Week Three Notes: French and Dutch Caribbean
Week Three Notes: French and Dutch Caribbean History 370
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week Three Notes French and Dutch Caribbean Katie Albritton Study Soup The Colonial French Caribbean Around 100 years after the Spanish Renaissance France Wealthy cultivated Successful agriculture 2rld largest population in Europe Russia first 3rd largest area Poland Italian art architecture music University of Paris leads in theology Conservative spawns Jesuits Country Catholic but edgy less Orthodox Rabelais Gargantua Calvin France does what it wants French unification expansion civil wars Louis XII Spider King r 14981515 Acquires Brittany official union in 1534 Franche Comt Charles VIII 1494 Francois I 1525 invade Italy HabsburgValois Wars Claims to Duchy of Milan Leonardo da Vinci to France Merchants printers fund voyages Verrazano 1524 No need for overseas war Jacques Catrier three trips 15341542 St Lawrence River Lost settlement found in 2006 Wars of religion 15621589 Calvinists v Guise v Crown Catholics Massacre of St Bartholomew39s Day 1572 Empire explorations Long delay due to Lack of interest Wars in Italy Civil Wars Desire to reach eastern luxuries Desire to challenge or inherit Spain Eventual success as enormous industrial power HaitiSt Dominique Most profitable colony in the world Canada West Africa Indochine Polynesia Suits France39s natural superiority Mission civilatrice Civilizing mission Want their subjects to love them Piracydiscovery wars against Spain Verrazano voyage 1524 Early map of N American coast Landfall at Cape Fear Faire Pamlico Sound as route to China Verrazano narrows NYC Francois I somewhat interested But invades Italy 1525 Captured by Charles V Fight Spain until 1559 Marriage end HabsburgValois War Navarre and Margot Philip II and Elisabeth Attacks on Spanish ships Attempts at settlements Florida 1562 S Carolina 1562 Chased off by Spain Trade Trading Companies Trade usury banned by Catholic tradition Increasingly ignored Legal society snobbery in France Derogeance Lost noble status for trading or manufacturing Entire family became declasse Richelieu lifts derogeance in 1628 For overseas trade shipbuilding War v Spain again 16351648 Colbert finance minister creates trading companies Modeled after Netherlands UK Compagnie de Chine 1660 Compagnies de I39Orient Madagascar Compagnie des Indes 1664 Numerous successors Success elusive Lots of ship building navy growth Never succeeded in France as much as in the Netherlands and the UK 1684 embassy to trade with Thailand Canada Cartiers voyage for reconnaissance Spain claimed entire new world Samuel de Champlain 15741635 As a young man he traveled to the Spanish West Indes Provided a report for Henry IV Geographer to royal court 16011603 Pope Alexander VI splits New World halfway between Spain and Portugal Trip to St Lawrence 1603 Trip to Acadia 16051607 Explores to Cape Cod Founded Quebec City in 1608 Funded by merchant Pierre Dugas Back and forth mostly lived in Quebec Wife returns to France joins a convent Some hostilities with western Oneida Indians Begins Quebec wall 1624 Presides over agricultural fur trade establishment Spanish Vulnerability in the Caribbean Winds current keep Spaniards in Greater Antilles Silver running out in 1620 Expensive wars v England 15851604 v Dutch 15661609 16191648 v France 15251559 30 Years War 16191648 Catalan Rebellion 16401642 Portuguese Rebellion 1640 1659 Massive exodus to mainland Mexico Peru St Kitts 1625 Pierre d39Esnambuc settles 1625 Defeated by Spaniards English allows him to stay at St Kitts Had arrived in 1624 French English coexist 16271702 UK annexed in 1702 French again at St Christophe Hold for awhile Louisiana Great Lakes exploration from Quebec Sieur de la Salle Mississippi River Arr New France 1666 Portage Niagara Falls 1679 Martinique and Guadeloupe Pierre d39Esnumbac to Martinique 1635 Richelieu established 1636 Compagnie de S Christophe To colonize the region Fort de France Martinique Fortified in 1638 Then to Guadeloupe St Lucia Grenada Islands Carib skirmish Compagnie des Lles de L39Amerique 1642 Guadeloupe more hospitable than Martinique Often attacked by British Martinique as dumping ground for Huguenots Tortuga and Haiti Deserters renegades at Tortuga 1639 Kill deserted Spanish cattle Learn barbecue Sell to ships boucaniers Couples Matellotage Two men share a hut Some move to mainland Haiti Far from Santo Domingo Spain does not dislodge Fr Appoint governor 1641 St Domingue granted 1697 Small plantations Sugar and coffee African slaves introduced Larger plantations Coffee grown up hillsides 18th c Worlds most profitable colony French Slave code Most gentle Promotes marriage Once free you have full rights as citizens Buccaneers Mostly French Tortuga Haiti Louisiana coast World eventually be primarily English The Dutch Caribbean 15th century low countries politics Wealthy urban area Italy the other one Loose confederation of provinces Common language heritage Duke of Burgundy assembling provinces Court at Brussels Expanding toward Switzerland Italy Charles the Bold dies in battle 1477 Territories divided Mary of Burgundy as only heir French Comte back to France Salic Law Most provinces to Maximillian via marrriage Rule from Vienna very loose relaxed nonexistant Holy Roman Empire Flourish financially culturally