Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Quinnolyn Benson-Yates on Sunday May 11, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 05/11/14
Thursday May 8 2014 Biopsychology Week 6 Lecture 9 Cognitive Neuroscience See lecture slides for grade distributions Correlation bt score in midterm and score on final is pretty high people tend to do about the same final NOT cumulative worth 55 of grade Cognitive Neuroscience Brain localized amp connected neural activity within scientific domain of neuroscience Brain a measure of brain activity EEG single cell recordings action potentials Manipulation brain surgical removal removing parts of the brain seeing how that eventually changes behavior mind mental processes and representations within the scientific domain of cognitive psychology Exactly how do we represent these things in our mind What s in our mind s eye How does our mind work and bring out behaviors Mind measure of a mental event behavioral output ie reaction time after seeing a visual target manipulate a mental event behavioral task or stimulus event memorization tasks Cognitive Psychology The goal how does the brain give rise to the mind a relatively recent field of study since 1980 s Michael Gazzaniga came up with name of cognitive neuroscience made his name studying split brain patients study of neuroscience had been around for a long time study action potentials connections bt parts of brain but it wasn t grounded in theoretical frame work how Thursday May 8 2014 the mind works and cognitive psychology thought about what pats of the brain turns into what kinds of behavior he needed to put these two things together Different techniques used to learn different things Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience Animal Studies to understand how a task presented to an animal caries out memory rat maze etc shows manipulation of a mental event can at the same time study the output of the brain activity single cell electrical recording which is a measure of brain activity ex Understanding visual processing electrodes in visual processing showed where in the brain the monkey registered a dot of light Could also manipulate some measure in the brain that outputs a new behavioral event so you manipulate brain and measure a behavioral output ie they lesioned part of brain in rats that makes dopamine then gave them I dopa and measured levels of activity and behavior controlled way of looking at the cause effect bt brainmind Advantages can obtain both direct measurements of brain activity and direct manipulations of brain activity allow cause and effect inferences disadvantages extrapolating from an animal mind to a human mind many of these techniques are invasive and cannot be used with humans Patient Studies Human brain damage manipulation of brain damage to a localized brain region stroke measure of a mental event see behavioral output damage to Broca s area led to inability to produce language Tan damage to inferior temporal lobe led to an inability to recognize objects damage to fusiform face area led to an inability to recognize faces Brain localization the concept that specific brain regions are responsible for various types of experience behavior and psychological processes Thursday May 8 2014 Lesions surgery tumors or focal injury Broca s aphasics focal injuries damage to a very specific region of the brain that leads to very specific impairments of cognitive function Diseases and developmental disorders Alzheimer s patients build up of plaques throughout brain Special cases splitbrain patients Case Studies the effect of the damage on cognition is observed in a single patient Group Studies the effect of the damage on cognition is observed across multiple patients and the area associated with a particular impaired function is assessed by the overlapping region of damage Broca discovered in the autopsies of these Broca aphasia patient had damage in left prefrontal gyrus studied overlap of damage signs double dissociations a method used to develop functional models of mental and neural processes It occurs when one group is impaired on one task and the other group is impaired on the other task This provides a strong argument that the observe differences in performance reflect functional differences bt the groups rather than unequal sensitivity of the two tasks advantages direct link bt the brain and the mind disadvantages the manipulation of the brain is uncontrolled the damage cannot be specified as it can be in animal studies results can be very confounded Neuroimaging studies a measure of brain activity fMRl functional magnetic resonance imaging PET positron emission tomography scanning measures metabolic activity in the brain by monitoring the distribution of a radioactive tracer The PET scanner measures the photons that are produced during the decay of the tracer isotope tracer can see where blood is flowing to Brain local change in metabolism local change in blood flow seen by fMRl measures blood flow Thursday May 8 2014 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Imaging technique that exploits the magnetic properties of organic tissue Hydrogen ions within the tissues are polar and they generally align with the magnetic field When a radio frequency pulse is transmitted through the tissue it knocks the hydrogen ions off their spin The ions then process back into alignment This procession can be measured and different tissues have different rates of procession different relaxation rates and magnetic properties NO METAL gray vs white matter have different magnetic rates too Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI this technique works the same way as MRI but exploits the magnetic properties of blood instead of tissue Deoxygenate blood has different procession of properties than oxygenated blood and the signal from the difference in this ratio is called the BOLD boodoxygen level dependent signal BOLD is directly related to localized cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption BOLD can be sampled rapidly but it is sluggish 6 seconds in its response to neural activity whole brain is always active but certain tasks increase activity in certain areas BOLD activations ratio of oxygenated vs deoxygenated Activity is always occurring throughout the whole brain so in order to detect changes one must subtract images during a control condition from images during an experimental condition Very high spatial resolution advantages neural activities in normal brain localize specific cognitive processes high spatial resolution disadvantages indirect measure of neural activity poor temporal resolution Not looking directly at neural activity change in metabolism and change in blood flow Also fMRI has poor temporal resolution takes 510 seconds for blood to peak while neural activity occurs in milliseconds
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