Envrironmental Studies Week 5 and 6 Notes
Envrironmental Studies Week 5 and 6 Notes
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Date Created: 05/12/14
Week 5 A Clash of Cultures in America Major IDs Trading Zones Black Death Gunpowder Toscanelli New Spain English Colonies New France The British Isles Industrial Revolution Smithian Revolution Todays Music Kashmir Led Zeppelin Trading Zones Puttingout system Gave raw materials to commoners and let them make goods with them End of Insularity Manor39s had tons of goods Had to leave the manor to sell or get rid of them Climate Change 900s 1000s was a cold period 1100s1200s the climate warmed Agriculture increased economy improved Merchant culture Emerged out of manor s trading for goods Selling manorial goods to other parts of Europe Venice Genoa and Netherlands Earliest merchant cultures Shipping ports Renaissance Emergence of civilization from the Dark Ages Means quotRebirth in French Changes in literature art architecture science o Not listening to cergy s interpretation Gothic Architecture Old Medieval architecture Greco Roman Style Buildings changed to this style during Renaissance Reflected changes in attitude Secularism Separation of church and state Life no longer seen as a preparation for the next life Present life became exciting Marco Polo Venetian merchant who traveled to China Realized China was an advanced state Brought information back to Italy Gave interest to merchants Caravan routes Camel trains Went all the way from Europe to China Hanseatic zone Trading zone in Northern Europe All merchants bound by same laws in this area especially regarding foreign trade Shipping protection from pirates Middle European Zone and Italia Zone Other major trading zones Middle European dealt with more overland trade Black Death Bubonic Plague Wiped out a huge part of Europe39s population Bacterial infection Develop high fever then chills East west Transference Disease carried from caravan routes from Central Asia to Europe Traveled out eastwest axis Rat fleas Evidence they carried the plague to Europe on ships Buboes Large black lymph nodes people develop when they have the plague They would disfigure the body and then kill you They were black which is why it s called the Black Death Pneumonic Plague 9597 fatality rate Transferred through spit Didn39t spread very fast victims would die too fast Bleedingleeches Getting the quotbad blood out hoping new blood would regenerate Hoping leeches would suck out the poison Oil immersion Lower people in vats of oil Ended up boiling people Famines Compromised food supply Pandemic Widespread devastating disease World didn t improve until 1500 Gunpowder Saltpeter 75ofgunpowder Sulfur 10 Charcoal 15 BlackSaracen Powder Another name for gunpowder Where it was first developed in Europe Gunmetel Made of copper tin and zinc Durable Autocatalytic Process Europeans advanced in metallurgy didn t have gunpowder Prior invention of Chinese gunpowder being combined with other technology to create new technology Gunhild ballista blunderbuss musket Different names for guns German French and Britain respectively Harquebus Spanish word for gun Weren39t very important in Spanish expeditions Were really inaccurate Impact was loud scary noise Escopetas Spanish guns Toscanelli Mapmaker who inspired Coumbus s voyage Made map of spherical Earth Christopher Columbus Facilitated European takeover of Americas Did bad things to Native Americans Portugal Really good sailors Were sailing around Africa around Coumbus s time First place Columbus went to for funding University of Padua Where Toscanelli went to school World39s most advanced uni at the time Cosmography Developed by Tosca Study of what the world looks like Ptolemy Greek Egyptian mathematician Said the world was round Tosca studied his work Ferdinand and Isabella Combined their countries to create Spain Built around Christianity Expelled Muslims and Jews Funded Coumbus s voyage Spanish Inquisition To get rid of heretics typically Muslims and Jews Often tortured for confessions Cortes and the Aztecs He conquered them in 1521 Pizarro and the Incas Conquered them in 1533 Week 6 European America Today39s Music quotGoldberg Variations Johann Sebastian Bach Played by Glenn Gould Film Clip Black Robe 1991 New Spain Spanish colonized Central America and Caribbean Conquered huge populations and became wealthy Found lots of gold and silver stolen from conquered people and natural reserves o Goal was to bring back as many riches to Spain as possible Used native peoples as miners worked them mercilessly Encomienda System Used as enforcement of colonization System of slave labor Spaniards awarded quotencomiendas for military victories Sometimes villages of people Tribute Labor in the form of digging mines domestic Encomiendas had to pay it Only really worked in urban areas Protection What encomiendas got in return for their servitude Mission System System of control for non urban areas To spread Catholicism and convert natives spread Spanish frontier Very interested in quotsaving their souls o quotmake them Spanish o ie making them good Spanish citizens by turning them into farmers Missions were in Texas Northern Mexico California Proselytizing Converting someone to your faith Duty of the missions Jesuits Franciscans and Dominicans Catholic orders most involved in the Mission System Priests all swore oaths of poverty and celibacy California One of the last areas Spain colonized Franciscans were active in creating missions Completely changed the life of the Chumash o Wiped out many with disease o Brought others into missions for conversion o Changed their diets quotmaking them Spanish o Baptized their children Changed California39s culture countryside Sacred Expedition The establishing of missions in California Transatlantic Transference Most people in Latin America speak Spanish Largest religion in Catholicism Spanish succeeded in making everyone Spanish to an extent English Colonies Mercantilism Trading companies would follow explorers Take raw materials from colonies process them in England sell them in the Colonies Roanoke England39s first attempt at colonization Failure All people disappeared after a year No one knows what happened to them Navidad 1 Spanish colony Established by Columbus When Columbus came back all the people had been eaten by cannibals Jamestown Virginia