LITERARY THEORY GERMAN 0270
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Discourse Dictators and Democrats Lecture 6 English as a Distinctive Discourse of Rule 14221832 Topics Political institutions in England 14221832 epts Metap or Iconic diagrams Imports known as borrowings Development of rulers English Lexicon Pronunciation Expressions of the privative opposition Political Institutions 14221832 Triumyirate of King Parliament and Church was restored afterthe Peasants Revolt ct as between xnd and Ldrds shaped dynastic politics frumthe dethrunlng or Richard i in taaa by Henry or Lancasterthruugh a series or battles during the lat century pitting Lancastrlans againstthuse who held that Henry d sur t rune caiied Yurklsts ds a reed crown the Lancastnan Henry m a invitation to the Stuart Km ctr Scotland to succeed the last Tudor provoked a cdnrlict between lords ca lan themselves Angllcan Catholics and Commons callingthemselves Puritans lnterre num or rule by a dictatorship at Commons military commander ibztzei Bi ended in 7 Recall pttne Stuarts unlytu be deppsed again in lb 7 lnvltatluntu Dutcn pariia 7 Establishment atter tma ufthe principle that monarch Lands and cprnrnpns snpuid exercised suverelgntyiulntl andtnattne rnpnarcn alune cpuid no longer uyerrulethetwu Hpuses cerrnan ukeufHanuverlnvltedtutakethrune EB Prince ufOrange ruling Hetneriands as a nprninai subprdinate pttne rnent tn becprne an ptEn land Discursive Construction of Political Identity 14221832 Con ict and even armed combat ov throne Lancaster York Tu or ua a paniamentary general Cromwell called Protector Orange or Hanover Population remained divided into rulers and ruled No longer able to rely on a foreign language to distingursh rulers from ruled the rulers shifted to composing a distinctive variety of English Tools for Composing a Discourse Two kinds of iconcity or reproduction in an utterance of a conceptual feature of its meaning Metaphor describes a topic in a target domain using words taken from a different source domain that is represented as similar Diagram uses the arrangement of words or of other elements such as prefixes and suf xes to copy some conceptual feature of the message Commonplace Metaphors Argument isw r a I 7 She attacked my logic and i defended my position by relnfurclng it With new evidence 7 Source domain of Warfare used to discuss thetarget domain of s eech Argument is building 7 He demullshedthe foundations of my case a Source ornain of constructi are used to discuss target Reversal is possible War is argument 7 The opposing armies disputed the crossing of the river 7 Source domain of argument used to discuss target domain of War Ultimate sources of metaphor are bodily acts A Familiar Diagram I did not have sexual relations with that woman ltpauses looks to the side and downgt Ms Lewinsk Contrast alternatives We i n t ave sex Monica and l didn t have sex thisWornan Maintaining eye contact President ciinton pretends he nas to think of her name Discursive space placed between mention of the self and mention of the other communica es fglse claim of separation between self and 0 er Constructing Distinctiveness Any ianguage contains paired antonyrns used to designate pnysicai ooiects as occupying unusuai space in the yisuai field size terrns r The visual field is Murdirnerisiurial depth is an inference rns urtWD irnerisiuris ufvisual ie Elevatiun Higniuw urtallrshun Eiungatiun Widernarruw Enlargement Eigrsrnall the m attne upuwn W ienrngnt unensm pmnni nenuwuemeuernignmwue Elevationelongation and eniargernent can be used as rnetapnors in discussion of poiitics Diagrarns can eiongate the discursiye space aiiocated to poiiticai figures or institutions Use in discussin poiitics of elevating eion ating and eniarging rnetapnors and o eiongating diagrarns corn ine to represent poiitics as an actiyity that is outside ordinary experience and therefore unsuited to rnost peopie An Early English Elevating Metaphor and Elongating Diagram Verse composed in English about 1300 when Anglo Norman was s ill the language of politics so that heiemen ofthis land that of her blod comeholdeth all thulk speche that hii ofhom nomellac Io t to englissquot Elevation Men who are high versus men who are low Elongating diagram heiemen of this end vs Iowe men 7 cornpound Was oeing nign rnore innate to a rnan than being iow an inborn quality as in men of birth 7 But was tnis a writing convention Importing Distinctiveness Besides using English metaphors and diagrams the enforcers of English dictatorship could also import foreign expressions mislabeled lexical borrowings Such expressions are not borrowed they are stolen or at least grabbed Foreign expressions can produce the same effects as metaphors of size and diagrams of not for ordinary people by discussing it wit expressions that ordinary people do not use Consequences of Using English During the era ofAngloNorman English speakers who wanted to engage in politics needed to learn a whole foreign language A