Week 1- Intro
Week 1- Intro clas260-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to clas260-01 at George Mason University taught by Arans in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Legacy of Greece & Rome in Classical Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
George Mason University Aimee Castillon acastil7amuedu PSYC333 0 Fal2015 Classics Greek amp Latin Roman Introduction What s so classical about them When has study of classics begun How did Christianity adopt Rome Lat Classis order organized group fleet 3 groups of Romans Classici people of distinction Infra classem below the class Proletarii for procreative purpose Classical outstanding excellent OR typical common classical study began in Alexandria Egypt center of Hellenistic culture 310 BC home of Museum Library and lighthouse Pharos one of 7 Wonders of the Ancient World Alexandria capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Pergamum was center of Hellenistic learning Hellenistic scholars were first to study ancient heritage systematically Geocentric system of Ptolemy provided the pattern of Medieval astronomy Alexandrian scholars principle of analogy universal categories rules patterns Grammar textual criticism e Aristophanes of Byzantium Aristarchus of Samothrace Pergamum scholars principle of anatomy particular individual excep ons Higher criticism literary meanings allegorical symbolic interpretations e Crates of Mallos two poles of philosophy Plato ideal world Aristotle Plato s student concrete world Boetius philosopher statesman poet last learned man of classical Roman type and first to present this heritage to Medieval Europe reconcile philosophies of Plato and Aristotle gt controversy bt Realists Platonic and Nominalists Aristotelian wrote Consolatio Philosophiae lived during Theodoric the Great s rule over Rome Arius Sun cannot be older than God Barbaric rulers of early Middle Ages also proved to be great statesmen setting up the new administration and building a system of education based on legacy of Classical world The Humanists insisted on studying ancient tradition for its human value rather than a shadow of scholastic abstractions Theodoric the Great 452526 AD Ostrogothic conqueror of Italy Charles the Great Charlemagne 742814 founded Holy Roman Empire attempted revival of classical Rome Alfred the Great Preservers of Latin and to a degree Greek literacy Theodore of Tarsus Greek Archbishop of Canterbury together w African monk Hadrian established GreekLatin learning in 70 AD English monasteries Bede the Venerable Alcuin Albinus of Yorkagent of the Carolingian Renaissance Invited by Charlemagne to establish Frankish school system cultures of Greece and Rome became classical once they were dead For consequent periods of Western history the legacy of the classical world has served two primary and contradictory purposes establishmaintain the norm the Glorious World the source of knowledge and inspiration questionchallenge the norm the outlived nonChristian world Middle Ages Medieval scholasticism based its arguments on the respective ideas of Plato and Aristotle Realism vs Nominalism Realists only universal ideas have reality Erigena John Scotus 810877 St Thomas Aquinas 12251274 Nominalists only particular things truly exist ideas are but names Pierre Abelard 10791142 Duns Scotus 1266 1308 individuality Freud William of Occam 12851349 Occam s razor principle of the economy of the mind cut off unnecessary assumptions Renaissance era at dawn of Humanist movement of Renaissance Dante Alighieri 12651321 followed inspiring example of Roman epic The Aeneid by Virgil 1c BC in his Inferno the first part of Divine Comedia upgraded Italian to a literary language Erasmus of Rotterdam 1466 1536 Humanist writer scholar publicist collected ancient manuscripts promoted indepth study of Latin and Greek and understanding classical literature palimpsest manuscript reused 40 AD parchment of Cicero overwritten by an 8 c scribe collection decipherment and reproduction of classical manuscripts took painstaking effort and dedication Edward de Vere 15501604 Earl of Oxford William Shakespeare 15641616 Luminary minds of the Enlightenment Baroque Charles Montesquieu 16891755 Philosophy of law The Causes of the Grandeur and Fall of the Romans FrancoisMarie Voltaire 16941788 Moral philosophy classical drama etc saw Classical tradition as the realm of free Reason the ultimate guidance of mankind Romantic attitude emphasized free spirit and individuality JeanJacques Rousseau 17121788 New Heloise philosophy of education theory of the natural man etc Denis Diderot 17131784 Encyclopedia neoclassicism style of literature brought about Enlightenment Great neoclassicist authors Pierre Corneille 1606 1684 tragedy Jean Racine 16391699 tragedy Jean Baptiste Moliere 1622 1673 comedy classical New Comedy subjects Nicolas BoileauDespreaux The 3 Unities of neoclassicist canon Alexander Pope English translations of Homer imitations of Horace etc Romanticism Johann Joachim Winckelmann first thorough art historian of Greece and Rome which he regarded as the highest point of the aesthetic achievement of mankind Noble simplicity and quiet grandeur Ephraim Gotthold Lessing 17291781 Laocoon On History and Literature viewed ancient art as epitome of human passions preromantics gradually came to discern a moralemotional individualized aspect of the classical legacy Johann Wolfgang Goethe 17491832 German author poet and scholar bridge bt Classicists and Romantics wrote on classical subjects employed classical imagery in the dramatic poem Faust Romantics rebelled against conservative classicist restrictions Classicism vs Romanticism gt riot in Paris in 1830 at the production of the drama Hernani by Victor Hugo Modern times Classical fixation was forced to make room for other cultural legacies Europe was developing an awareness of folklore as an object of interest and literary attention one of main discoveries of Romanticism was discovery of the national past literary monuments of the Old Norse mythology the EDDAS were discovered by an Icelandic bishop Johann Jacob Bodmer AntiAristotelian antiNeoclassicist discovered Parsifal and Nibelungenlied edited Monuments of Celtic Mythology and Poetry Brothers Grimm Jacob and Wilhelm scholars collectors of German lore and folktales classics keeps its ground Persey Bysshe Shelley 17921822 English Romantic poet wrote Prometheus Unbound which explored the Romantic ideal through the subject of classical mythology Wilhelm von Humboldt linguist philologist Prussian Minister of Educa on educational reform classics the core of academic curriculum new reawakening to classical world Sophia Schliemann bedecked in gold of Troy Heinrich Schliemann 18221890 dared to take Homeric poems psychoanalysis mental travel absolute role of the classical legacy is reflected in the neoclassicist tendency to cast the characters of modern history in the conventions of classical antiquity literally excavated Homeric Troy Friedrich Nietzsche classical scholar and philosopher first to explore the profoundly irrational side of the classical tradition wrote The Birth of Tragedy Hellenism and Pessimism Sigmund Freud psychiatrist father of psychoanalysis saw in classical myths the key symbols of universally human meaning What do we owe classical world letters and literature illuminated manuscriptpalimpsest legal system court procedures and functions school and education science and philosophy architecture e Monticello Pantheon theater spo s religion spread of Christianity
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