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Ch.1-2 Campbell Essential Biology Book notes

by: Autumn Schieffer

Ch.1-2 Campbell Essential Biology Book notes biology 120

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Whitewater > Biology > biology 120 > Ch 1 2 Campbell Essential Biology Book notes
Autumn Schieffer
Biological Foundations
George Clokey

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About this Document

All notes for Chapters 1 and 2 with defined terms and a multitude of examples. Space included for drawings and all critical thinking questions answered.
Biological Foundations
George Clokey
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Autumn Schieffer on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to biology 120 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by George Clokey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Biological Foundations in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.

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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chapter 1 Biology Today 11 The Scope of Life Biology The scienti c study of life The Properties of Life 0 There are several properties associated with life 0 A Order All living things exhibit an organized ordered behavior lE the structure of a pinecone or the symmetry of an organism itself 0 B Regulation Though an organism39s environment has changed the organism will adjust to its environment lE A lizard basking on a warm rock when temperatures drop at night to absorb heat 0 C Growth and Development lE Baby into Adult 0 D Energy Processing The intake of energy allows the organism to perform daily routines The energy is expelled as heat An athlete eats a protein bar before exercise As the athlete works out the energy obtained by the bar is used 0 E Response to the Environment The reaction to environmental stimuli A Venus y trap closes its leaves due to stimuli of an insect touching the sensory hairs o F Reproduction having babies The organism reproducing that of its own kind A Hippo gives birth to other hippos never to sh or any other organism o G Evolution Organisms being able to adjust with their environment A rabbit in a vegetative area will be brown whereas a snow hare surrounded by white snow will be white Any kind of camou age Life at Its Many Levels 0 From bottom to top life is composed of many subcategories o Molecules and Atoms when clustered together make organelles DNA Atoms etc make up Nuclei Ecosystems Organelles gt Cells Nuclei are the centers of cells themselves Cellsgt Tissues Many cells cluster together to create heart muscle Tissue a group of similar cells performing a speci c function Tissuesgt Organs and Organ Systems Large groupings of tissues all performing the same function can make up an organ Heart tissue in large portions make up the heart and blood vessels which compose the circulatory system Organs and organ systemsgt Organisms OrganismAn one individual living thing OrganismsgtPopulations Populations a group of communicating individuals of a species Populationsgt Communities Community All organisms in a speci c sub environment lE All creatures that live in a wade pool Communitiesgt Ecosystem Ecosystem All living organisms in one speci c area and all the components in which those organisms interact with soil water etc EcosystemsgtBiosphere BiosphereAll the environments on Earth that can support life 0 Soil oceans lakes bodies of water lower atmosphere A tree for example takes in water and minerals by the roots Carbon Dioxide from the air the leaves absorb sunlight which feeds the tree to cycle through the water and Carbon Dioxide The tree then releases oxygen into the atmosphere and as the roots grow further into the earth they break up rocks to produce more soil 1st main process of an ecosystem is the recycling of nutrients 0 There are 3 modes of nutrition Producers Photosynthetic organisms 0 Plants Consumers The organisms that feed on the producers 0 Can be either Direct or Indirect 0 Direct A sheep grazing on the grass 0 Indirect A wolf eating the sheep Decomposers Organisms that break down waste and the remains of dead orgs into simple components that can be recycled o Bacteria and fungi 2nCI main process of an Ecosystem is the ow of energy 0 Energy is constantly lost and produced Sunlight is absorbed by plants The plants convert the sunlight into energy Once the plant is eaten the energy passes through the consumers and then the decomposers this powers the org Energy is expelled as heat 0 In Ecosystems Nutrition is recycled energy purely ows Cells and their DNA 0 Cells can be divided into two main types Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells 0 are usually much smaller than their counterparts 0 LE the cells of bacteria 0 Has DNA but no nucleus Eukaryotic cells 0 are subdivided by internal subcompartments caIIed organelles 0 LE The nucleus houses the DNA which directs all of the cells activities 0 Most orgs Like plants and animals are composed of eukaryotic