Notes for 8/25 to 9/3
Notes for 8/25 to 9/3 PSB 2000
Popular in Intro to Brain and Behavior
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Dixon on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSB 2000 at Florida State University taught by A. Spector in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Intro to Brain and Behavior in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Kayla!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 09/04/15
PSB 2000 Notes 8 2593 What is Biological Psychology 0 Fundamental Question quotWhy and how did the brain become consciousquot 3 Referred to as the mindbrain problem or mindcbody problem 0 Biological Psychology the study of the biological aspects of animal behavior v Synonyms biopsychology psychobiology physiological psychology and behaworal neuroscrence Also a point of view a belief that the evolution of brain systems has effected and continues to affect our thoughts and behaviors Biological Explanations of Behavior 0 Physiological how the brain interacts wother organs Ex Chemical reactions that produceinfluence hormones and their effect on the brain v Ex the process of electrical signals and routes by which the brain controls muscles 0 Ontogenetic Greek roots meaning quotoriginquot how a structure or behavior came to be 5 Includes in uence of genes interactions experiences nutrition etc Ex impulse control is a behavior that develops over time because the frontal lobes of the brain also develop over time o Evolutionary how evolution affects structures and behaviors includes vestigial structures gallbladder and behaviors goosebumps that serve no advantageous purpose to the species today 0 Functional talks about why a structurebehavior evolved the way it did Lx Many moths blend in with their environments as a means of camouflage a way to hide from predators 0 There39s a really good review and set of examples for each of these explanations on pg 6 of the book Also if you39re a Psych major and still unsure of what you want to do as a career there s a table of specializations related to biological psychology and descriptions as well as a few paragraphs talking about what you d have to do to get there on pg I Biology Review very basic refer to a biology textbook for more detailed informationi 0 Cells important Components Nucleus possesses DNA control center of cell Mitochondria quotpowerhouse of the cellquot Ribosomes produce proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum ER transport proteins 39 Golgi Apparatus not too important packages and modifies proteins quotCell Membranequot VERY IMPORTANT FOR UNDERSTANDING FUTURE MATERIAL Phospholipid bilayer made up of two layers of phosphates bonded wlipids o Semipermeable quotselectivequot lets small and uncharged particles to pass through freely Large particles and ions charged particles must go through proteins embedded in the membrane c They an as channels that speci c particles can use to get inout of the cell 0m xuu r s quot quot 75 11515323 hsiO rc d g a u moocogeon r i Qtywp q y PithC A l 83 ldAE LQW x 0 Genes a DNA contains genes that code for proteins Those proteins aifect structures and behavior 0 Ex A gene for brown eyes doesn39t directly cause brown eyes it codes for a protein that causes brown eyes 0 Ex A gene that causes aggressive behavior would code for proteins that affect the chemicals in your brain that would ultimately result in a greater tendency for aggressive behavior a Gene expressmn Cell specialization is caused by a cell expressing certain genes 0 Ex Eye cells express genes that make it easier to see like photosensitivity Can be affected by molecules in and around the cell 0 Ex Drugs or toxins can adversely affect the efficiency in which cells do their jobs by messing up or destroying the proteins that genes code for DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis 0 DNA replicates itself using RNA it unzips and RNA comes in there and copies each side 0 This process is called transcription The RNA then goes through ribosome which bring together the amino acids that make up the proteins needed 0 This process is called translation Proteins produced are often enzymes which catalyze reactions either breaking down or building other molecules 0 Enzymes will almost always end in ASE ex Lactase which breaks down lactose 3 Types of Genes Homozygous when both alleles are the same ex aa Heterozygous when both alleles are different ex Aa Dominant quot0verpowersquot recesstve alleles generally identified by capital letters 0 the gene for brown eyes is dominant but if someone was heterozygous Aa for the gene they would still have brown eyes rather than blue Recessive it