Est 1607 Had trouble adjusting to their environment almost starved Discovered tobacco from Native Americans Starving Time Between resupplies from England in Jamestown Ate rats and human flesh Pilgrims Wanted to get away from Church of England Pur ans Also wanted to flee Church of England Spanish came to Americas to spread Catholicism Puritans and Pilgrims came to Americas to separate from Catholicism Established Protestantism in North America Also brought women and children as opposed to Spanish Brought in English ways and technology o Fur industry New England Where Puritans settled Middle Atlantic Colonies East coast of US Less religious control Settled in perfect place for trade Financial engine of English Colonies New York City and Philadelphia All money from England funneled through there African Slave Trade Turned to this after indentured servants proved unreliable Captured in Africa and taken to colonies of slave ships Southern Colonies Lots of African slave labor Tobacco rice and indigo Southern cash crops Used slaves to farm Week 6 England Laboratory of the Industrial World Walkin Music Animas Pink Floyd 1977 The British Isles First modern industrialized power in the world 43 AD year Romans came to the Isles Celts Druids First people in British Isles Migrated from Germania had good ships Advanced culture had germs and steel as well as horses Warlike Druids were the highest level priests Developed trade with the Romans London was formed as a trading center for Rome Hadrian39s Wall Built to keep uncivilized people Scots out of Roman Britain Built in 1 century AD Angles Saxons Next people to arrive in England Germanic warlike Came to unsettled parts of England as Rome was declining Good farmers England was becoming a wealthy well fed part of Europe Many British people were converted to Catholicism after Rome began to fall 19 miles of water between Britain and mainland Europe military and cultural advantage Norman Conquest Duke William From Normandy Originally Vikings King Harold Killed by William in Battle of Hastings ID Normans wreaked havoc on countryside William became quotWilliam the Conquerer ID Domesday Book Census of England by William the Conquerer Used to cement his authority Scribes visit every last farm and write down what was there Count everything that was in it how large the land was Legitimized his control of England Knowing how many people were in their kingdom was a big step forward environmentally Magna Carta Issued in 1215 Originally was supposed to protect power of nobility King died writers decided to include rights to common people Eliminated absolute monarchy New freedoms slowly leading to industrialization environmental manipulation Industrial Revolution Happened through low slow process Political situations had to be changed 19 miles of water kept them from being bulldozed during wars with mainland Europe Had to develop naval power sea based trade Enlightenment Educated mass of people who believe everything can be solved by reason Moving towards secularism We are rational beings who can solve our problems without God Promoted industrial growth Mercantilism England went out and populated colonies Colonies gathered raw materials would be brought back to England reprocessed sent back to colonies Capitalism We39re producing more than our colonies can consume Use resources to promote trade with other countries Most means of production are privately owned by people with lots of money Producing consumer goods for distribution and sale Mass production consumption The more you sell the more people consume the more you make Drew working poor out of farms into factories More workers more products more profits Leaving farms for the city was a change in human history Had to use wages to buy food and clothing since they didn t produce anything Manufacturers sold their employees cloth food etc Mass production led to mass consumption since people weren t making their own goods anymore Applied Technology steam Textile mills created most of the country39s cloth o Power first by water then steam James Watt Pioneered applied steam technology Big power innovation of the early Industrial Revolution Usually used for spinning wheels James Fulton American observed steam technology in England Brought it back to America to fit American needs Put steam engines into boats Eli Whitney Used steam engine to shape metal manufacture guns Pig iron Best metal at the time Harder than regular iron not as hard as steel What Whitney made his gun barrels out of Early Externalities Externality an industrialized activity that the market doesn t capture Ex air pollution England had severe air quality problems in big cities Coal was main source of power Smithian Revolution Based on work of Adam Smith Economics professor at University of Glasgow Went to Oxford Liked to go to Paris and philosophize with different people One of the first people to look at what people to look at what people were doing to the Earth set the framework for environmentalism Political Economy Combined politics with global economic activity Wealth of Nations 1776 Translated into 34 different languages Smith defines basics of modern economics market capitalism How are resources allocated properly resource allocation ID How can we make sure they go to the right place o Smith s answer let the market decide Market Capitalism ID Government Role Smith thought gov t should have limited role in economy Role was to have courts enforce laws have a police force and national defense Other than that gov t has no role in market economy Gov t involvement is messing up production signals deciding whether to produce more or less Laissezfaire Means hands off refers to the gov t Gov t messes up the quotinvisible hand ID of the market which manages the economy Thought this would lead to world peace since everyone would depend on each other for economic prosperity Thought there were unlimited resources thought the Earth could prosper under any level of economic activity If something gets bad enough there will be profit in solving it therefore the market fixes all problems Against UN other regulatory forces telling them how to manage environmental resources Smith called for free trade getting rid of import duties when trading with different countries o Chalked it down as gov t interference
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