Geo. of TX, Lecture (Aug 31 - Sept 4)
Geo. of TX, Lecture (Aug 31 - Sept 4) GEO 3329-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selina Quick on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 3329-001 at Texas State University taught by Donald Huebner in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Geography of Texas in Geography at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Geography of Texas Fall 2015 August 31st September 4th READ The Climgte of Texas 2004 TX AampM 0 Texas lies within the cool and warm parts of the Temperate Zone of the Northern Hemisphere 0 There are 3 major climate types TX High Plains Typically found inland has daily temperature extremes low relative humidity and irregular rainfall when rain does fall it s in moderate amounts Semiarid with mild winters 39 Guadalupe Davis and Chisos Mountains TransPeco region Cooler temperatures low relative humidity Orographic precipitation anomalies when air is forced up into higher altitudes it often cools down rapidly Cool air cannot retain water as easily causing the production of clouds and rain Air is less dense Caused by predominant onshore ow of tropical maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico air is blowing inland from the coast Onshore ow is altered by reduced moisture content as it travels from East to West and comes in contact with continental air 4 types they change in moisture content with the Northward ow of air 0 Humid O Subhumid O Semiarid O Arid READ Pioneer Evaluation of Vegetation in Frontier Texas by Terry G J ord L02 TX Tech Press 0 It is popular belief that the grasslands were not appropriate for settling however Southern AngloAmericans were the group that prefer wooded areas to grassy O O plains The Great Plains by Walter Prescott Webb describes grasslands as hostile and forbidding states that people of grasslands would have to lead drastically different lives from those living in forests because their lives would present unique challenges or where trees are spaced far enough apart to allow small fields of grass to show good for settling in wooded areas O Indian agriculture plots that were abandoned during their migration Early European settlers would use these during pioneer days 0 run East to West Coastal Prairies of Texas I Types of Prairie or rolling uplands O hogwallow prairies indents in earth s surface that would measure 1 to 2 deep and 3 to 8 wide believed to be caused by migrating bison I large fields tall grass 0 Often next to streams e g Colorado Brazos Red and Trinity Rivers 0 J onesborough Prairie is an example 0 2 belts of forest stretching across North Central Texas from Red River to Brazos River I Where rolling hills prairies and timbers all meet and mingle I Stunted oaks often grow here giving it the nickname I Oakjuniper oakmesquite pecan cypress etc can all be found here I Trees are presented in isolated groves or islands also called mottes or woods I a projection of timber into a prairie I small narrow belts of trees that ran parallel to rivers and streams I a dominant use of timber in house barn church school jail and other various building constructions during pioneer days found often around Texas READ 20 Centurv Changes in Texas Landscapes and Land Uses bv DJ Schmidly 2002 TX Tech Press 0 Written accounts of Texas Landscape I Bailey and team of field agents 1880s I Delweniger 1984 and 1997 I Robin Doughty 1983 0 Certain changes have occurred naturally e g varied daily and seasonal weather short and longterm shifts in what species inhabit a certain region 0 Some changes have been the product of human activity such as farms agriculture ranching logging fires and urban construction 0 Arid and semiarid regions are the most susceptible to humanmade damage 0 Rivers are the most threatened water source in Texas every major river basin in Texas has been impounded by dams there are roughly 6000 small dams used to water livestock 0 Texas originally had 281 major freshwater springs that provided wildlife and fish habitats as well as power for mills and resources for medical treatment these springs have decreased in number because of forest clearing heavy pasture grazing well drilling and surface reservoir construction Texas has 7 major and 3 minor estuarine systems all located along the Gulf Coastline 0 or is a tree that was brought from Eurasia and heavily planted in the West to control erosion levels I This species has infested over 1 million acres of land and displaced native 0 hardwoods I Provides little forage and requires large amounts of water 0 introduced as an economic move harvested for seed oil I Major cause of coastline converting from prairie to woodlands O make up less than 5 of Texas I 2 major types I marshes estuaries bottomland hardwoods forests shrubswamps marshes and lakes makes up 80 of the Texas wetlands I TX has lost about one 12 of coastal wetlands and 60 of terrestrial inland wetlands in the last 20 years I Reduction of wetlands have been caused by saltwater intrusion canal construction land subsidence groundwater