takes two alleles in order to be expressed o in order for someone to have blue eyes they would have to be homozygous recessive on Autosomal most genes height eye color curlystraight hair etc Sexlinked linked to the sex chromosomes color blindness Most sexlinked genes are attached to the Ychromosome therefore they are mostly expressed by men 3 Variation Mutation when something goes wrong in transcription or translation causing a change in the protein that is produced 0 They39re not always bad In act evolution depends on advantageous mutations to occur in order to create a gene pool that has the best chance of survrvmg 0 Most of the time they are neutral or have no noticeable affect at all However when they do have an adverse effect it can be anything from minor to fatal Recombination during cell division chromosome can sometimes become tangled and quotswitchquot parts with another corresponding chromosome 0 This can cause expression ol genes not found in either parent also helps evolution 0 Nature vs Nurturequot i this is the argument about whether genes or the environment allect behaviors and such v Honestly it39s a stupid argument because any scientist will tell you that everything is a combination of heretics and environment but in a lot ol cases genetics does have more of an effect than the environment when It comes to Social Psychology but we39re not talking about that here s All you really have to know is that both are important and both significantly alfects the other Oh and that a good way to test is a trait is to study identical twins ideally separated at birth but we can39t ethically do that 50 Adopted siblings are a good way to test for the effects the environment has on behavror The Cells of the Nervogs System 0 Neurons receive and send signals from other neurons produce behaviorcommunication can transmit information long distances quickly Structure see the diagram Dendrites branches found around the soma 0 Receive information and signals neurotransmitters actually but we39ll get to those later from other neurons 0 Dendrite Spines little knobs found on dendrites if they increase surface area increasing the amount of information they can 39 Soma body of the cell c Responsible for protein synthesis metabolic functions general maintenance ol the cell 0 Determines of a signal will continue to the next neuron Axon conducts the electrical signals down to the axon terminal 0 39THERE IS ONLY ONE AXON PER NEURON Presynaptic Axon Terminals where the axon branches and sends neurotransmitters across the synapse to the next neuron 0 Forms little buttons that almost touches the dendrites of the next neuron n The gap between the two neurons are called the synapse Neurotransmitters are stored released and reabsorbed here o The output of the neuron Canon macl n stuctfl t Glia Greek root for glue Structural and functional support they can transmit information but DO NOT do so over long distances there are 1050 times more glia cells than neurons 0 Types of Glia Astrocytes star shaped some have endfeet that touch soma dendrites or capillaries Regulates extracellular ion concentrations 0 Helps control blood New to areas of the brain 0 Provides glucose to neurons 0 Absorbs some neurotransmitters at the synapse 0 Found in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 39 Oligodendrocytes produces myelin sheaths around axons in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM39 0 Myelin insulates axons makes signals travel faster down the axon 0 Breaks in insulation are called nodes of erwer 0 Can produce rtlyelln sheaths for multiple axons at the same time 0 Schwann Cells wraps myelin around one segment oi a single axon 0 Found in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 39 Radial Giial Cells helps to guide migrating neurons during Central Nervous System deveIOpment Later develops into neuronsglia Microgtia small phagocytic cells 0 Response to injury disease etc 0 Can divide and eat waste material toxins o BloodBrain Barrier o Keeps most large and charged particles inside the bloodstream and out oi the brain i Protects brain irom harmiul chemicals Special channels allow certain molecules through and into the brain Sounds familiar doesn39t it o ahem39 cell membrane protein channeislli n ilcimwenmculm oraans have weakabsent barriers 0 This allows the brain to monitor what chemicals are currently in the bloodstream ex adrenaline 393 Ex Glucose is vital to the brain The bloodbrain barrier allows glucose to enter the brain Action Potential Side note here this is probably the most important and complicated thing you re going to learn in this course because everything you learn after this will just