Chapter 1 and 2 Notes
Chapter 1 and 2 Notes Psys 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexi Salvadore on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Darrell butler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
PSYS 100 Chapter 1 and 2 notes Chapter 1 Introduction to the science of psychology The world of psychology an overview lntro Psychology the science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare Positive Psychology the focus on the things that make life most worth living Sub elds of Psychology Cognitive psychologists study basic mental processes such as sensation and perception learning and memory judgement decision making and problem solving Biological Psychologists physiological psychologistsneuroscientists study topics such as relationship of genes and brain chemistry to mental disorders how brain cells communicate with each other in forming memories whether certain patterns of brain activity can reveal that a person is lying and how stress hormones weaken the body s immune system Personality Psychologists Study individuality Developmental psychologists Study and describe changes in behavior and mental processes over the life span in order to understand their causes and effects Explore areas such as development of thought friendship patterns parenting styles and whether everyone must face a midlife crisis Quantitative psychologists Develop and use statistical tools to analyze vast amounts of information generated by research results from all of psychology39s sub elds Clinical Counseling and community psychologists Study the causes of behavior disorders and offer services to help troubled people overcome these disorders Clinical have Ph D degrees in psychology Counseling work as a mental health counselor with Ph D or master39s degree Community offer psychological services to the homeless and those who need It but don39t seek it Educational psychologists Conduct research and develop theories about teaching and learning School psychologists Study the ways that people in uence one another Industrial and organizational psychologists Study leadership stress competition pay and other factors that affect the ef ciency productivity and satisfaction of workers and the organizations that employ them Explore ways to increase employee motivation and help companies select the best new workers Health psychologists study the effects of behavior on health and the impact of illness on behavior and emotion Sport psychologist search for the keys to maximum athletic performance Forensic psychology assist in jury selection evaluate defendants sanity and mental competence to stand trial and deal with other matters involving psychology and the law Engineering psychologists human factor psychologists study interactions between human beings and the computers telephones and other machines they use Environmental psychologists study the effects of the environment on people39s behavior and mental processes Linkages within psychology and beyond Linked to other disciplines Linked when research in one discipline is applied in another A Brief history in psychology Roots in philosophy with icons such as Aristotle Plato and Socrates Empiricism 160039s John Locke George Berkeley David Hume Challenged the long accepted claim that some of our knowledge is present at birth Empiricists argued that our minds are more like blank slates knowledge only comes to us through our experiences and observations Wundt and the Structuralism of Titchener Birth date of modern scienti c psychology 1879 Wilhelm Wundt created rst formal psychology research lab University of Leipzig in Germany Wundt wanted to study consciousness with his lab The mental experience that arises from these systems Transformed from the philosophy to the science of mental processes Wanted to describe the basic elements of consciousness Edward Titchener Englishman who studied under Wundt Used introspection in his own lab at Cornell University to study sensations feelings and images associated with conscious experience Structuralism approach because he was trying to de ne the structure of consciousness Gestalt psychology 1912 Max Wertheimer Kurt Koffka Wolfgang Kohler Argued against the value of trying to break down human experience or consciousness into its component parts Gestalt psychologists Pointed out that the whole shape of conscious experience is not the same as the sum of its parts Freud and psychoanalysis Physician in Vienna Austria Late 188039s Question the assumption that biological factors were behind all behavior and mental processes including illnesses Believed that all behavior from everyday slips of the tongue to severe forms of mental disorder could be traced to psychological processes especially to internal con icts that he said take place without our being aware of them
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