ceIIs DNA houses the component of genes 0 Genes o The blueprint of each ceII39s function ie one cell could be told to make insuIin while another is coded to make a blue pigment in a bacteria ceII Life in Its Diverse Forms Grouping Species The Basic Concept Taxonomy the branch of Biology that names and classi es species The Three Domains of Life The broadest level of classi cation Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya All organisms that have eukaryotic cells are grouped into Eukarya which then is broken down into the Kingdoms of Plantae Fungi and Animalia The kingdoms are distinguished on how the orgs obtain food 0 Plants by photosynthesis o Fungi by decomposition 0 Animals by ingesting Protists singles celled organisms they include protozoans like amoebas also include seaweed 12 Evolution Biology s Unifying Theme The Darwinian View of Life On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection by Darwin Explains the unity of animals with their descent from others but modi cation Natural Selection Natural Selection The process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristic are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics unequal reproductive success Darwin39s lnescapable Conclusion Observation 1 Overproduction and Competition 0 Overpopulation leads to competition of limited resources Observation 2 Individual Variation 0 No 2 orgs are exactly alike Conclusion Unequal reproduction success 0 Those best equipped to survive will survive le A beetle population is living in a blackened forest oor burnt by a wild re The beetles with a darker shell will blend in better with the darkened oor and thus are less likely to be spotted by birds of prey The remaining supply of beetles consist of all dark shelled beetles which in turn will mate with one another to make more dark shelled beetles better equipped to survive the environment 13 Observing Arti cial Selection Humans interfere by allowing a population to breed whether in captivity or banning the hunting of those creatures Because of selective breeding certain features are more prominent in some animals 0 Le Purebred dogs for dog shows Observing Natural Selection 0 Birds have larger beaks in dry seasons or in dry climates to crack and eat larger seeds and bird less prepared than these will die off or move away The Process of Science Science a way of knowing an approach to understanding the natural world that is based on inquiry a search for info explanations and answers to speci c questions Science is divided into 2 forms Discovery Science and HypothesisDriven Science Discovery Science 0 The process of scienti c inquiry that focuses on using observations to describe nature 0 Scientists seek natural causes for natural phenomenon HypothesisDriven Science 0 The process of scienti c inquiry that uses the steps of the scienti c method to answer questions about nature 0 Uses the Scienti c Method 0 Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Conclusion Hypothesis a tentative answer to any question Controlled experiment a component of the process of science whereby a scientist carries out 2 parallel tests an experimental test differs from the control by one factor the variable OOOOO Theories in Science 0 A scienti c theory is a VERY broad hypothesis 0 Le Natural Selection The Culture of Science 0 Scientists ask a lot of similar and overlapping questions that are all test in separate but similar ways 0 This promotes scienti c growth and accuracy Science Technology and Society 0 The advancement of technology advances science Such as new more detailed telescopes or microscopes Doubleedged sword technology that keeps people healthier forces the population to grow quot10 fold over the past 3 centuriesquot Causes acid rain deforestation global climate change toxic waste nuclear accidents and extinction of some species Chapter 2 Essential Chemistry for Biology 21 Some Basic Chemistry Matter Elements and Compounds Atoms Matter anything that occupies space and has mass EIement a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions Trace Elements an element that is essential for an orgs survival but only in minute quantities Compounds The combination of eIementsD substances that contain 2 or more elements in a xed ration 0 Le table salt NaCl 0 Le Water H20 Atom the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Structure of Atoms Proton subatomic particle with a single unit of positive charge Electron subatomic particle with a single unit of negative charge Neutron subatomic particles which is electronically neutral Nucleus the center of an atom which contains the positive and neutral particles The electrons hover around these molecules Atomic number Identi cation number for elements ie an atom39s SSN Mass the measure of the amount of material in an object Mass Number In an element the sum of protons and Neutrons in its nucleus coo Isotopes Isotopes a variant form of an atom Same number of protons and electrons but not neutrons They are forms of elements with different masses On the