build on it This is super important and I really don39t want to miss anything but it you have any questions you can email me at lid15cmyisuedu and I39ll try to answer your question to the best oi my ability Also l39m totally up for tutoring it you need it We can meet up somewhere or I can Skype with you whichever works Since you were awesome and bought these notes tutoring will be absolutely tree Important Things You39ll Need to Understand o Diffusion the tendency of particles to move from high concentrations to low concentrations 9 Ex when you spray perfume or air ireshener and the smell slowly spreads throughout the room lMPORTANT This is speci c to each kind of particle Potassium Kat molecules aren39t going to care how many Sodium Na molecules there are in a speci c area They only care how many Potassium molecules there are I know i probably said that in a weird way but here39s a diagram O O i o P v ld we39ll i a 39 e 0 o i 0 o i 9 Cal 393v o VOLtyw o Semipermeable Membranes let s some particles through doesn t let others pass depending on their physical properties Cell membranes You can review that whole thing earlier in the notes ii you need to 0 ions electrically charged atoms or molecules Cations positively charged Nai K lust think CATS are absolutely POSlTlVELY the cutest animals r Anions negatively charged Cil Antagonists are just so NEGATIVE Electric Reactions like charges repel opposite charges attract Distribution of ions Across a Membrane Depends on The permeability of the membrane to the ions a It a certain membrane only has channels that let NA through K won t be able to enter no matter how concentrated it is Electrical gradient 0 Even if there are channels for both New and Kr the membrane will be semipermeable That is while both molecules are iree to pass through the membrane both molecules are positively charged so they will repel each other Concentration gradient 39 Pretty much just normal distribution ii there a whole bunch of K molecules and not over there they re going to want to get over there until equilibrium is reached t x Imagine there are a few female cats in a room and a whole bunch of male cats that obviously want to get it lhey can get in through a tiny door so one by one they slowly make their way inside wanting to meet some foxy felines However once too many males get inside a couple of the female cats get overwhelmed and want to leave Resting State A neuron in resting state is just a normal neuron no stimuli has caused it to do anything yet In resting state the membrane potential of a certain neuron is about 70mV inside compared to the outside lhat means that the inside of the neuron is more negative than the outside making the relative charge of the outside positive at art n Again i know that39s weird but here s another diagram to clear things up I a I O O 39l O Na 0 39 A O 39 39 Team it iquot r xHivlill i igW 0 9 o a b ii u lill lgtCt 3quot me lii dik mails wavelet Witwatew C o in K39 o a o 4 Since there is such a strong concentration of Nai on the outside and the inside is relatively negative the Na really wants to get into the cell n it leaks in slowly depolarizing the insrde oi the neuron Depolarizing is just equaling out the charge because the Na brings its positive charge with it n Because there is a large concentration gradient of K on the inside of the cell along with the inside becoming more and more positive the K i molecules slowly leak out ihis balances out the incoming Mai and counteracts depolarization it this continued eventually there would be a ton of Mao insude the neuron and a bunch of K outside oi the cell The Na K Pump helps bring those K back in and pump those Nai back out where they belong I ihis also helps keep proper electrical and concentration gradients HT L 39I ls at DECK Inc If26 anOQD quotf O N enler becctutye ant CCJ cixcuwi lj39cl Kl Y Cicllcnl Ion Channels 0 O a 9 p 0 s O 0 t O 0 Here s a diagram for our visual learners p 9 O 0 A t 39i l 1 NJ 1 C313 QC Ctquot C7C O ogjqumt t r CLLL TL k t QTQL j V dgg v 0 la 39 quot IL L Cv 5 c I 39 r o O o 4Nl ilm l 1 M1 Comb 4 CLUiflCct I lmKing r Ml bc Cctunyc CA a l39licllrquot If Resting Channels passive unaffected by voltage Pretty much always open but still selective to certain kinds of molecules Voltage39Gatcd Channels openclose depending on membrane potential It takes a certain amount of charge positive or negative depending on the channel in order to open or close the channel LigandGated Channels openclose depending on a specific molecule binding to a receptor protein on the 1quot channel C n Important in chemical transmission across the synapse ll you re familiar with enzymes and the way