Chemistry Lectures 1 & 2
Chemistry Lectures 1 & 2 CHE 106 - M001
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CHE 106 - M001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Kong on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chemistry 106 Lecture 2 93 What is chemistry Chemistry is de ned as the study of the composition structure and properties of matter and energy and the changes that matter undergoes Chemistry is the science of the electron Doyle 0 generally written as a symbol as e 0 chemistry is made possible because of the electron Matter anything that has mass and takes up space everything we can touch and feel and hold is made up of different kinds of matter 0 We do not use the word weight in science the correct term is mass Energy the capacity to do work All of these are based around the two principles of experimentation and explanation 0 these make up chemistry repeatable generally triplicated and the same conclusions can be drawn multiple times Experiments 0 experiments are observations of natural phenomena performed in a controlled space so as to gain duplicatable results 0 therefore rational conclusions may be drawn Science involves skepticism question everything keep your mind open to the possibilities Laws 0 A statement or mathematical equation that underlines a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature 0 when patterns and relationships are representative of a fundamental observation 0 Ex the law of conservation of mass states mass is neither created nor destroyed during any form of a chemical change Ex Hg 02 gt Hg02 253 g 273 g How much 02 used 02 g 0 Based on what scientists have learned we can attempt to predict events or develop a hypothesis 0 A hypothesis is a rough explanation of some regularity of nature a tentative explanation to a question about something in nature science a hypothetical answer 0 If a hypothesis passes multiple tests and results the same it then becomes a theory 0 Ex Einstein s Theory of Relativity and Darwin s Theory of Evolution 0 Many are skeptical of these theories you cannot say with absolute certainty that these are facts which is why they are theories not laws 0 The Scienti c Method 0 A systematic approach to solving problems a step by step system that eliminates problems if all things do not add up 0 Should a hypothesis have 99 experiments that prove it and 1 that proves it wrong the entire hypothesis is then proved false 0 Ex The Theory of Evolution has yet to have evidence proving it wrong therefore the theory is accepted 0 Physical vs Chemical 0 two principles classify matter Physical 0 physical solid liquid and gas and technically plasma 0 solid 0 characterized by rigidity 0 relatively incompressible 0 a xed shape and a xed volume 0 liquid 0 a xed volume but conforms to the container no xed shape 0 relatively incompressible 0 gas 0 easily compressible 0 no xed volume or shape 0 gas molecules more more quickly than liquid or solid 0 No chemical changes occur when elements shift between solid liquid and gas Qualities of Physical Matter has intensive and extensive properties 0 intensive 0 independent of the amount of material substance present 0 Ex density boiling point 0 extensive depend on the amount present 0 Ex mass volume energy A physical change is a change in the state of matter not in a chemical identity Ex water boiling is still water water freezing is still water Chemical 0 A chemical change is a chemical reaction 0 one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter 0 Ex 2H2 02 gt 2H20 0 Chemical properties are characteristics of a substance involving a chemical change 0 Ex Flammability To date there are millions of substances known Roughly 117 are called elements All other substances are made from these few elements 0 chemical elements compounds and mixtures 0 elements 0 a substance that cannot be broken down further into other substances 0 cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into a simpler substance 0 the atom is the smallest unit of an element 0 subatomic particles do also eXist eg an electron 0 A summary of all the elements is known as the periodic table 0 Little known fact that Beryllium is insanely toxic and very dangerous 0 gt Most thermodynamically stable element is Iron Fe 0 gt Bismuth Be is radioactive but unbelievably stable and is a component of Pepto Bismal it has yet to decompose and therefore is safe to consume compounds mixtures Chemistry Lecture 1 91 Chemistry is the science of the electron the study of the composition structure and properties of matter and energy and the changes that matter undergoes text book central science 13th 12 used is ne pearson prentice hall access code mastering chemistry gt NECESSARY each assignment due friday by 1159 if late by 1 min 50 off homeworks and tutorials mastering bio suid number doyle57 603 Via blackboard che106doylefalll4 study area with book and practice quizzes 4 exams 3 exams and a nal exam 1 123 exam 2 456 HARDEST EXAM exam 3 7 89 nal 19 cumulative no tech on tests no recitation grade not mandatory course point breakdown 1000 points total exams 60 600 nal 30 300 hw 10 100 always bring calculator DONT FALL BEHIND