(Aug 31-Sept 4) African Ppl and Cultures, Lecture.
(Aug 31-Sept 4) African Ppl and Cultures, Lecture. ANTH 3322-001
Popular in Peoples and Cultures of Africa
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selina Quick on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 3322-001 at Texas State University taught by Augustine Agwuele in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Peoples and Cultures of Africa in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Peoples and Cultures of Africa August 31st September 4th August 31 2015 Africa s Size 30 mquot2km IA of all the land in the world Inlets to the continent I along with Gabes these are the only ways to access Africa from the water I Tunisia Africa is a meaning it rises above sea level and begins the base level of the continent higher than sea level Land is framed by bluffs and cliffs no beaches at plateaus saucershaped basins broken up by highlands mountain ranges and valleys Landforms O over most of the continent I 1000 ft above sea level I Lowest level is 500 ft above sea level 0 depressions in the earth I 625 miles wide 5000 ft deep I Examples Chad Sudan Congo and Djouf Basins o I longest river in the world at over 4000 miles long I 95 of water resource for Egypt oods annually and provides fertile soil Most of the African continent is compacted almost at the center of Pangea This means Africa doesn t have earthquakes as its located along The Rift and is only a location of separation for the earth s plates not collision runs 4000 miles North to South is 30 to 50 meters wide and 1000 ft deep caused by continental separation 0 Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria are the two largest freshwater lakes Atlas Mts Northwestern border of Africa Ahaggar Mts Tibesti Mts Middle North Ethiopian Highlands East Mt Cameroon Gulf of Guinea Mt Kenya and Kilimanjaro East both Volcanic Mountains I is the highest mountain in Africa at 19340 ft Located in Tanzania near Kenya along the equator Formed by the Great Rift Valley The only yearround snowcapped mountain in Africa 00000 0 Known as Shining Mountain in Swahili O Drakensberg Mts Southeastern Africa Implications of T0D02raphv certain geographical landmarks and formations prevented outsiders from gaining thorough access to Africa 0 Shorelines drop off quickly reducing likelihood of maritime activities swimming sailing and harbors 0 Sleeping Sickness caused by a lack of productivity Climate 0 The greatest height of the plateau will have a temperate climate true even in Uganda and Highlands of Kenya 0 Settlers of Europe travel to South and East Africa where climates are similar to that of their native regions Climatic Zones 0 Equator 0 Tropic of Cancer 0 Tropic of Capricorn Climatic Regions 0 Sunny 80 degrees daily year round rainfall up to 104 degrees dry and wet seasons 0 Hot Desert Mediterranean ITCZ 0 Air from opposing directions meet and move upward Warm air rises and cools down quickly producing rainfall ITCZ shifts from June to July depending on earth s rotation I Creates two seasons wet and dry I ITCZ moves north during June rainy season leaves the south dry vice versa climates switch as seasons change 0 Determines the movement of people creates a pattern of planting and harvesting Bodies of Water 0 found in the middle of the Great Rift Valley I Shallow depression largest lake in Africa I Victoria Falls forms border between Zambia and Zimbabwe ID ID 0 Largest waterfall in the world created by a fault in the earth world s largest inland mouth of river I River is absorbed by the Kalahari Desert I Large game reserve in the desert is watered by this river 0 I Chad at risk for drying I Victoria 6280 sq miles 390 INyasa I longest deepest freshwater lake in the world 420 miles long 4708 ft deep I Malaui I Turkana Rivers 0 Vary in depth it depends on the season 0 Plateaus prevent navigating rivers because they tend to cause waterfalls 0 Major rivers I Nile ows North sourced at Lake Victoria I Niger used to be surrounded by ancient civilizations I Zaire I Zambezi Deserts 0 40 of land surface of Africa Z Slows cultural diffusion Sahara is 13rd the size of Africa 0 arid regions are expanding into semiarid regions and eventually beyond them Caused by overgrazing overcutting woods farming etc I Can be slowed down with methods like crop rotation safari little to no agriculture has seasonal rainfall that quickly dries is being overtaken by the Sahara Desert semidesert minimal vegetation can only be used for small pastoralism grassland varied shrubs and trees depend on rainfall settlers gather here because their resource needs are met Home to most great only occurs in two places Soil 0 Acidic due to tropical area lacks hummus or nutrients 0 Soil fibers are easily broken down weak for agricultural use 0 Coastal West Africa has increased rainfall making it more favorable for plant growth 0 Highest sand dune September 22015 There is no such thing as an uncultured person Everyone has culture their culture just varies depending on their place of origin a complex whole of knowledge belief art morals laws custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by people as a member of a society Edward Tylor 1871 Words are associated with certain dutiesroles and these change depending on your culture 0 Example Someone s brother in American culture is not Widely accepted as a romantic companion but in other cultures someone s cousin could be viewed as a potential lifelong partner Components of Culture 0 Ideas values attitudes 0 Material objects 0 Behavioral patterns something that stands for something else 0 Symbolizing is a fundamental aspect of culture helps people identify sort and classify ideas and behavior 0 Symbolizing with language can express an experience suggest events that may happen and preserve Wisdom 0 Example American Flag to an American is a sign of freedom to foreigners it could be a symbol of corruption or fear 0 Whatever was not instantly gained at birth is culture cultures that have developed cities 0 Characterized by I Monumental architecture I Centralized hierarchical government I Fully efficient food production systems I Writing history and can often help people predict each other s behavior 0 Miscommunications occur When you step outside of your culture 0 Ex 1800 A feral boy found digging in someone s garden I Unable to speak doesn t understand language food clothing etc I Victor relied on his natural instincts for so long that he could not interact With other humans he was not a human subdivision of a national culture a deviation 0 Pluralistic societies composed of various different cultural or subcultural groups This is done by interacting With one s environment acquiring culture after birth We are born with very little predetermined behavior Cultural Adaptation v Bi0l02ical Adaptation 0 We have the ability to change behavior in response to environmental demands HUMANS ARE NOT COMPLETE HUMANS WITHOUT CULTURE Morgan 1996 0 Culture can only be learned from other humans 0 Learning culture is a continuous and adaptive process allowing us to behave accord to where we are in the world Conceptualizing Culture 0 Fundamental beliefs of people how the world is organized categorized classed O Forces that cause events to occur science religion 0 Place that humans occupy in a perceived order I EX Last things God created were Adam and Eve gave them free will Therefore to Christians humans dominate the food chain because God made everything for them O shared ideas about the way things ought to be done 0 shared idea of what is right wrong beautiful etc 0 significance of an experience provided by those experiencing it e g a nod thumbs up wave can all be interpreted with different meaning I EX what you believe to be true such as sex on the first date a personal preference that will warrant different answers depending on your values and meanings O view time in a linear fashion past present future emphasize the importance of punctuality and scheduling Prefer to perform one task at a time 0 perform a number of tasks at once spend more time focused on nurturing a relationship punctuality isn t as important Cultural changes can be internal external or involve or borrowing from another culture EX the internet only needs to be invented one time because through cultural diffusion that technology can be borrowed and used in other societies Cultural Universals 0 Economics Marriage and Family Education Social Control Supernatural Beliefs O O O O
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