er 1422 they needed only to augment their knowledge of English by learning new expressions The gap separating rulers 39om ruled became easier to cross To maintain dictatorship constant attention had to paid to renewing the distinctiveness of rulers discourse ery time the rulers modi ed their English the ruled began learning it and the rulers needed to modify it again in a neverending chase rn lt Importing Distinctive Discourse As heiemen shifted from AngloNorman to English they began using French expressions in English French noble English knowable replaced heiemen 39 ignoble retains the g of the Latiri Original of noble Commoner combining French commun with the English agentive su ix er replaced Iowe men French villein became the most basic term for the agriculturalists without political rights or serfs lnferences of Privative Opposition Nobles and commoners with political rights were designated by terms applicable to ersons while those denied political rights were esignated as noble prope villa domain plus the Latin suffix in Serfs were not men the peasant rebels of 1381 called themselves the true commonersquot Nonidentity became negative identit When serfs acquired rights villain lost all of its meanings except evildoer In modern French vilaine retained only the meaning tug yn Timing of French Imports French imports begin to occur in the records about 1250 as Norman families are increasingly using English French imports peak in the records about 1350 as Norman families are switching over from AngloNorman to English New French words occur after 1350 but rate of import decreases Importing Latin Forms As the ruled began learning imported French expressions the rulers began importing Latin expressions Numerous modern English words have been imported from Latin twice once in the French form and once in Latin origina French courlt lgarrler lpoor lray lsplce lstralt sure I ILalln computelgrarlarylpauperlradluslspecleslstrlct lsecurel Temu Nevalamen Early Madam Engllsh Lexls and Semanllca m R ugel Lass an m n Latin Doublets As the ruled began learning French forms the rulers added Latin forms as the ruled began learning Latin forms the rulers added different forms of the same Latin word twice Nevalalnen 3B5 Parochial Altruism Acceptance of costs to the self by bearers of identity keep the shared identity In being Costs communication among bearers of the ruling identit became more ifficult as they lost track of the ifferences in meaning among repeated slightly varied borrowings from atin Con icts dispute broke out after 1500 between advocates of plainnesse and those whom they called ynke hornes for their predilection to endlessly variegate imported vocabulary Keeping identity Not even advocates of plainnesse favored the English of villagers Elongating Diagrams The printer William Caxton described his intended audience about 1490 ude v Iondyshh man but onlye for a clerke amp a noble genty men that feleth and vnderstondeth in 39 amp in noble chy a rye quot r Rude atlrl rudls urlf0rrne r Vplorldyssh Erlgllsh up larld lsn on the la 7 Clerke Frerlch Clerc Latlrl clerlcus Greek kler people Erlgllsh men marl Discursive space Three words for the ruled sixteen for the rulers Negation not forquot ofthe identity of he ruled exclusivity only of he identity ofthe rulers 9 E III rld sell or farm mus l o a a II 9 La m 3 o a Intellectuals and New Technologies By Douglas Kellner httpwww manic 19 ml quot quot Critical intellectuals were traditionally those who utilized their skills of speaking and writing to denounce injustices and abuses of power and to ght for truth justice progress and other positive values In the words of JeanPaul Sartre 1974 285 quotthe duty of the intellectual is to denounce injustice wherever it occursquot The modern critical intellectual39s field of action was what Habermas 1989 called the public sphere of democratic debate political dialogue and the writing and discussion of newspapers journals pamphlets and books Of course not all intellectuals were critical or by any means progressive With the rise of modern societies there was a division between physical and mental labor and intellectuals became those who specialized in mental labor producing and distributing ideas and culture with some opposing and some legitimating the established forms of society Thus intellectuals were split into those critical and oppositional individuals who opposed injustice and oppression as contrasted to those producers of ideology who legitimated the forms of class race and gender domination and inequality in modern societies In the following re ections I want to discuss some challenges from postmodern theory to the classical conceptions of the critical intellectual and some of the ways that new technologies and new public spheres offer new possibilities for democratic discussion and intervention which call for a rede nition of the intellectual Consequently I will discuss some changes in the concept of the public sphere and how new technologies