periodic table the mass is a decimal That is because not all carbon is purely 6 protons and 6 neutrons Isotopes such as carbon13 and carbon14 occur about 1 of the time Carbon14 is a radioactive isotope Radioactive Isotope the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy Electron Arrangement and the Chemical Properties of Atoms Only electrons are directly responsible for chemical activity of an atom The farther an electron is from the nucleus the greater the energy The electrons move at speci c levels in electron shells The innermost shell can only hold 2 electrons whereas the 2nCI and 3rd can both hold 8 Atoms whose outer shells are not full tend to interact with other atoms like 0 C N and H Highly Reactive The shells that are lled are unreactive Chemical Bonding and Molecules Ionic Bonds Chemical Bonds an attraction between 2 atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite changes in the atoms The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells Types of Chemical Bonds 0 Ionic Bonds 0 Covalent Bonds 0 Hydrongen Bonds Table Salt NaCl When the 2 elements combine chlorine strips an electron from sodium to produce a full outer shell for both of them As a result of the transfer both atoms are negatively charged Both Na and Cl are ions now Na received a 1 electrical charge Cl receives a 1 electrical charge Naand Cl39are held together by an ionic bond Ionic Bond the attraction between oppositely charged ions Table salt is an ionic compound o Negatively charged ions often end in quot idequot such as quotchloridequot and quot uoridequot Covalent Bonds Covalent Bond forms when 2 atoms SHARE 1 or more pairs of outer shell electrons Covalent bonds are strongest of the various bonds bc the hold atoms together in a molecule 0 The of covalent bonds an atom can form is to the of additional electrons needed to ll its outer shell Hydrogen Bond 0 ln H20 the electrons in the bond are not equally shared 0 has a stronger pull for the electrons over the H 0 Polar Molecule a Vshaped molecule with an uneven distribution of a charge Hvdrooen Bonds weak molecular bonds formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom from 1 polar molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom in another molecule or another part of the same molecule Chemical Reactions 0 Chemical Reactions a process leading to chemical changes in matter involving the making andor breaking of chemical bonds 0 Le H20 Reactants Products Chemical reactions cannot create or destroy matter only rearrange it 22 Water and Life Water s LifeSupporting Properties Cohesive nature Ability to moderate temperature Biological Signi cance of ice oating Versatility of water as a solvent The Cohesion of Water Cohesion the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together Property of cohesion is high in H20 Surface tension a measure of how dif cult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid How Water Moderates Temperature Hydrogen Bonding is responsible for water39s resistance to change temperature Heat Amount of energy associated with the movement in a body of matter Temperature Measures intensity of head the average speed of molecules rather than the total amount of heat energy in a body Large bodies of water make a very hot climate suitable for living Makes earth itself suitable Evaporative Coolingwhen a substance evaporates the surface of the liquid remaining behind cools down The Biological Signi cance of Ice Floating When water freezes the molecules move apart but quotwithin arm39s reachquot of each other unlike most substances whose molecules move closer together lce has fewer molecules in a given space than melted water because of this factor As such the frozen ice is less dense than the surrounding liquid allowing the ice to oat Bene t lf ice sank then entires bodies of water would freeze then the food supply of sh would signi cantly deplete and during the summer only a few inches of water would melt Water as the Solvent of Life Solution a liquid consisting of a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances Solvent the dissolving agent Solute Any substance that is dissolved Aqueous Solution when water is the solvent 0 Le the uids of organisms Acids Bases and pH Acid a chemical compound that releases H to a solution 0 Le stomach acid m a chemical compound that accepts H and removes them from the solution 0 Le Sodium Hydroxide releases OH39 to capture H to make H20 pH scale measure or the Hydrogen lon Ht concentration in a solution Range from 0 most acidic to 14 most Basic 7 is neutral Aqueous Solutions are always pH 7 Buffers substances that minimize changes in pH by accepting H when that ion is in excess and donating H when it is depleted Not fool proof too much C02 absorbed by large ocean seawater a chemical reaction producing an acid which can greatly change environments 0 Le underwater volcanoes release high C02 which made the seawater acidic which collapsed coral reefs and killed off organisms


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