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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECON 1123 at University of Oklahoma taught by William Clark in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 275 views. For similar materials see Principles of Economics: Microeconomics in Economcs at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
August 31 2015 Patriarchy the System An it not a He a Them or an Us There is a common confusion about the difference between patriarchy as a kind of society and the people who participate in it We re stuck in a model of social life that views everything as beginning and ending with individuals People realize that social life involves people on a larger scale or within the system quotThe systemquot severs as a vague unarticulated catch all a dumping ground for social problems a scape goat that can never be held to account and that for all the power we think it has can t talk back or actually do anything When societal problems are viewed at an individual level it keeps people from relating human behavior to a larger pattern and from questioning practices that are allowed within the society We all participate in something larger than ourselves something we didn t create but that we have the power to affect through the choices we make about how to participate To participate is simply to have a part in what goes on to do something or not and to have the choice affect the consequences regardless of whether it is conscious or unconscious coerced or not The something larger we all participate in is patriarchy which is more than a collection of individuals such as men It is a system which means it can t be reduced to the people who participate in it There is the idea that as we participate in social systems we are shaped as individuals Through the process of socialization we learn how to participate in social lifefrom families schools religion and the mass media Through all of this we develop a sense of personal identity including gender and how this positions us in relation to other people especially in terms of inequalities of power The default is to adopt the dominant version of reality and act as though it s the one there is Participation in social systems shapes our behavior through paths of least resistance a concept that refers to the conscious and unconscious choices we make from one moment to the next Human beings are the ones that make social systems happen quotThe systemquot People take the path of least resistance within society because of psychological motives of what is good or bad We can t nd a way out of patriarchy or imagine something different without a clear sense of what patriarchy is and what it s got to do with us Patriarchy Patriarchy s de ning elements are its maledominated male identi ed malecentered and controlobsessed character but this is just the beginning At its core Patriarchy is based in part on a set of symbols and ideas that make up a culture embodied by everything from the content of everyday conversation to literature to lm Patriarchal culture includes ideas about the nature of things including women men and humanity with manhood and masculinity most closely associated with being human and womanhood and femininity relegated to the marginal position of other Above all patriarchal culture is about the core value of control and domination in almost every area of human existence The symbols and ideas that make up patriarchal culture are important to understand because they have such powerful effects on the structure of social life By structure I mean the ways privilege and oppression are organized through social relationships and unequal distributions of power rewards opportunities and resources By its nature patriarchy puts issues of power Dominance and control at the center of human existence not only in relationships between men and women but among men as they compete and struggle to gain status maintain control and protect themselves from what other men might do to them The system in US in the System Who we and other people think we are has a lot to do with where we are in relation to social systems and all the positions we occupy in them To some extent people experience patriarchy as external to them But that doesn t mean that it s a distinct and separate thing By participating in patriarchy we are of patriarchy and it is of us Both exist through the other and neither can exist without the other Patriarchy isn t static it s an on going process that s continuously shaped and reshaped September 2nol Masculinity does not mean the same thing as men but does concern men within a gender order They are patterns of practice by which people not just men engage that position They are multiple change across history and have internal complexities and contradictions Raewyn Connell The Black Feminists 1 the genesis of contemporary Black frminism 2 the speci c province of our politics 3 the problems in organizing black feminists including a brief herstory of our collective and 4 black feminist issues and practice The Genesis of Contemporary Black Feminism There have always been Black women activists who had a shared awareness of how their sexual identity combined with their racial identity to make their whole life situation unique A black feminist presence has evolved most obviously in connection with the second wave of the American women s movement beginning in the late 19605 Black and working women have been involved in the feminist movement from its start but both outside reactionary forces and racism and elitism within the movement itself have served to obscure our participation Black feminists and many more black women who do not de ne themselves as feminists have all experienced sexual oppression as a constant factor in our daytoday existence Economic oppression under capitalism What We Believe Black women are inherently valuable that our liberation is a necessity not as an adjunct to somebody else s but because of our need as human persons for autonomy They are socialists because the systems of capitalism and imperialism is designed to be oppressive There is little distinction between raceclass and sexual identity because all are attacked at the same time within their lives Problems in Organizing Black Feminists The major source of difficulty in our political work is that we are not just trying to ght oppression on one front or even two but instead to address a wole range of oppressions Black Feminist Issues and Projects One issue that is of major concern to us and that we have begun to publicly address is racism in the white women s movement Black