they work they39re kind of like that PhosphorylationGated Channels openclose depending on a phosphate group binding to the intracellular part of an ion channel Important in some metabotropic effects It39ll make more sense later I promise Other there are tons ol others probably but those aren39t going to be discussed in the course Action Potential A brief reversal of polarity at a small portion of the axon Beings at axon lnilorrk when there39s enough stimulus n Travels down the axon through a process of VoltageGated Nat and Ki channels opening and closing Allor None rule the strength at the action potential is consistent as it travels down the axon and does not decay over space or time The neuron has to reach the threshold potential in order for a signal to tire t l 39 l There is no such thing as a neuron quothalf tiring It either happens or it doesn39t hm LLlM ll 0 Generation of Action Potential i a 3 4 There39s more but let39s just see what that looks like 6 pew 9 Axon is at the resting potential Graded depolarizing potential happens because of a stimulation it39s called graded because the strength of the stimulus affects how much it depolarizes that part of the neuron Depolarization causes voltagegated Na channels to start to open NEH start to come into the cell but K starts to leave because of the electrical gradient and to resrst depolarization Once the threshold potential is reached the flow if Nat into the cell overpowers the K o leaving and causes the voltagegated Na channels to open quickly Nat rushes into the axon making it positive SCdCED e l Due to the depolarization voltagegates K i channels also start to open They39re much slower than the voltagegated Na channels At the peak of the action potential the voltagegates Nar channels CLOSE and inactivate Na stops entering the cell but M is still leaving Repolarization starts to occur Right after the Na channels close the K channels are fully open so the ilt is still freely leaving the cell As the membrane potential gets closer to resting potential the Kr channels start to close but not completely the K4 channels still aren39t closed when the resting potential is reached This means that Ki is still leaving making the potential become even more negative This is called hyperpnlnrratinn 10 The K channels completely close and the Na K pump helps the potential return to the resting state v clmctl re ne pd h iC 39 I I llfj ltTlWifed Refractory Periods right after an action potential the membrane resists a second action potential 0 Absolute Refractory Period n Starts when the first action potential starts ends when the Na channels completely closed and inactivated n Cannot produces a 2quot action potential no matter how much stimulus is because one is already happening 0 Relative Relractory Period 39 K is still leaving the cell and hyperpolarizing it making it harder to reach the threshold potential in order to Start another action potential but a strong enough stimulus CAN cause a second one Propagation of the Action Potential 0 this is basically a fancy way of saying the action potential travels from the axon hillock down to the axon terminal l his happens because when all of that Na rushes in it diffuses down the axon and causes that part of the axon to depolarize enough to hit the threshold potential and cause an action potential o e o a 39 39 L 39 L gtCv oo lt 6 00 L 0 o 0 fl is 0 t1 O or o g Ochoa p potch Myelinated Axons o Myelinated axons use the spreading of the depolarization to increase the velocity of the action potential by making the reactions jump to the nodes of Ranvier the small gaps between myelin sheaths This happens because myelin covers the surface of the axon so the only places where there are voltage gated channels embedded in the membrane are the only places the surface of the membrane are accessible This is called saltatory conduction w a3 r fa Qckw 39 The Effect of Myellnated Axons the speed at which the action potential happens 0 Small Unmyelinated Axons about 22 mph 0 Small Myelinated Axon about 22 mph 0 large Myelinated Fiber about 220 mph 0 The larger the diameter the more surface the membrane has so the reaction goes faster Diseases Drugs 8 Toxins that Affect Action Potential 0 Multiple Sclerosis a Demyelinates axons which disrupts or even prevents the conduction of an action potential 0 local anesthetics novacalne xylocaine l Bioclr voltagegated Na channels prevent them from ever opening 0 General anesthetics chloroform r Open voltagegated K channels so it s harder for the cell to depolarize enough to reach the threshold potential when Na enters the cell 0 Tetrodotoxin VERY potent found in liver of Pacific puffer fish c