions I Increases chances of survival I Formation of intimate relationships I Broadens our thinking and behavior I Important form of social communication Psych 101 Page 1 I Important part of life satisfaction Nature of emotion s 0 Instrumental behaviors I Behaviors directed at achieving some emotionrelevant goal III Emotional responses are otter quotcalls to actionquot III Inverted U between emotional arousal and performance 0 JamesLange theory I Our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotions we experience 0 Cannonbard theory I The subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal are independent responses to an emotion arousing situation 0 Facial feedback hypothesis I Feedback from the facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining our emotions Psych 101 Page 2 May 9 2014 Development of life jor Issues and Methods o Developmental psychology I Examines biological Physical psychological and behavioral changes that occur as we age 0 Four broad issues I Nature and nurture to what extent is our development the product of heredity and environment I Critical period III Certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally I Sensitive period III An optimal range for certain experiences I Continuity versus discontinuity III Continuous and gradual III Progresses through qualitatively distinct stages I Stability versus change III Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age 0 Crosssectional design I Compares people of different ages at the same point in time III Cohorts different age groups o Longitudinal design I Repeatedly test the same cohort as it grows older I Extremely time consuming I People may drop out of the study over time Prenatal development 0 Germinal stage I First two weeks after conception I Zygote III Fertilized egg I Attaches to mother39s uterus about 1014 days after conception o Embryonic stage I Embryo develops during week 28 0 Placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother to the 0 Fetal stage I Week 9 birth I Age of viability III Age at which a fetus is capable of survival outside of the womb 0 Zygote has 23 pairs of chromosomes o 23rd pair determines sex of baby 0 Y chromosome contains TDF gene I Initiates male sexual development I Testes secrete androgens 0 If 23rd chromosomes pair is XX TDF gene is not resent I Female pattern of organ development ensues 0 Teratogens I External agents that cause abnormal prenatal development III Rubella German measles III Sexually transmitted disease Psych 101 Page 1 Newborn 0 Sensorycapabilities O O O 0 Environmental toxins mercury lead radiation Drugs legal and illegal Nicotine increases risk of miscarriage premature birth and low birth weight Alcohol 9 Fetal alcohol syndrome 0 Facial abnormalities attentional and perceptual deficits irritability 0 Threshold level of alcohol exposure is unknown DUDE Very near sighted immature visual system Preferential looking procedure III Infant prefer complex patterns to simple patterns and solid colors Can respond to touch Welldeveloped sense of taste Can distinguish odors mother39s voice from that of strangers Reflexes and learning Reflexes and learning III Reflexes 9 automatic inborn behaviors that occur in response to specific stimuli 9 Rooting reflex 9 Sucking reflex Maturation I The genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth III Infant vary in the age at which they acquire particular skills III Sequences in which skills appear in typically the same across children Cephalocaudal principle Development proceeds in a head to foot direction Proximodistal principle Development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost part Psych 101 Page 2
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