Aug. 31st-Sept.4 Week notes
Aug. 31st-Sept.4 Week notes HIST 1493
Popular in United States: 1865 to the Present
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elise Wright on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1493 at University of Oklahoma taught by Kathleen Brosnan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see United States: 1865 to the Present in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Book Outline Pg 502 5 14 White settlers crowding land forced the removal of Natives Indians needed to relocate which allowed them to explore new lands and natural resources elsewhere Americans viewed destruction of Indians as necessary price of civilization and progress Native Americans depended on Buffalo in the High Plains for food clothing tipi covering trading and robes Buffalo Bill famous scout who killed thousands of bison to feed railroad construction crews Because of gold and silver miners and other white settlers took over Rocky Mountains Government abandoned its previous position which treated the West as an Indian Reserve and forced Indians to move to a concentrated area Indians rejected this and a series of battles broke up Indians resultantly would attack travelers The governor then authorized whites to kill Indians on sight and sent troops creating a massacre In 1867 congress sent a peace commission to end fighting and set aside land for Indians 45000 Indians signed the Treaty of Laramie in agreement to move and in return receive money and provisions Sitting Bull Leader of Indians Pressured by potential settlers Sherman sent a force led by Custer to make negotiations which didn t work He then sought to drive the Indians out which led to the Battle of Little Bighorn and Indians won Helen Jackson Wrote A Century of Dishonor and assisted reformers in establishing Indian Boarding Schools Dawes Severalty Act sought to turn Indians into landowners and farmers by gradually giving them the rights of citizens and land allotments Some Indians could not prosper on the land because it was dry The federal government also reduced their meat rations and restricted hunting Ghost Dance cycle of ritual songs and dance steps to bring on a new day of the renewal of traditional life Wounded Knee 340 starving and freezing Sioux were killed because US army would not give up control of Indian Reservations Pacific Railroad Act authorized constructing of new translocation link which provided grants of land 1869 was the completion of the first railroad spanning North America Lecture Objective Questions How and why did federal policies toward Native Americans change in the last quarter of the nineteenth century What was the supposed white path to civilization In the last quarter of the nineteenth century Indians were encouraged to abandon nomadic life which includes language customs culture social norms and religion Boarding schools were created so Indians could be taught farming carpentry dressmaking and nursing When this wasn t successful eliminating the Indian problem was proposed and the Dawes Act was passed in 1887 This Act gradually gave Native Americans the rights of citizens This law emphasized treating Natives as individuals rather than tribal members Under this Indians were given land for farming and grazing These federal policies were proposed in order to eliminate Indian ways Many thought they would not survive without converting to white civilization so they were trying to assimilate them to white life This was the white path to civilization Sitting Bull alienated Custer in the Battle of Little Bighorn which was greatest victory for Indians This was reached to the president on the 4th of July This victory was believed to be the end of Indian resistance Buffalo Bill Cody treated Indians well however he portrayed them as aggressive which was not the case Buffalo Bill Cody gave Sitting Bull a pony as a gift which did a dance when a gunfire went off The police feared Sitting Bull might ee reservation so they went to arrest him He ended up wounded by a gunshot Pony heard the gunfire and did its dance and freaked out the police In fact no one realized Sitting Bull was even wounded Battle of Little Bighorn occurred because the government failed to accommodate Indians when it came to their land Death of white men reinforced white American sense of Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny was supposedly the divine right and duty of white Americans to expand across North America This was the commonly held belief in white American society Most whites and Indians got along Great plains Indians were described as nomadic but they moved regularly to take advantage of natural resources in other locations In 1851 Plains tribes accepted defined boundaries in exchange for gifts The government promised Indians that they would hold these lands for all times However 3 years later in 1854 government did not honor treaty and white settlers attempted to take over the land Bison went near extinction because of multiple reasons other than whites killing them for sport There were long term cultural and economic problems In fact the bison were already in decline by the time whites started killing them There was competition from horses 0 The Indian tribes adapted a lot of horses because it was a sign of wealth for them The horses and bison lived on the same land and therefore were competing for water and grass on Plains Cattle also brought competition and Bovine disease which Bison caught and became incapable of reproduction or died because they lacked immunity Drought White settlers went market hunting in the 1820 s primarily for Bison robes Indians hunted but primarily for food Armyrecreational hunters increased sport killing for bison Fear of extinction caused the Slaughter policy for northern herds by the government The purpose was to undermine and hurt the survival of Indians in northern plains They were hoping to cut off Indian s food supply and bring them to their knees Federal Indian policies Office of Indian affair was a corrupt agency because they stole money and food which was intended for Indians Quaker Peace policy was designed to correct this corruption The goal of the white path to civilization was to help Native Americans assimilate to white life In order to do this whites needed to remove Indian culture religion and social forms White American life was seen as the pinnacle of civilization Kill the Indian and save the man Reformers said education and Christianity would go hand in hand They tried to incorporate boarding schools to separate children from parents Basically the goal was to destroy ethnic traditions In the end government closed most boarding schools because the cost of running them was too high Dawes Act of 1887 This gave Natives land to farm and graze on in order to assimilate Most white Americans had connections to farming Farming was considered to be a noble life Dawes Law of individual allotment division of commonly held reservation lands into individual allotment of 160 acres for families smaller lots to single men The allotments were too small in most cases in aridity west for agricultural production The government sold surplus lands immediately sold lands off before allotments were made which left Indians with little land or land that was the least productive Under this law Indian reservations were cut in half Most whites equated hunting as primary form of survival Agriculture was equated with civilization Indians were struggling because they didn t have private property or individual autonomy Reformers create systems of private property for Native Americans Some argued they had too much land Decisions about who would live where and when were a presidential authority Dawes Law failed to achieve reformers goals and was destructive to native Americans because it was hard to farm on the land because it was dry and there were no tools The government had promised to provide training Which failed
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