Blocks voltage gated Na channels so well that it39s deadly This is where my professor talked about going to lapan and partying a little bit it was awesome Chemical Signals in the Body 0 Neuronal Signaling VERY IMPORTANT 0 Neurotransmitters are released which is how communication between cells happens Endocrine Signaling also important 0 Hormones are released unto the bloodstream they travel until the reach a cell with a specific receptor cell lor that hormone o Paracrine Signaling might talk about it a little bit but It39s not vital to the course 3 Releases signaling molecules in surrounding area contacting several cells with specific receptors 0 Contact Signaling probably won39t talk about n Signaling molecule directly interacts with receptor protein on adjacent cell Synapse o the area between the axon terminal and another neuron muscle or gland 0 Electrical Synapses don39t even worry about it we won39t talk about them but they39re a thing so 0 Chemical Synapses Chemical Synapse o lnside the axon terminal there are vesicles that contain neurotransmitter 0 Imagine little water balloons that carry little particles 0 The postsynaptic membrane whatever the neuron is signaling to contains receptor proteins specifically for neurotransmitters 0 Here39s what happens t utb nk If 39 e UCll l liimid U LAz39T L ti 1 0 C 3 Ache ngttuimnHttquot y Wafkb wdeccd C ffhft ots alOt 3 n PClufogc moat s quot l m ruclb u o robot 39 rumblmmmltu 3 vl Maggi to mumCC 1quot o rt 7chptnIUL A 89 L ui39Cv llctl39Bl r fljosli m Lt i c ta Nb or ch tcubmitltib rah Ce L Ctb Lakwt IWQ OC Effects of Neurotransmitters on Postsynaptic Membrane o lonotropic gt A neurotransmitter binds with a receptor on a protein channel that directly openscloses a ligandgated channel remember those 0 Metabotropic A neurotransmitter binds with a receptor that39s connected to a Gprotein which activates a second round ol reactions within the cell i These generally continue signals to other neurons but we39ll get to that lonotropic vs Metabotropic o lonotropic last shortlived Important for rapid behavuors and sensation ex Vismn and sound I Metabotropic w slow long w Controls strength of synaptic connections Important for learning and memory Metabotroglc Neurotransmitter binds with receptor connected w a Gprotein Gprotein is activated Gprotein activates membranebound adenylate cyclase ATP is converted into cAMP CAMP activates cyclicnucleotidegated ion channels Those channels activate protein kinases i These are enzymes that openclose ion channels allect certain intracellular reactions and affect gene expression the creation of proteins that express genes P P PP N ALMA L3 UOU U1 Cu Lohmz 7 my life uiincJ 01 mt dmrfLL t 1L0 mm ON 30le Hit llC L 39C anmeq he mom 0 am about hormones ivcod ax mmirommiiqu OUi Ho PFCQQSD b Ctth St39 lC39LQf flail Graded Postsynagtic Potentials o Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential EPSP 3 Graded depolarization in the postsynaptic cell caused by Nat entering Na enters because a certain neurotransmitter binds with their receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane 0 Stronger depolarization stronger stimulus stimulus causes action potentials o Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential iPSP Graded hyperpolarization caused by K leaving the cell or Cl entering Caused by neurotransmitters binding to receptor cites 0 Stronger hyperpolarization means that more stimulus is needed to reach the threshold potential making action potentials harder to achieve quot ESPSS and IPSPS DECAY OVER SPACE AND TIME39 They have to travel from the initial point of origin to the axon hillock where action potentials are triggered EPSPs and lPSPs 0 Spatial Summation SPACE o E9595 and IPSPs delivered at different locations oi the cell at the same time add onto one another 0 Temporal Summation TIME o EPSPs and iPSPs delivered one after another generally at the same point can add together because the initial stimuli hasn t quite died out yet ian 0 Lame a n X at UN V 39 thtbi39oiel l y i 15 Tm Up 0 amour acn 7 Mis t A 3311151 m3 f if bfan blitz iWVV t b x o wahoi C W190ich d igic39fni39 t W m 0i N bone 39L i nu Tlvrsiicici msiw Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine 1 Responsible for brainmuscle communication 0 Monoamines a Histamine Catechoiamlnes Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine r Seratonin Amino Acids GABA glycine glutamate o Peptides Endorphins Neuropeptide Y substance P many others 0 ATP and Adenosine Nitric Oxide 0 Others probably let39s be real the brain is SO COMPLICMED and research had barely scratched the surface
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