Week Two (31 Aug- 4 Sept. 2015) BIOL 2040- Biogeography
Week Two (31 Aug- 4 Sept. 2015) BIOL 2040- Biogeography BIOL 2040
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week Two 31 Aug 4 Sept 2015 BIOL 2040 Ch 44 Cont Biogeographv The Geographic Distribution of Organisms Thompson Gazelle fast small and can cutback and forth prey of the cheetah help it survive on the open savannahs Distribution and Abundance of Organisms Biogeographv study of how organisms are distributed geographically and their interactions with abiotic and abiotic components of the environment these affect Where organism is and how much of it there is Abiotic Factors Range geographic distribution of species don t nd species all over EX Venus Fly Traps only in SE US m ability to survive and number of offspring left for the next generation tradeoffs of organisms Specific range of physical factors Temp pH light etc Zone of tolerance Death Zone of Physiological Stress Optimum Range Range of ToleranceOptimum Range Zone of Physiological Stress Historical Factors history of distributions EX Where islands occur etc Physical Conditions Current conditions Biotic Factors often limit organism s persistence Species Biotic Interactions Predatorprey Competition Parasitehost Reproductive Factors Ex Interspecific competition between the Townsend s and Hermit Warblers live in evergreen forests of Pacific NW experiments interactions in each other s territories geographic ranges EX Phytophagous insect specialization of host plants Yucca Moth limited by Yucca plant distribution It eats it Historv Matters Past AbioticBiotic Factors In uence Present Pattern of Organism Distribution Factors are dynamic change over time Geologica1 Events tectonics Landforms and Oceans island submergenceemergence sea level Climate Change sea levels precipitation temp change History of Dispersal Some species can t disperse over large areas but some can Ex Gypsy Moth Butter y females can t y so they live in the same tree they grow up in Dispersalmovement of individual organism from Where it s born to Where it livesbreeds as an adult Physical Barriers to Dispersal ex Mountains desert ocean roads forests like Karter Blue butter y EX Isthmus of Panama came up 3 MYA formed a land bridge terrestrial animals could move across causing new biotic interactions however this also created a barrier for marine life Lab Independent variable Xaxis Dependent variable yaXis Richness number of species in area Evenness relative abundance of individual species Diversity made up of richness and evenness Class Introduced Invasive Species transported by humans to new area In uence of Humans on Geographical Distribution of Organisms impact of human activity humans can get species past their physical barriers humans have transported many species Introduced Species moved by humans from native geographical new geographical locations EX Kudzo help prevent soil erosion and cattle eat it out competes most plants EX Giant African Land Snails What happens when species are moved to a geographic location without natural enemies and competitors Generally grow to enormous population sizes and have serious disruptive effects gtpossible extinctionendangerment of native species Ex Emeral Ash Borer Agrilus Plannipennis Coleoptera Buprestidae live in Ash tree larvae eat xylem and phloem 2002 serious problem came from E Asia and emerged in Detroit eat all types of Ash tree Initially suspected to be Ash Yellow similar symptoms to Ash Borer predicted to actually have entered US in early 905 started to spread because of firewood transport nursery stock tree exportation etc Adult beetles 36 week lifespan feed on ash leaves only problem they cause is laying of eggs Larvae bore into Ash 4 larval stages Instars growing shedding exoskeleton pupation etc eat Ash s xylem and phloem Interferes with nutrient transport in tree girdles the tree One generation per year larvae overwinter in Ashes and pupate in spring cause Dshaped emergence holes Trees live 24 years once canopy decline begins Ex Asian Cgp Silver Catfish ponds 1973 Bighead Catfish Ponds 1972 Black Accidental early 70s Grass 1963 canal clearing they feed on algae overpopulate waters 2 million eggs per female per year Black and Silver are the biggest problem electric barrier may have been breached however Climate prevailing long term weather conditions in an area often confused With weather 4 Mai or Abiotic Components of Climate 1 Temperature 2 Precipitation 3 Sunlight 4 Wind Macroclimate occurs on large geographic scales global regional landscape Microclimate small scale g Under a log Global Climate Patterns dependent upon how much solar energy and movement of Earth around Sun Solar Energy warming effect varies on Earth drives evaporation and air movement Latitudinal Climate causes sunlight to vary angle at Which sunlight strikes Earth Most intense between 235 degrees N Tropic of Cancer and 235 degrees S Tropic of Capricorn Global Air Circulation and Precipitation Patterns Water evaporates in tropics rising air masses becomes dry because it rains ascending air masses pick up water from US 030 degrees cooling trade Winds 3060 degrees westerlies