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Notes for Chapter 3 Test

by: Belinda Tagoe

Notes for Chapter 3 Test pol101

Marketplace > Mercer University > Political Science > pol101 > Notes for Chapter 3 Test
Belinda Tagoe
American Government
Dr. Chris Grant

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American Government
Dr. Chris Grant
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Belinda Tagoe on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to pol101 at Mercer University taught by Dr. Chris Grant in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at Mercer University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Chapter 3 Politics of the American Founding Key Terms 0 The New World 0 Enlightenment 0 mercantilism 0 colonial governments 0 French and Indian War 0 Sugar and Stamp Acts 0 Townshend Acts of 1767 0 Tea Act of 1773 0 Boston Tea Party 0 Coercive Acts of 1774 0 representation 0 constitution 0 popular sovereignty 0 Sons of Liberty 0 Boston Massacre 0 First Continental Congress 0 Battle at Lexington and Concord 0 Common Sense 0 Declatation of Independence 0 abolitionism 0 Daughters of Liberty 0 Articles of Confederation 0 Shays39s Rebellion 0 Constitutional Convention 0 Federalism 0 Virginia Plan 0 New Jersey Plan 0 Great Compromise 0 ThreeFifths Compromise 0 The Federalist Papers 0 Bill of Rights The New World the region of the world that European powers discovered during the age of colonialism This includes North America 0 British colonists believed that the North American continent belonged to them 0 They had to endure severe weather 0 They often con icted with French and Spanish colonists and Native American groups 0 Spanish explorers had already taken eastern and western North America Central America and South America 0 The British crown recognized the potential economic gains from colonizing North America 0 Spain39s vulnerability allowed Britain to take away eastern North America despite the treaties that both sides agreed to 0 Britain exercised strong control over the eastern seaboard colonies by the late 1700s 0 Spain controlled the West and Southwest for the time being Feudalism A sociopolitical system in which a small ruling class required the lower classes to live off their land in exchange for protection 0 Social mobility was impossible people lived their entire lives in one class 0 England was taking steps to abandon feudalism at this time 0 Many British subjects moved to North America to escape lifelong poverty 0 They wanted to own land 0 They wanted to escape religious persecution 0 The Puritans tried to reform the Church of England in response 0 They wanted to make personal fortunes and avoid debtors39 prison 0 They wanted to conduct trade 0 They believed that England was an outdated feudal society that resisted change Enlightenment A period of revolutionary scientific discoveries and philosophical ideas during the 1600s 0 They promoted religious tolerance 0 They argued that subjects were citizens who had rights that government couldn39t violate 0 This created new reformist and separatist sects 0 Commerce and trade boomed at this time creating a financially independent middle class 0 Feudalism became more and more irrelevant and outdated 0 Ideas from philosophers such as John Locke and Montesquieu would go on to in uence new governments centuries later Mercantilism An economic system in which countries conducted trade with their overseas colonies 0 Nations competed for limited resources across the world 0 Colones became a major source for raw materials 0 Entrepreneurs invested in colonization as a result 0 England had a vested interest in colonization 0 The government granted charters to companies to settle land as English colonies Colonial governments These were the governments that were formed in the British colonies 0 Those who faced persecution became the persecutors when they controlled such governments 0 Each colony had ideas of private property 0 Some of them had representative assemblies such as town meetings the VA House of Burgesses and the MD House of Delegates 0 Voting rules were based on religion race gender and property 0 The governments created religious qualifications for political participation 0 Africans faced the same laws as Europeans 0 Women who satisfied property requirements could vote unless there were eligible males 0 Property requirements limited voting rights to those who owned property Slavery The practice of one group of people enforcing another group of people to perform cheap labor 0 This system was introduced from Barbados in 1670 in SC 0 It was lucrative in the commercial areas of New England 0 It boosted the tobacco plantation system in MD and VA 0 The rights of Africans eroded away as slavery spread throughout the colonies 0 MD banned Blacks from bearing arms in the 1640s 0 VA regarded slaves as property in 1669 masters could legally abuse destroy their slaves 0 Blacks couldn39t own property in the 1680s 0 All of these measures were designed to make slavery socially acceptable 0 Racist ideas of Africans being childlike savages justified slavery French and Indian War A war between France and England and allied Indians on both sides that lasted from 1754 to 1763 0 Britain tried to defend its American colonies 0 France lost all of its North American territory 0 Spain lost FL and retreated west of the Mississippi River 0 Britain won the war but incurred high war debts 0 It levied heavy taxes on British citizens to finance the war 0 It levied heavy taxes on the colonists to pay the debts 0 It also strengthened its trade laws to increase its profits from American resources 0 Indians and Spanish and French settlers were no longer a threat to the colonists 0 They could resist Britain39s growing control over them Sugar and Stamp Acts Acts which imposed duties on sugar and stamps 0 The Sugar Act went into effect in 1764 0 It levied a duty in sugar 0 The