Popular in Introduction to African and African-American Studies
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AFAM 2003 - 002 at University of Oklahoma taught by Prof. Graham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to African and African-American Studies in IAS at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
August 31 2015 Who are African Americans and how has their American experience shaped them The early discourse was that some people have no souls De Bios wanted everyone to know black people had souls The Antebellum and Postbellum reconstruction periods feature in the form of slavery and Jim Crow attempts to 1 bring into question the humanity of African Americans 2 bring into question their capabilities and worth as citizens Franchise right to vote 13th abolish slavery 14th equal citizenship 15th African American men the right to vote Antebellum the period before the Civil War Slavery Pstbellum the period following the Civl War This is the context in which the image of the African American becomes a problem The problematic standing of the African American in the Postbellum period issues from the following 1 the racial anxieties triggered in the aftermath of slavery and civil war 2 the failure of and abandonment of black reconstruction in the postwar South 3 the lingering question of what to do with the seemingly alien black population that did not meet the ideal of being American The effect on The Black Double Consciousnesss De Bois wants to suggest that acute awareness of their precarious standing in America produces in the black a psychological affect he labels quotdoubleconscious Double consciousness is when you see yourself from the point of view of people who look down on you When you realize that there is nothing wrong with you but something is wrong with those who see you that way you achieve a higher consciousness This is call quotpotentiated double consciousquot Doubleconsciouness represents a kind of alienation that the black experiences in the midst of a society antagonistic to hisher presence as human and consequently of ethical worth There is consequently aHenann From the wider society social alienation in the form of limited integration into the social order From the self individual alenation where the black is astranged from hisher self Heshe is confronted with the demand that heshe be the opposite of the American white ideal ie the she be African precieved negatively as black uncivilized cannibal etc Heshe is called upon abandon that negative identity for an ideal American identity that is largely beyond reach given its racial articulation Black Americans as a collective are duped into believing they are quotniggersquot Dubois suggests that African American have to hide their true selves in order to function in society African American have a second sight which means they are able to see America in a different way Double Consciousness Recall tat double consciousness consists of 1 acute awareness of how one is perceived by others 2 awareness of one s racial difference and of implications of that difference for one s standing as a human being and as a citizen Doubleconsciousness as Dubios presents it is premised on the assumption tgat the black experience an otherwise mundane part of being in the social world That of being regarded by others in a profound way 1 the black in the American context is torn between being American an aim which under the circumstances is most desired and being a person of African descent 2 The black must struggle with implication of the image that is expected of himher Fanon and quotthe fact of blacknessquot Frantz Fanon 19251961 offers insight into the anxieties and neurotic responses associated with what Dubois abes double consciousness Fanon describes doubleconsciousness as being aware of the body in the triple person I was responsible at the same time for my body for my race for my ancestors subjected myself to an objective examination I discovered my blackness my ethnic characteristics and I was battered down by tomtoms cannibalism intellectual de ciency fetishism racial defects slave ships and above all else above all Iquot quotSho good eatin The antiBlack world The world that gives rise to double consciousness and existing in the triple is an antiblack world In contrast with a white supremacists world the individual In the antiblack world does not strive so much to be white as heshe does not appear black In this framework any individual irrespective racial designation can harbor an antiblack disposition and display antiblack tendencies Yes black people too 1 the black grapples with over determination at the level of ontology over determination features a failure or collapse of the standard dialectic of Recognition that inform Human encounters The sum total of who one is is decided by some determining characteristic or the other Dialect of recognition in normal human encounters the subjectivity or consciousness of the other is recognized thereby making heshe a world of possibilities Simply heshe is recognized as human enter race into this case blackness The black nds that when race enters as a factor of consideration the dialectic of recognition collapses the black is deemed the absence of subjectivity Heshe is rendered as an object among other objects in the world consider the juxtaposition of the black with chattel during slavery or it will current mire subtle rendering for which heshe either the absence of consciousness or its severe lack 2 the black experiences as profound crisis as far as epistemology goes according to Fanon it appears that when he walks into a room Reason walk out The appearance of the Black signals the absence of positive categories like reason rationality civilization good competence etc consider what this means for those blacks who stake their claim to being part of the human family by evoking categories like reason and rationality Epistemic closure no rationality can change racist terminology Anti black rasicism exist alongside the extolling of the virtues of reason and rationality in the mind of the antiblack racist Consider for example Immanuel Kant o The appeal to reason as a means of dealing with racism is always going to be limited Anti black racism has its own internal rationality Confronted with this ontological and epistemological challenges to hishe being the black seeks solace in the realm of culture af rmation Negr ude Negritude was an aesthetic as well as political movement that emerged in France during the 19305 and spread thought the French colonial world Its maon proponents were the poets Aime Ceaire Leon Damas and Leopold Senghoh
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