Chapter 1 and 2 Notes
Chapter 1 and 2 Notes Psys 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexi Salvadore on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Darrell butler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Psys 100 Chapter 1 and 2 Notes Wundt 1879 Father of modern psychology First to create modern psychology laboratory With every change in the brain there will be a systematic change in consciousness Psychology is not Physiology It is the science of the mind William James Father of American Psychology In uenced by Darwin and rede ned psychology as the science of mind and behavior 1890 Created rst psychology book and became model for 40 years 20th century Psychological advances made the practice even better de ned than before It is still advancing today Psychology thinks of people in emotion also closely related to motivation cognition and behavior More focused on the mental aspects Physiology more focused on the physical aspects Goals of Psychology Describe human behavior predict understand control cognition emotion General goals are shared by all sciences Psychology is close to biology The focus on humans is shared by all social sciences Interests also overlap with computer science especially AI Arti cial Intelligence IBM is close with a question answering machine Psys 100 September 2 2015 Research methods in psychology Qualitative research designs Describing data What is qualitative research Describes relationship and interactions between variables Does NOT involve manipulation or controls of variables Not able to test Data are nonnumerical Words to describe data Surveys interviews observations Look for major themes that emerge from data Advantages can observe subject in natural environment Disadvantages cannot determine causation or eliminate quotthird variablequot problem Naturalistic Observation Watching and recording behavior of organisms in their natural environment Does not explain behavior39 describes it Nonparticipant or participant observation Non just watch and write down Participant engage with subject asking questions and such hard to remain objective Often used to describe how people act in social or cultural situations At work in classrooms etc Case Studies Used to study one individual in great depth for an extended period of time Usually done when an individual has a noteworthy or unusual condition The case of quotHMquot neuropsychology epileptic seizuers and went through brain surgery inability to form any new memories because of damage to temporal lobe or quotlittle Albertquot 11 month old baby and conditioned fear of white rats never unconditioned Can provide data about a unique phenomenon Data often leads to new hypotheses Descriptive data Nominal data Nomname Depicts gender or age Descriptive either you belong or don39t Ordinal data 1St place or 2nCI place Ordorder Depicted by bar graphs and histograms Quantitative research designs Systematic investigation of observable data using statistical or mathematical techniques Numerical values assigned to responses Score on depression scale reaction times percent correct volume length etc Variables CAN be manipulated experiments are controlled Advantages can be used to test hypothesis objective measurable Disadvantages does not occur in natural environment large samples needed Quantitative data Often depicted by bell curves Show distribution average and standard deviation after statistical analyses Can be skewed left tail to the left or right tail to the right Correlations Used to determine relationships between two variables Relationship between variables such as smoking and lung cancer Help researchers predict behavior consequences etc Correlation does NOT equal causation No manipulation or control of variables Depicted graphically by scatter plots Correlation coef cients Statistical measure of a relationship Describes how closely two variables vary together The extent to which one variable predicts a change in the other variable 000 no correlation 0104 weak correlation 05 moderate correlation 10 perfect correlation VERY VERY VERY RARE Positive negative and zero correlations Positive correlation as one variable increases the other increases up and to the right Negative correlation as one variable increases the other decreases down and to the left Zero correlation no relationship between variables no correlation whatsoever Denoted by or H sign in front of correlation Reliability and Validity Important concepts in scienti c research Implications for generalizability retesting ReHabH y Refers to the consistency of a measurement Will I get the same results each time I run the experiment Validity Refers to the accuracy of a measurement Am I measuring what I set out to measure Many types of reliability and validity Main types of reliability Test retest The extent to which a participant receives the same score after taking the same test on two different occasions Alternateparallel forms Test two forms of the the same construct with different groups Splithalf Calculate score for even and odd questions High score on even should also score high on odd Interrater Two different observers rate same behavior rating should be similar in reliable Cronbach alpha Measures internal consistency of test Types of validity Construct Are we really measuring what we want to measure lnternal Ability to draw conclusions about casual relationships External Generalizability of results Face Does the test look like it measures what it I supposed to measure Congruent Used when there is a new measure and an old measure if you score high on established you should also score high on new Criterionrelated Related to external nontest criterion Does the SAT measure success in college Concurrent Measuring a predictor SAT and criterion GPA at the same time Convergent Two separate measures from same construct