Stamp Act went into effect in 1765 0 It levied a tax on any printed material in the colonies playing cards newspapers etc 0 The Sugar Act was a burden on a depressed economy 0 The Stamp Act incited protests in the colonies 0 The colonists argued that the Stamp Act denied their liberties 0 They were being taxed without their consent Townshend Acts of 1767 Act which taxed goods imported from England 0 This included paper glass and tea 0 The colonists viewed this as a violation of their rights Tea Act of 1773 Act which taxed teas imported from Britain 0 The colonists found these acts intolerable Boston Tea Party The famous response to the Tea Act 0 Colonists in MA dressed up as Indians 0 They hurled 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor Coercive Acts of 1774 A law which was designed to punish the citizens of MA 0 This law fostered a desire for revolution Representation Government representatives are supposed to answer to the desires of the people who elected them 0 This is the American idea of representation 0 The British idea of Virtual representation said that the representative should act in the best interests of the country Constitution Document that granted specific powers and limitations on all branches of government 0 This included Parliament 0 It was directly connected to sovereignty Popular Sovereignty The people are the ultimate source of authority 0 This contradicted the British idea that Parliament was the sovereign authority 0 The colonists were seeing Britain39s colonial authority as illegitimate 0 The colonists rejected Parliament39s authority Loyalists Colonists who remained committed to the British monarchy 0 Some were involved in colonial administration 0 Some depended on Britain for trade and commerce 0 Some were devoted to the idea of monarchy Sons of Liberty Colonists who rebelled against the British monarchy 0 They were led by Samuel Adams 0 They had rioted against British rule since the Boston Tea Party 0 They provoked the Boston Massacre Boston Massacre Incident in which British soldiers killed six colonists 0 This event built up revolutionary desires First Continental Congress a meeting held by Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia 0 It was held in Sept 1774 0 It rejected the Coercive Acts 0 It cut off trade with England 0 It called for a second meeting in May 1775 0 King George sent the military to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock before the second meeting Battle at Lexington and Concord The first battle of the American Revolution 0 This signaled the beginning of the American Revolution Common Sense A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine 0 It declared the king39s control illegitimate 0 It called for independence 0 It called for a republic 0 The writing inspired colonial leaders 0 It was a bestseller Declaration of Independence Political document which declared the colonies a new country the United States 0 It was written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress 0 It dissolved ties between the US and Britain 0 It was heavily in uenced by Enlightenment gures such as John Locke 0 The government39s authority is based on the consent of the governed 0 The people have the right to remove the government if it violates this agreement 0 It contained a list of grievances against Britain 0 They showed that the British monarchy had violated the agreement Abolitionism A sociopolitical movement which called for the end of slavery 0 African Americans didn39t benefit much from the American Revolution outside of being freed 0 They weren39t included in the all men are created equal clause 0 Free Blacks were banned from NJ 0 The transatlantic slave trade continued 0 Northern states disenfranchised Blacks 0 The transatlantic slave trade continued unabated 0 Abolitionism strengthened in some northern cities Daughters of Liberty Women who supported the US in the American Revolution 0 They nursed and cared for soldiers 0 They helped finance the Continental Army 0 They sewed ags clothing and bandages eliminating the need for British resources 0 They engaged in espionage 0 They wrote pamphlets to inspire the cause for independence 0 A few fought in the war 0 They supported the revolution within the societal restraints on women Articles of Confederation The predecessor to the US Constitution 0 It featured a weak central government 0 This weakness was an attempt to avoid the same problems with Britain 0 The states ruled like independent territories state sovereignty 0 State constitutions dealt with rights and obligations for individual citizens 0 It succeeded at resolving border disputes and establishing political territories 0 Congress could raise an army 0 Congress could declare war 0 Congress could enter peace treaties 0 Congress could produce currency 0 Congress couldn39t draft soldiers 0 Congress couldn39t tax citizens to nance the military 0 Congress couldn39t regulate interstate or international commerce 0 Congress couldn39t create a standardized monetary system 0 The states printed their own currencies 0 The states made their own laws 0 The states set their own tariffs 0 The United States39 future depended on the states39 cooperation 0 The state governments had limitless power 0 Adding limits on state governments would39ve been infringing on states39 rights Shays39s Rebellion Incident in which a mob of farmers attacked a Springfield armory 0 The MA state government didn39t ease the debt burden on farmers 0 These farmers were facing foreclosure 0 Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays led a mob of farmers 0 They raided an armory in Springfield in 1787 0 The state militia struck down the rebellion 0 Leaders feared that the US was a failed attempt at selfgovernment 0 It fostered fears of mob tyranny 0 This rebellion revealed a pressing need to rework the government system Constitutional Convention A national convention held to replace the