religiously Maritime Tradition Herring fisheries Communal ownership Pickling techniques Trying to break into Hansa Hanseatic League Carrying trade in the North Sea Wool trade with England Reclaiming land polders Trade centers at Bruger Antwerp Eventually Amsterdam Tradition of pleasure boating Rare worldwide Ambitious good engineers 60 Years War the Dutch Republic Provinces come to Spain by inheritance Mary Maximillian39s grandson Charles V Charles divides empire Low Countries to his son Philip II Tradition of religious freedom Many dissenters from Zurich Jews from Spain Egmont Hoorn petition Philip to avoid inquisition 1563 Council of Troubles 1565 Inconclasmrebellion 1566 War 15661609 William as militia leader figurehead Identity gradually becomes Protestant England supports secretly Wm assassinated 1584 England supports overtly Truce 1609 Spain overextended Reemerges as 30 Year39s War 16191648 Dutch Republic emerges as strong wealthy progressive Dutch make money during 30 Years War Spain does not Dutch Golden Age Site of Northern Renaissance New scholarship education More religious than Italian Ren Only republic in Europe Venice Oligarchy Still somewhat declasse VOC Asian Empire Amsterdam first boursse in Europe Limited Liability Corporations Investors not responsible for debt VOC trade company chartered in 1602 HeaVily capitalized Most successful preindustrial business Jan Huyghen Van Linschoten Sailing instructions to Asia 1593 Glover Noort circumnavigation 159697 Around the world Hendrik Brouwer Roaring 4039s to Sundra Strait 1611 Hugo Grotius writes about freedom of the seas then monopolies ends justify means VOC as quasimilitary Jan Pieterzson Coer seizes Jakarta 1619 Huge financial success Underselling the British spices Chinese goods Started in West Africa Fortified Factory West India Company Imitates success of VOC VOC hires Henry Hudson to explore route to China Had sailed for the English Icebound in Arctic brings walrus carcass Veers off to America seeks NW Passage Hudson River Hudson Bay Set adrift by own men 1611 WIC West India Company Chartered 1621 Not heaVily capitalized Huge debates in Estates General Trade or war Resume war with Spain War 1621 Which religion will triumph Goal Some type of success in AmericaCaribbean Trade Settlements Attack Spanish ships if at war Piet Heyn 14771629 Seized the entire Spanish eet at Matanzas Bay 1628 Took all of the silver Huge profit for investors Hein is a hero financial depression in Spain New Netherlands Most Dutch colonies for trade alone Fortified factory no women or families Some settlements New Netherlands Guiana South Africa Try to find place with no Spaniards Follow Grotius on freedom of the seas England also settle where Spain has not claimed Hudson describes Hudson valley as subtropical Minut on Long Island Manhatten New Amsterdam Fort Orange Albany Fur trade Hudson Valley Dutch famous for cheating Indian trapper Get them drunk take back furs and money and alcohol Violent reprisals Long Island and Albany settlements promising Brazil Angola Most ambitious WICfunded project Assisted by navy and government Portugal in Brazil since 15001530 Huge sugar plantations African slave trade Portugal ruled by Spain 15801640 Portuguese defenses neglected Dutch at war with Spain 16191648 Dutch attack Portugal in South Africa Asia Macau attacked 1622 Melaka taken 1641 Northern Brazil occupied 16241642 Maranhao to Recife Portuguese migration South Dutch learn to grow sugar Portuguese retake Brazil 1642 Carrying trade Transport others goods Tradition in North Sea thwarted in the Baltic Tradition of commissioning merchant vessels for war Shipyards build and sell Even to Spain Free Ports St Eustache Saba Sint Maarten Most government run on customs duties Merchantilist policies develop Goal Amass higher percent of scarce wealth High tariffs to reduce competition Government feels like they have a role Free trade unimaginableuntil Adam Smith Wealth of Nations 1776 Dutch victimized by other tariffs In selling carrying Why not create free ports All three islands governed by WIC Free port status declared in 1756 Suggests that the Dutch permit contraband trading basically true Become locus of smuggling arms dealing during Atlantic Revolutions ABC Islands Early Spanish settlement sparse Island of the Giants Caquetios Arawaks Coracao taken by Dutch 1635 All three soon occupied Harass shipping from the Spanish main Spanish build Armada do Barlouvento WIC founds Willemstad Coracao Slave trade few plantations salt production Aruba few Spaniards Dutch occupy 1636 Very dry Spanish cattle as source of meat for Dutch colonists Pieter Stuyvesant first governor Bonaire taken by Dutch in 1636 Spaniards raise cattle for hides WIC purchases supplies 162039s Cultivate maize salt Dutch Guianas sugar colonies Mix of Arawak and Carib peoples Original name Surinam Suriname in Dutch Portion of Guiana taken from British in 1667 In negotiations British kept New York Only Dutch sugar colony Guiana colonies huge compared to Caribbean Islands Smallest sovereign state in S America Society of Suriname f 1683 Adjunct of WIC to finance defend Paramaribo as capital Dutch harshest treatment of slaves Lots of opportunities for slaves to run away Maroons bosnegers forest blacks Numerous communities inland Trade W Brazil along southern frontiers
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