Anthropology 33 - Lectures 8 & 9 (05/06/14-05/08/14)
Anthropology 33 - Lectures 8 & 9 (05/06/14-05/08/14)
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Date Created: 05/11/14
Lecture 8 050614 is there a difference between sex and gender o Gender has become a naturalized system of meaning c We assume that the standards are naturalbiological and they weren t created by people o Sex is based on actual anatomy while gender is the expression of masculinityfemininity o Roughly 15000 babies born ambiguously male or female o Subject to surgery ifthey don t t strict standards US Criteria for Gender Assignment since 2000s o Raise XX infants with functional ovaries as female o Raise XY infants as male unless external genitalia is more female and testes are dysfunctional a Raise infants with mixed gonadal tissue hermaphrodites as gender most consistent with external genitalia o Western world still does not separate gender from sex o Recently people have started speaking out about the issues with sexual reassignment Gender Dysphoria gender identity disorder o Con ict between person s physical sex and gender they identify as o People feel uncomfortable in the body they are labeled to have as infants Naturalizing SexGender o Masculine and feminine traits are thought to be natural due to this connection between gender and sex o Gender is a cultural practice not an actual thing o It colors our relationships and informs how we act and think o Learning to embody a certain gender allows us acceptance into society Gender Ideology shared tacit perceptions and feelings people have o Explain interpret justify and judge they way people are and act based on perceived gender 0 Ideologies shape practice but practice reproduces ideologies and keeps them as norm o Leads to extreme views about what is right or wrong standard malefemale roles Categories of Identity Asset or Liability 0 Gender categories help af rm understanding and acceptance by the community if you t gender norms o Also help af rm misunderstanding and lack of acceptance if you don t t gender norms Female De cit Model o Women s behavior is measured in terms ofthe norm which is male behavior o Females judged based on their differences relative to males o Markedness unmarked when differences go unnoticed o Ex All men created equal unmarked unless someone changes is to women Dual Cultural Model o lnteractional variation and worldview differ among men and women 0 Men are from mars women are from venus socialization Children to dress speak and act differently at a very young age Always get bullied or subtly pushed back into gender group if child acts out of norms Continued in next ecture Lecture 9 050814 Gender is everywhere o Not a thing but a technique for classifying and therefore controlling others 0 Process of categorization that divides people into groups to create differences that are neutral positive or negative 0 Only bad when used as a naturalized category that can explain what ought to be how the world should be Dual Cultural Model continued o Men and women are socialized differently and have different worldview and interactions 0 Ex boys are described as big and tough girls are described as gentle and beautiful 0 Children taught to play dress value things and speak differently by family and media 0 Robin Lakoffs women s anguage characteristic ways in which women speak 0 Tag questions nishing sentences with uncertain question words right Uptalking saying last word of sentence with lilt so it sounds like a question Hedges lters using ller words like um etc Empty quali ers using unnecessary emphasis words Oh totally that is soooo cute Vocal fry deepening of the voice and slowed speech Gossip talking about others when they are not actually there Equal turntaking more cooperative speech without interrupting OOOOOO Is this differentiation due to actual real life scenarios or is it due to the cultural script that makes it typical Law of Opposition categories are understood based on what they are not compared to something else o Similarly genders are differentiated by what femalesmales are not compared to the other gender The Script behavior of men and women is invariably read through a more general discourse on difference itself o Leads to stereotypes about the roles of men and women and the way they speak o Does not match up with what s really happening in society 0 Ex Men gossip about gay men to maintain their status as not gay 0 Ex Girls can be competitive rather than always cooperative and concerned about others 0 Rather than discourse deployed after the fact to explain difference the script actually produces that differentiation o Naturalization of stereotyping makes it true because that is all we know from the start Exclusion in Girls Peer Learning Groups o De es the previously believed notion that girls are cooperative 0 Shows that methodology for describing a gender uses individuals rather than looking at the social interactions Women s Language or Powerless Language a Not all women exhibit high frequency features in courtroom while some men actually do 0 Malefemale speech patterns are more catered toward social status in speci c contexts like a courtroom Sociobiological Model John L Locke 0 Men and women have radically different speech because they have different evolutionary needs o Men use antagonistic speech or duels to show offtheir strength and prove themselves to women 0 Women use quieter speech to bond with each other and protect themselves from aggressive men Dominance Model 0 Language maps onto power differences so that certain styles of speaking carry more status than others o Competency in these styles of speech allows entry into social elds 0 Success and acceptance in society is de ned by how well you can follow the standard or the script o Perpetuated through the reproduction of these ideologies often cast as moral through practice Bottom Line Models don t work to explain gender as socializing means of behavior and social interaction Instead they reinforce the script of difference These gender race and ethnic divisions have historical basis that have been naturalized into society Authority of historical institutions keeps reinforcing the gender stereotypes that we see today The Script on gender has informed and continues to re ect every institution in which we interact
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