Articles of Confederation 0 It was held in Philadelphia in May 1787 0 The goal was to make a strong central government 0 This government would be able to manage national and international demands 0 The delegates planned to revise the Articles initially 0 Most of them were more interested in replacing it altogether 0 Many of them were elite members of society 0 The Articles harmed the political elite the most 0 Some delegates refused to attend 0 They believed the convention was treasonous and illegal 0 The attendees were rich and welleducated 0 They had extensively read John Locke39s work 0 James Madison39s notes contained all the details about the convention 0 Many of the rules they established were compromises 0 The outcome of the convention was the US Constitution 0 Small states were generally the rst to ratify it Federalism The central government has a source of power the states have independent power 0 The US Constitution was this source of power 0 This benefited the economic elite 0 This opposed the interests of states39 rights advocates 0 Federalists supported the federalist government system and a strong central government 0 They were admirers of Enlightenment thought 0 Ambition and corruption were innate to human beings 0 They had a large financial stake in the country 0 The US needed a strong central government to encourage foreign investments in the country 0 Foreign investments would be necessary for the US to become an economic powerhouse 0 Security order and control were important 0 They supported the US Constitution 0 AntiFederalists wanted a weak central government and states39 rights 0 The government had to be small and local 0 A strong national government would lend itself to corruption 0 State governments were easier to manage 0 Ambition and corruption weren39t natural or acceptable 0 American should stick to its rural roots 0 They supported the Articles of Confederation Virginia Plan The extent of congressional representation would be based on population size 0 It was written by James Madison 0 This favored large heavily populated states 0 Strong national government 0 Bicameral legislature 0 One chamber elected by people other elected by state legislatures and popularly elected national house 0 Numbers of representatives based on taxes paid by free state residents 0 One executive enforces the laws appointed by legislature 0 National judiciary appointed by legislature 0 The national government could override state laws 0 Large states would have more representatives in both houses 0 National law and policy would favor large states New Jersey Plan This was a strengthening of the Articles 0 It was written by William Paterson 0 Executive committee prevents concentration of power 0 Congressional acts would be supreme law of the land 0 Unicameral legislature 0 Each state would get one vote 0 State legislatures would choose delegates 0 The national government would still depend somewhat on the states for funding 0 Small states could block what large states wanted The Great Compromise This contained the ideas of both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan 0 Strong federal structure 0 Headed by central government 0 Congress could tax citizens 0 Congress could regulate commerce 0 Congress could manage foreign affairs 0 Congress could organize the military 0 Single executive 0 National judicial system 0 Bicameral legislature 0 House of Representatives based on state population elected by people 0 Senate two votes for each state elected by state legislatures 0 Most legislation would require the approval of both houses 0 This favored neither large states nor small states over the other ThreeFifths Compromise Each slave would count as 35ths of a person 0 Northern and southern states disagreed on representation in the House 0 Southern states wanted to count slaves 0 This would add to their representation in the House 0 This would give them a population edge over the northern states 0 Northern states said slaves shouldn39t count since they couldn39t vote 0 Each slave counted as 35th of a person 0 Five slaves counted as 3 people The Federalist Papers 85 essays written by Publius Alexander Hamilton John Jay James Madison 0 Madison devises solutions to a human aw divisiveness and selfinterest in this case 0 Madison said factions were the greatest risk to a republic 0 Their personal interests don39t go along with the interests of general public 0 They39re problematic when they make up a majority of the nation 0 The Americans without property under the Articles were one example 0 They threatened property owners 0 A large republic alleviated the effects of factions 0 Representation would neutralize the effects of factions 0 This was the difference between a pure democracy and a republic 0 A large territory would house too many factions for one to become dominant 0 Those with similar interests would live too distant from each other 0 He argued that the Constitution wouldn39t create tyranny 0 Checks and balances and separation of powers would prevent tyranny 0 These are a solution to human aws corrupt ambition in this case 0 These papers helped convince New York to ratify the Constitution Bill of Rights The first ten Amendments of the US Constitution 0 These are individual rights that the government can39t violate 0 This didn39t exist in the original draft of the Constitution 0 The Federalists figured it was unnecessary 0 The government would do anything that wasn39t expressly forbidden in the Bill of Rights 0 Including a Bill of Rights would encourage a tyrannical government 0 Some state constitutions already had them 0 The government was too limited to infringe on individual rights 0 The AntiFederalists feared that the national government would be too powerful without a Bill of Rights 0 Americans sided with the AntiFederalists 0 A Bill of Rights was included in the final draft


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