depletion inadequate freshwater in ows and pollution I TX has lost 63 of bottomland forests to reservoir development timber clearing and land use 0 Overgrazing and efforts to suppress wildfires have caused an increase in mesquite cedar scrub oak and prickly pear O Overgrazing has also reduced the amount of coolseason grasses allowing weedy plants and shrubs to take over I With less vegetation arroyo cutting is more common I deepened river beds caused by erosion creates elevation variation 0 native vegetation becomes smaller and discontinuous because of land clearing agricultural residential or commercial use 0 is becoming a desert shrubland there has been an increase in noxious plant and animal species in the area I Air pollution has reduced visibility in the region by 60 and impacted rainfall levels negatively O small wetland with closed watershed September 1 2015 Terrain and Geomorphology or the study of the origin and development of landforms Elevation In Texas elevation rises from the coastal plain to the North West Base level for all rivers in Texas is the Gulf of Mexico O Extends into Texas from the East 0 One of the largest provinces has an interior boundary at the Balcones Escarpment 0 Elevation is usually below 1000 feet with a gradient of about 10ftmile O lay along the coast Mustang Padre South Padre Matagorda Galveston and San Jose islands 0 freshwater swamps with cypress trees special roots allow them to grow underwater 0 Numerous rice fields introduced with irrigation geese stop here to eat during migration O Extends from US lowlands e g Oklahoma 0 Elevation varies from 1000 to 2200 feet stops at the Cap Rock Escarpment O or deep red soil that erodes easily eroded down to base level where bedrock is exposed and eventually the erosion can only expand by getting wider about 20 miles Southeast of Lubbock TX 0 Composed of hard calcium carbonate land is unable to be tilled O Centerpivot irrigation used here for farming or Ocean of Grass 0 Extends from Mexico to Canada 0 Local relief elevation change isn t significant here except in stream or river valleys 0 or found in panhandle region calcium carbonate slowly deteriorates when exposed to water overtime and causes depressions to form in the surface of the ground these fill during times of rainfall and are useful for herding or as minimal water resources 0 Massive accumulation of cretaceous limestone O Bounded on the East and West by Balcones Escarpment extends west toward the Pecos River 0 Stream erosion caused by well drilling streams can be recharged by rainfall but wells have reduced the pressure in the streams 0 Elevation 850 feet to 4000 feet cavernous or numerous caves I Porous limestone aquifers found here 0 O I Hamilton Pool is an example Attracted hill folk from Arkansas our elevation changes look similar to those found in the Midwest its often called the Texas Appalachia OOOOOO Little level land 500 to 1000 ft local relief Stair step topography Rocky mountain maple pines etc pinus remota Pedernales River amp Falls limestone is tilted because of escarpment erosion Steams cut deeply into the limestone by eroding away sediment causes hills West dryer hills are atter because there is less rainfall therefore less erosion in this area Central Mineral Region or Llano Basin Also known as the deer capital of Texas Geographic center of the state of Texas Large exposure of Precambrian rocks Enchanted Rock is found here where rock has been exposed for 60 million years Granite Quarries hilly rolling terrains Structurally high but topographically low risen limestone with topsoil eroded away to expose minerals beneath a type of limestone found here caused by carbonate minerals precipitating in the water and around plant life or Desert Seas O 3 major mountain ranges here 39 Guadalupe Mrs a promising fossil reef 0 Has large amounts of sedimentary rock that produce layers of sediment I Davis Mrs Volcanic Mountain 0 Known for its sleeping lion formations made of numerous columnar or columnshaped rocks 0 Orographic rise that produces unique ecosystems and terrains 39 Chisos Mrs Volcanic Mountain 0 South Rim Trail can see Rio Grande and Mexico from this trail part of Big Bend National Park 0 Sedimentary layers of rock 0 volcanic ash solidifies when it falls and sticks together while it s still hot Easy to carve 0000 Borders the river Brownsville McAllen Harlingen Subtropical climate hot and humid South Texas Brush Country Little local relief elevation change low elevations 0 Habitat protection has increased population numbers for Rio Grande Turkey species mixed agriculture and vegetation defined above Red soil is found here often means soil is rich in iron deposits a dry riverbed channel found in the Rio Grande Valley difficult to set political boundaries with geographical landmarks e g rivers can shift 0 Early settlers were more accurate with descriptions but had fewer regions than we 0000 do today 0 AngloAmericans had 3 regions I Level I Rolling or Undulating Hilly or Mountainous
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