Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes HSC 308
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ana Lossing on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 308 at Central Michigan University taught by Micah Zuhl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Physiology of Sport and Exercise in Nursing and Health Sciences at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week 1 Lecture Notes The Nervous System and Exercise Note A star means something is important The Nervous System NS Central Nervous System CNS Peripheral Nervous System PNS composed of the Further divided into Brain Somatic N31 Autonomic NS and Voluntary Sympathetic Parasympathetic Skeletal NS N33 Spinal Cord MUSC39G For more information on each division see below 1 The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord This is where information is stored and processed 2 The PNS is anything outside of the brain and spinal cord eg sensory and motor nerves The PNS contains two separate divisions 1Somatic and 2Autonomic Both of these divisions contain both afferent sensory and efferent motor components efferent information exits the spinal cord 1 Somatic NS Voluntary Skeletal Muscle External Sensory Organs Mainly the skin touch external temperature pressure etc 2 Autonomic NS Includes Visceral Motor and Sensory Visceral Internal eg organs and blood vessels a Sympathetic NS Fight or flight response Prepares the body for action Increases heart rate blood pressure blood flow to muscles metabolic rate b Parasympathetic NS Slows everything down Prepares the body for rest Increases digestion decreases heart rate Week 1 Lecture Notes A What are the important regions of the CNS for exercise 1 Primary Motor Cortex PMC In a UtSheH Primary Motor CortexVoluntary a Primary Function Voluntary Fine Motor Control Motor Control b Structure Cell bodies of the PMC in the frontal lobe brain axons form the corticospinal tract in the spinal cord 0 Coordinates with Premotor and Supplementary Motor Cortices for initiation of movement and bimanual involving both sides movement respectively In a nutshell 239 Pr39mary Sensory cortex Primary Sensory Cortex Sensory a Primary Function External Sensory In a nutshell DiencephalonzSensory Relay and Homeostasis 3 Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus a Thalamus i Primary Function Relay center for afferent sensory information lnfo comes in to thalamus from the periphery and is sent to the appropriate CNS structures b Hypothalamus In a nutshell Basal Ganglia Movement 4 BasaI Gang a Il lhibi tiOl l and Repetition i Primary Function Maintains homeostasis a Primary Function Repetitive movement and inhibition of locomotion Implication in Tic Disorders such as Tourette s and in Parkinson s posture control In a nutshell 5 Cerebellum CerebellumCoordination a Primary Function Coordination and fine tuning of movement timing and sequence of movement 6 Brain Stem a Primary Function Relays information between the brain and the spinal cord b Multiple Components from top to bottom i Midbrain mesencephalon vision hearing motor control ii Pons respiration relay center for cerebellum iii Medulla Oblongata Cardiorespiratory function vasomotor dilation constriction of blood vessels In a nutshell Brain StemRelay Cardiorespiratory vasomotor Week 1 Lecture Notes iv Reticular Formation important for function and tone of skeletal muscle small role in cardiorespiratory control v Analgesia System Pain regulation opiate receptors B Sensory Division of the PNS 1 Transmits info from the periphery to the brain primarily to the Primary Sensory Cortex via the Thalamus 2 There are multiple types of receptors but two which are primarily important for this course a Muscle Spindles i Primary Function Detect stretch or length of muscle Don t contain actin and myosin so they can not contract ii Protective purpose If muscle stretches to a certain point spindles send information to CNS and cause a contraction b Golgi Tendon Organs i Primary Function Detect contraction of muscletendon complex ii Protective Purpose Inhibit excess stress on muscle to prevent tearing In a nutshell lluscle Spindles detect stretch Golgi Tendon Organs detect contraction C Activating a Muscle 1 Information flow through neurons Dendrites Cell Body Axon Electrical Synaptic Chemical Terminal Dendrites Cell Body Axon Electrical 3 Synaptic Terminal Week 1 Lecture Notes 2 Transmission within a neuron down the axon occurs via an Action Potential AP This is electrical transmission a In a motor neuron the action potential travels between the nodes of ranvier the breaks in the myelin sheath which encases the axon to accelerate transmission This type of transmission from nodetonodesatatory conduc on he 5 Phases of the Action Potential i Rest Resting Membrane Potential 70 mV is maintained by NaK Pump which pumps 3 Na out and 2 K in ii Threshold Stimulus acts on neuronal membrane at axon hiock causing membrane potential to reach threshold iii Depolarization As threshold is reached voltagesensitive Na channels open Na rushes into the cell iv Repolarization Na channels close and K channels open K leaves ce v Hyperpolarization Additional K leaves causing membrane potential to move beyond resting potential This creates the refractory period The short period after an AP in which it is impossible or difficult to cause the neuron to fire In a nutshell The 5 Phases of an Action Potential Rest Threshold Depolarization Repolarization Hyperpolarization 97th 0 What s this stimulus that causes an action potential i graded potential a localized change in membrane potential cause APs if they reach threshold 3 How about neuron to neuron transmission a Occurs at synaptic junctioncleft b ChemicasNeurotransmitters nts i The main nts for exercise are 1 Acetylcholine ACh muscle contraction and mediation of parasympathetic NS Week 1 Lecture Notes 2 Norepinephrine NE mediation of sympathetic NS c What happens Step 1 Higher brain areas initiate eg PMC Other areas including brain stem modulate the signal Step 2 Signal generated in cell bodies in cortex travels in the form of an AP down the corticospinal tract through the spinal cord Step 3 Corticospinal tract axons synapse with motor neurons in the spine releasing glutamate to activate them Step 4 Glutamate causes the spinal motor neuron s membrane to depolarize Step 5 Depolarization triggers an AP This AP travels down axon of the motor neuron Step 6 AP reaches synaptic terminal Ca channels open and influx of Ca causes vesicles in the terminal to release nts into the neuromuscular junction These nts will excite the muscle and create a contraction but we ll get into that more in a later section In a nutshell initiation by cortex Modulation AP travels down spinal cord Corticospinal neuron activates motor neuron with glutamate Motor neuron depolarizes AP travels down motor neuron axon Motor neuron releases neurotransmitters into neuromuscular junction QPWNT 4 The more complex the movement the higher the control center a For example walking which is fairly simple is controlled by the Reticulospinal RS and Mesencephalic Locomotor Region MLR in the brain stem i 4 Steps of Locomotion walkingrunning 1 InitiationAcceleration from RS or MLR 2 Adjusted by input from Basal Ganglia inhibition or PMC fine tuning to RS or MLR 3 Signal travels down spinal cord 4 Locomotion occurs Week 1 Lecture Notes b More complex movements such as coordinating the mouth for speech are controlled by the Primary Motor Cortex 5 Central Pattern Generators CPG a Generate movement without input from the cortex Control center in the lumbosacral lower spinal cord 6 Neural Adaptations a Practice makes perfect Practice also fine tunes our neural circuitry and muscle recruitment The more you repeat a movement pattern eg in physical training the more focused the recruitment pattern This leads to greater efficiency in the activity i Highly trained athletes will have more efficient recruitment of muscles than a novice athlete This leads to more efficient energy usage
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