week 2 notes: south asia
week 2 notes: south asia 2001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Affra Mohamed on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2001 at Georgia State University taught by D. Dechant in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Religions in Religious Studies at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week 2 notes India is the home of Hinduism and Buddhism but Buddhism is more prevalent in Sri Lanka than India Right now India is comprised of 82 Hindus39 12 Muslims gt2 Christians Catholics lt2 Sikhs gt1 Buddhists and Jains India39s Diversity Have a diversity of regional climates and terrains Have a great diversity of local gods and local practices but certain gods are popular in different areas Regional monarchies instead of one unifying government different boundaries keep shifting Great diversity in languages because there are a lot of trade routes and many regional language dialects 122 major languages and 6000 other languages Time periods 3000BCE1000BCE Early 1000BCE100CE pre classical 100CE1000CE classical 1000CE1750CE medieval 1750 present modern differnation by colonizism Early Period Indus Valley Civilization earliest and one of the rst civilizations Urban planning rst sanitation system was established Don39t have concrete evidence only have archeological evidence City planning very modern for there time God and goddess historians think they were fertility goddess used for human and agricultural fertility They found plaques and tiles representing gods in the form of animals Indus Valley northern India and the bottom of Pakistan Pre classical Types of holy people Brahamins priest social class they were very literate people who were the ritual specialists Sramanas ascetics who gave up worldly comforts also called renunciates renuniate society by wandering and practicing austerities A regular person could go to either people for advice if they had money they would go to a Brahamin for rituals and if they didn39t have money they would go to a ascetic Sacri ces changed in Hinduism used to be violent animal sacri ce they were changed after Buddhism Rig Veda and Vedic Gods Sacred hymns and ritual instructions ritual instruction book for priests for rituals Brahmins very important because they wrote it and they read it Indra on a white elephant and he is the god of thunder because it was considered powerful also war god and leader of gods Agni is the god of re signi cant for sacri ces messenger of all the gods and they pass god messages Soma another common god and is a intoxicating nectar ritual drink given to gods to give them immortality Polytheism Hinduism is a religion with multiple gods Monotheism means one god Upanishads 600400 BCE Philosophical texts doctrines with core beliefs what we believe and what we believe Brahman and Atman Brahman is the ultimate reality and Atman is the soul and the ultimate goal is to get the Atman to connect with the Brahman Reincarnation rebirth soul gets put into a different animal person or god Karma your actions have effects Samsara is the cycle of rebirth born dying reborn again Circle used to represent the cycle of rebirth and even gods are not exempt from this cycle Goals of Spiritual Practice Union of the Atman soul with the Brahman ultimate reality Liberation from effects of karma and ultimately Samsara Rituals and Practical dimension Puja actual ritual for gods lightening incents Bhakti Devotion love for the gods Puja bathing the god looking at the deity divine experience Visnu Siva or diff goddess temples popular Ritual Material and Social Dimensions Temples altar Sacri ces vegetarian such as gee and milk devoted to the deity Home altars home worship Flowers re and statues are material aspects Multiple paths to the divine Knowledge Brahamins studying texts Devotion to god Action living certain type of life style Mental concentration multiple paths up a mountain and different people are suited to different paths Yoga Techniques to quiet the body for mental and spiritual concentration Body positions breath control and sacred sounds Caste System Brahmins Priest academics Kshatriyas Warriors and kings Vaishyas Business community Kshudras servants subordinate to Vaishyas Kshatriya or Brahmins The Dalit untouchables do all the lower order of work and they subordinate to all Buddhism 500BCEOCEEany OCE 6OOCE Classical 600 1700 Medieval 1700 present Modern Nonthestic but acknowledges gods Buddha teacher not a god is a title reached through enlightenment Take refuge in Buddha teacher Dharma his teachings and Sangha community of monks and nuns Siddhartha Guatma Indian religious reformer who proposed a alternative path Miraculous birth siddhartha39s mom saw a vision of a white elephant coming into her womb and it was predicted that he would either become a religious or political ruler Buddha very sheltered in the palace and never saw outside life 4 signi cant sights he leaves the palace and 1 he see a old person which makes him realize that he wont forever be young and his body will wear out 2 he sees a sick man he might get very sick one day 3 He sees a corpse he is going to die one day And his 4 image is a ascetic From his sights he determines life is suffering and he returns to his palace unsatis ed and now he nds sensational things grotesque Then he goes on ascetic path to nd the answers by leaving comforts of his home and family He gets very weak so he nds the middle path to nirvana moderate path to nd enlightenment He sends 45 years teaching Dharma and he welcomed all castes 5 precepts no killing stealing sexual misconduct lying and intoxicants Final release from Samsara Relics put in monuments He wasn t born after that and he was cremated and put in a stopa pilgrimage sight 4 Noble Truths Life involving suffering Cause of suffering is desire There is a way to end suffering The way to end it is to end desire through non attachment Middle Path Wisdom Right understanding 4 noble truths Right thought or motives uncover unwholesome habits eliminate self centeredness Right speech no lying gossiping speaking harshly and divise speech Right action observe precepts Right livelihood work without violating precepts Right effect eliminate impurities of the mind cultivate wholesome actions Right mindfulness cultivate awareness in every moment Right meditation quiet the mind though mental discipline Buddhists Beliefs Atman no eternal soul Impermanence nothing stay same die or go away no soul that is permanent Root af ictions greed hate and bad karma get passed around instead of soul Things you want to get rid of in a human being Buddha did not describe unseen reality or life after death or the origins of the universe Instead metaphor man hit with arrows stop asking qustions about how arrow hit him and deal with the problem at hand get out of Samsara Dharma raft to get further shore ceasing to exist help you get to a good place Possible States of Existence Gods too distracting with pleasures Humans idea being born into Animals Hungry ghosts He beings not ideal because so tormented that they cannot nd way out Sangha Monks follow monastic rues simplicity celibacy nonpossession and non violence Nuns have 8 additional rules hierarchy of monks over nuns Monks are higher than nuns Challenged by nuns Buddha treated men and women equally Forbidden for nuns to criticize monks Nuns have to salute a monks First serving goes to Monks then nuns Nuns need to have 2 year preliminary training but Monks don39t need it Types of Buddhism Thervada southeast Asia Mahayana east asia most followed Vajrayan Tantric central asia
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