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PSY 231 Notes 8/31-9/2

by: Morgan Bertalon

PSY 231 Notes 8/31-9/2 PSY 231

Marketplace > Illinois State University > PSY 231 > PSY 231 Notes 8 31 9 2
Morgan Bertalon
GPA 3.6
Research Methods Psychology
J. Cutting

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The notes for PSY 231 of week 3. Includes research methods/designs and a review of what to include when using APA style when writing a research paper.
Research Methods Psychology
J. Cutting
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Bertalon on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 231 at Illinois State University taught by J. Cutting in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Research Methods in Psychology Lecture 231 Notes 83192 Observational Methods 1 Advantages a Complex patterns of behavior in particular settings b Useful when little is known about subject of study c May learn about something that never would have been thought to look at experimentally 2 Disadvantages a Causality is a problem b Threats to internal validity due to lack of control i Every confound is a threat ii Lots of alternative explanations c Directionality of the relationships aren39t known d Sometimes results aren39t replicable Systematic Contrived Observation 1 Experiments 2 Introducing something to manipulate situation 3 Observer sets up situation that is observed a Observations of one or more speci c variables made in a precisely de ned setting b Much less global than naturalistic observations c Often takes less time d Behavior may change because it39s not a naturalistic setting Conducting Research 1 Types of research designs a What kinds of research questions are we investigating b Case Studies i Intensive study of small set of individuals and their behaviors c Correlational i Looking for cooccurrence relationship between 2 or more variables d Experimental i Investigating cause and effect relationships between 2 or more variables through manipulation of variables e Quasiexperimental i Experimental designs with one or more nonrandom variables 2 Case Histories Intensive study on single person very traditional method typically Descriptive nonexperimental Fits well with clinical work Disadvantage i Poor generalizability because you look at rare cases ii Typically large amount of possible confounding variables and alternative explanations 3 Correlational Methods apem d Measure 2 or more variables for each individual and see if variables cooccur Suggests they are related Used for i Predictions ii Evaluating theories iii Establishing reliability and validity 1 Reliability do you get the same result every time 2 Validity does it measure what it s supposed to Limitation shouldn39t make causal claims 4 Causal Claims a We39d like to say X causes Y b To do this i Must be covariation between the 2 variables ii Causal variable must come rst 1 Directionality problem a Happy people sleep well or does sleeping well make you happy iii Need to eliminate plausible alternative explanations 1 Third variable problem a Do storks bring babies b Neyman 1952 reported strong correlation between number or babies and stork sightings 2 Theory 1 Storks deliver babies a Is killing storks going to control birth rate 3 Theory 2 Underlying 3rCI variable a Storks reside on rooftops b Number of houses increase increase in families c More babies more storks 5 Experimental Method a b Manipulating and controlling variables in lab experiments Must have a comparison i At least 2 groups that get compared ii One group serves as control Variables i Independent variables 1 Variable that is manipulated 2 Allows for testing of hypothesis ii Dependent 1 Variable measured iii Control 1 Held constant for all participants in experiment Advantages i Precise control ii Precise measurement iii Theory testing possible iv Can make causal claims Disadvantages i Arti cial situations may restrict generalization to 39real world ii Complex behaviors can be dif cult to measure ReadingWriting in APA Styles The Literature 0 Misconceptions Writing a paper is just part of research process Just the facts What you say not how you say it is important 0 Reality Commit to evidence and conclusions Facts are part of argument author is making Good writing leads to higher chance of accomplishing your goals 0 Goal of Research Article 0 For reader to Know about research Understand what was done Be convinced by research 0 Standardization of research report format APA style Organization and content re ects logical thinking in scienti c investigation Standardization helps with clarity o Read with critical eye 0 Write with clarity in mind 0 Why Structured Format 0 To ease communication of what was done Forces minimal amount of information Provides logical framework for argument Provides consistent format within discipline 0 People know what to expect 0 Where to nd info in article Allows readers to crossreference your sources easily 0 Communicate with clarity Major Goal Clarity 0 Communicate with clarity Write for the reader Avoid overstatements Emphasize the positives Write about how data supports a theory instead of how it refutes another Communicate with clarity 0 Avoid 0 Jargon 0 Slang and colloquialisms o Sexistbiased language APA Style 0 Try to be concise 0 Don t overwrite o Longer paper not necessarily better 0 Eliminate redundancy when necessary 0 Use simple wordssentences 0 Check work 0 Use consistent format 0 APA Style 0 Helps understand argument 0 Helps keep track of sources in arguments 0 Basic parts Title page Abstract Body References Author39s notes Footnotes Tables Figure captions Figures 0 TitleAuthors Gives general idea of topic and who did it 0 Abstract Short summary of article 150200 words Problemissue Method Resu s Major conclusions Write after paper is nished Hourglass shape Broad to focused to broad again Most focused Methods Resu s Broad This is what information means Discussionsconclusions 0 Introduction Gives reader background that they need Issue and background 0 Why is this interesting Literature review 0 What theories are out there Statement of purpose o What are you going to do and why Speci c hypothesis 0 What do you predict will happen in research 0 Method Tells reader exactly what was done Enough detail that study could be replicated Subschons Participants who was data collected from ApparatusMaterials what was used to conduct study 0 Design if there is complex experimental design often combined with methods section 0 Procedure what did each participant do


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