Feminist Thought Knowledge Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment 1990excerpt Knowledge Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment One distinguishing feature of Black feminist thought is its insistence that both the changed consciousness of individuals and the social transformation of political and economic institutions constitute essential ingredients for social change Epistemological shifts Dialogue empathy and truth Black women s tenuous status in academic institutions led them to adhere their work to Eurocentric masculinists epistemologies so that their work would be accepted as scholarly ln establishing the legitimacy of their knowledge claims Black women scholars who want to develop Afrocentric feminist thought may encounter the often con icting standards of three key groups First Black feminist thought must be validated by ordinary African American women who in the words of Hannah Nelson grow to womanhood quotin a world where the saner you are the madder you are made to appearquot Second the thought must also be accepted by Black women scholars Thirs Afrocentric feminist thought within academia must be prepared to confront Eurocentric masculinists political and epistemological requirements African American women have a double consciousness and have to choose between their ancestry and there nationality The oppressed allegedly have a clearer view of the truth than their oppressors because they lack the blinders created by the dominant groups ideology Relativists perspective all groups produce specialized thought and each group s thought is equally valid September 4th Combahee rivers collective quotA Black Feminist Statementquot Combahee river South Carolina Harriet Tubman June 2 1863 Freed more than 750 slaves Only military campaingn run by a woman Harriet Tubman Intelligence in taking SC ports for the Union army Audre Lorde Barabra Smith Beverly Smith Cheryl Clarke Sharon Page Ritchie Margo Okazawa Rey Gloria Akasha Hull Cassie Alfonso Chirlane McGray Demitia Frazier Focused on ending oppression through the quotdestruction of the political economic systems of capitalism and imperialism as well as patriarchyquot Standpoint theory the view that different social amd historical situations give rise to very different group experiences and theories about those experiences Situated knowledge knowledge and ways of knowing that are speci c to a particular historical and cultural context and life Personal is political Subjugated knowledge knowledge generated from positions of subordination August 31 2015 1 Positive Vs Normative a Positive statements statements of empirical relationships ie If this then thatdoes not mean they are correct statements Analysis strictly limited to purely objective statements b Normative analysis involves value judgment regarding whether the outcome is good or bad almost always has should in them Ex Healthcare should be universally available The upper 1 should pay higher taxes Clark should end this lecture Economists are more interested in positive statements 2 The Concepts of Ef ciency there are two concepts of ef ciency 1 Productive Ef ciency producing goods at the lowest possible cost 2 Allocative Ef ciency distributing goods to people who value them the most 3 The Circular Flow of Income Diagram There are two units Households and Firms Firms give households there basic consuming units such as goods and services Households give rms basic producing units such as revenue This is a Spending Real Flow on goods physical units and services Consumer Spending 70 of the total spending in the US Investment Spending Government Spending Exports On the other side Firms also give Households money ow such as wages rents interest and income called economic resources Households give Firms Labor land capitol and Entrepreneurships Resource Market households are the supply and Firms are the demand resource prices Good Market household is the demand and Firms are the supply goods prices These two give rise to prices 3 Price Determination in Competitive Markets Characteristics of a competitive market 1 Markets that have many independentlv active buyers and sellers 2 Individuals households or rms have no control over market price quotMercy of the Marketquot or quotPrice Takersquot 3 freedom of entry onto and exit from the market 4 Homogeneous Products Demand the quantity of the good or resource that people are willing and m to buy at what prices during some speci ed time period Ceteris Paribus The Flow variable is measured Mr some time period Ceteris Paribus all other things being equal or constant The Law of Demand As the price of a good or resource decreases everything else being the same the quantity of the good or resource demanded increases vice versa Determinants of Demand 1 Price of good or resource in question 2 Buyers income 3 Tastes biological religious etc Advertising manipulates pathological behavior 4 Numbers of buyers in the market 5 Prices of related good or resources a substitutes ll the same need b complements used together 6 Buyers expectations about future prices and or future incomes Focus on 1 26 ceteris paribus September 2ml 1 Demand An Illustration The demand for eggs Price of eggs dozen Quantities of eggs demanded dozens per week 3 100 2 200 1 300 2 Changes in quantities demands Shown by movement along a given demand schedule Caused by changes in the price of the good or resource 3 Changes in demand Shown by shifts in a demand schedule Increase in demand gt rightward shift Decrease in demand gt leftward shift Suppose 1 buyers incomes increase a normal goods case increase in demand b inferior goods case decrease in demand cheap cuts of meat powdered milk 2 buyers expect higher future prices andor incomes 4 Supply buyers tastes change against the desirability of the good or resource quotweaker tastesquot Advertising campaign improve tastes 4 the price of a Substitute increases 5 6 number of buyers in the market increases the price of a complement increases the quantities of a good or resource that people are willing and able to some speci ed produce and offer for sale at various prices during time period ceteris paribus Determinates of Supply U39lbUUNH price of the good or resource in question costs of production technology number of sellers in the market seers expectations about future prices 25 assumed ceteris paribus General as the price of the good increases the quantities supplied increase ceteris paribus and vice versa Price of eggs dozen Quantities supplied dozens per week 3 300 2 200 1 100 Seers s intentions
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