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Week One Lecture Notes

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by: Nicole Josephson

Week One Lecture Notes PSY

Marketplace > Syracuse University > PSY > Week One Lecture Notes
Nicole Josephson
GPA 3.07
Dr. Randall Jorgenson

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About this Document

Detailed notes from the first week of classes. Hope this helps you!
Dr. Randall Jorgenson
Class Notes
25 ?




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"What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore..."
David Mayert

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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Josephson on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Randall Jorgenson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.

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What an unbelievable resource! I probably needed course on how to decipher my own handwriting, but not anymore...

-David Mayert


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week One 09012015 Personality The Study of Individuals Personality The underlying causes within the person of individual behavior and experience 0 The reasons behind why people behave the way they do Components of Personality include Cognition Affect emotion Behavior Overt action Patterns 0 Things we have picked up from the environment we live in and our biological makeup geneties Good Personality Theories Good personality theories discuss Environmental and social factors 0 Ex Job family culture Biology 0 Ex an individuals temperament Cognitive factors Learning history social learning theory Motivation Coping 0 Being aware of yourself quotthe good the bad and the uglyquot 0 Dealing with others using this information 0 Defense 0 Have a distorted perception of reality lying to yourself Personality theories come from Deductive approaches inductive approaches concepts taken from others and a combination of theories Induction Vs Deduction Deduction Use of experiments and making hypothesis no collection of data or clues 0 Laws and principles 0 Ex Einstein formulated a big picture of the universe Induction Observation of clues putting together pieces of a puzzle and then forming the big picture 0 Behaviors and characteristics 0 Ex Sherlock Holmes investigates gathers clues and puts them together and comes up with the answer Problem with induction according to Einstein If you do not have all the pieces to the puzzle you will not reach the big picture We need both induction and deduction to understand human nature Methods of Research Scienti c Method is used to Create and Eat Theories 0 Theory Hypothesis an educated guess based on a theory 0 Having a good theory will make predictions better Operationalization Methods Data Collection and analysis Theory Reformulation if hypothesis is rejected try a new approach if hypothesis is approved test again to prove validity Aperimental Method o Manipulation of the Independent Variable Causes a change in the Dependent Variable 0 Group Research random assignment is used to try and reduce preexisting bias making sure that there are no differences between the groups 0 Single Subject Designs with manipulation Key element is manipulation Acolvaatagjas of Experimental Method Causal relationships can be shown 0 Can only be shown with the manipulation of the Independent Variable sacolvaatagjas of Experimental Method o It can be impractical and unethical o It may not portray natural behavior data can be skewed Correlational Research Determining the correlation between two variables 0 Key word Association 0 Correlation coef cient r o 10 perfect positive association 0 10 perfect negative association 0 O no association Positive Correlation When one variable increases the other variable also increases 0 Ex Food and weight The more food a person will eat the more weight they will gain Negative Correlation When one variable increases and the other decreases and vice versa 0 Ex School absence and grades A student who is always absent will have a decrease in grades Advantages of Correlational Research 0 Can be useful when an experiment is impractical or unethical o It can show theory driven associations o Justify experiments 0 Provide evidence contrary to a theory isao vantages of Correlational Research Causal relationships cannot be shownD can only be shown through manipulation Qualitative Research 0 Goal is to get unbiased opinions Importance of looking at variables in a natural setting 0 Obtained by interviews focus groups and observing behavior Advantages of Qualitative Research 0 Able to gather idiographic study of an individual person information in a natural environment isao vantages of Qualitative Research 0 Does not show causal relationship 0 Very general cannot study speci c cases Observation Types of Data BLIS o 33 ataa Behavioral Data 0 Data that is collected about an individuals behavior When people do not know they are being observed a Natural BData n Contrived B Data experiments 0 in Data Life Outcomes Data 0 Information about the environment someone lives in demographics Life events Ex where someone grew up 0 Us Data Informant Data 0 Judgments made my knowledgeable informants ex friends family Making judgments about an individual based on the information people in their life share about them 0 S ata Subject Data 0 Selfjudgments reports 0 Individual provides a self evaluation about his or herself Sometimes people are not honest and give information that will put them in a better light Measurement Criteria 0 Empirical Validity Replication o Validity measures truthfulness accuracy 0 Measure cannot be valid and unreliable 0 Reliability measures consistency 0 Measure cannot be reliable and invalid The Trait ldiographic Approach of Gordon Allport ldiographic Study of the individual uniqueness of a person Gordon Allport s De nition of Personality quot Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought quot m 0 Moving and changing Structured our brains are constantly organizing our thoughts and feelings o Psychophysical mind and body 0 Determined structured by 0 The futurelj we are oriented towards becoming healthy humans beings as we move into the future Motivated by the future and very goal oriented o The past The past can mold and shape our personality however 0 Unique to each individual ntinuity and Dimntinuity Devei pment Theo es Continuity o Emphasis on the accumulation of skills habits and discriminations throughout life 0 Continuous process that is gradual and cumulative 0 Quantitative changes Discontinuity o Emphasis on organismic transformation 0 Series of stages or steps that are different from one another 0 Qualitative changes 0 Higher organizational levels Common Traits Across Cultures 0 Competitive culture Assertiveness and aggression to achieve success 0 Eastern religion Looking inward for enlightenment searching within yourself 0 Western religion Looking outward to quotGodquot to obtain enlightenment Personal Dispositions Personal tendencies to behave think act and feel a particular way 0 Cardinal Disposition o A trait that dominates a persons personality 0 Controls how a person perceives themselves most thoughts and actions 0 Central disposition characteristics are motivated by cardinal characteristics 0 Central Dispositions 0 510 general characteristics that are the building blocks of our personality Ex Friendliness generosity greed self esteem etc 0 Secondary Dispositions 0 Characteristics that appear in certain situations 0 Less crucial to personality structure 0 People have many because there are many situations people get into Ex Shyness anxiety Essential Trait Approach Prediction of Behavior Essential trait approach is usually used with factor analysis to reduce traits down to the essential few that are important The BIG FIVE Think OCEAN quotFundamental Lexical Hypothesisquot 0 The most important characteristics in a person s life will eventually become a part of their language 0 Used to describe and predict social behavior The Big Five Personality Traits Openness to Experience 0 Imagination curiosity considers alternative ideas open minded wide interests appreciation of aesthetics 0 Consciousness o Organized punctual reliable hardworking ambitious ef cient self discipline 0 Extraversion o Generous outgoing excitement seeking warmth social energy talkative o Agreeableness 0 Good natured trusting forgiving gullible helpful friendly compassionate Neuroticism o Worried and nervous insecure hypochondriacal jumpy vulnerable


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