and new spheres of public debate and con ict suggest some new possibilities for rede ning intellectuals in the present era The Public Sphere and the I quot 39 Jurgen Habermas39s concept of the public sphere described a space of institutions and practices between the private interests of those in civil society and the realm of state power The public sphere thus mediates between the domains of the family and the workplace where private interests prevail and the state which often exerts arbitrary forms of power and domination What Habermas 1989 called the quotbourgeois public spherequot consisted of the realm of public assemblies pubs and coffee houses literary salons and meeting halls where individuals gathered to discuss their common public affairs and to organize against arbitrary and oppressive forms of social and public power The public sphere was nurtured by newspapers journals pamphlets and books which were read and discussed in social sites like pubs and coffee houses The bourgeois public sphere was thus the locale alongside universities in which intellectuals were produced and functioned Emerging forms of democracy required forms of public discussion and debate of the issues of the day and intellectuals came to specialize in writing speaking about and debating those issues of common concern and importance Bourgeois societies split of course across class lines and different class factions produced different political parties organizations and ideologies with each party attracting specialists in words and writing known as intellectuals Oppressed groups also developed their own insurgent intellectuals ranging from representatives of working class organizations to women like Mary Wollstonecraft ghting for women39s rights to leaders of oppressed groups of color ethnicity sexual preference and so on Insurgent intellectuals attacked oppression and promoted action that would address the causes of oppression linking thought to action theory to practice Whereas the intellectuals who defended and legitimated the existing society produced affirmative discourses celebrating modern societies critical and insurgent intellectuals were specialists in critique and negation who produced critical and oppositional discourses and in some case attempted to link discourse to political action Yet many critical intellectuals were independent of all political organization and limited their range to activity to perpetual criticism to putting into question limiting their activity to debate and discussion These specialists in ideas and debate these critical 39 quot 39 were quot 39 often J J by those in power as merely negative as ineffectual dreamers or as subversive underminers of the existing order This pejorative sense of the intellectual was earlier anticipated in Napoleon39s denunciation of quotideologuesquot who are in his view mainly ineffectual although dangerous theoreticians who repose in the realm of ideas and are not grounded in practical affairs or of use to the general public Barth 1976 Another negative concept of intellectuals as ideologues for the ruling classes shaped a pejorative concept of ideology which Marx himself took up to develop with Engels 1975 in The German Ideology Marx and Engels denounced intellectuals who served the ruling powers specializing in legitimation and defense of the existing bourgeois order And yet Marx Engels and most of the spokespeople for the emergent socialist movement were themselves intellectuals specialists in ideas and criticism who studied wrote and spoke Intellectuals in modern societies were thus con icted beings with contradictory social functions The classical critical intellectual represented by figures like the French Enlightenment ideologues Thomas Paine Mary Wollstonecraft and later figures like Heine Marx Hugo Dreyfus Du Bois Sartre and Marcuse was to speak out against injustice and oppression and to fight for justice equality and the other values of the Enlightenment Indeed the Enlightenment itself represents one of the most successful discourses of the critical individual a discourse and movement which assigns intellectuals key social functions And yet conservative intellectuals attacked the Enlightenment and its prodigy the French Revolution and produced discourses that legitimated every conceivable form of oppression from class to race gender and ethnic domination Sartre the Public I quot 39 and the Postmodern hnllenoe Perhaps it is JeanPaul Sartre who provides the most consequent and probing conceptualizing of the tensions of the classical modern critical intellectual For Sartre the domain of the critical intellectual is to write and speak within the public sphere denouncing oppression and fighting for justice human rights and other values On this model a critical intellectual39s task is to bear witness analyze expose and criticize a wide range of social evils The sphere and arena of this intellectual is the word and his or her function is critical and negative to describe and denounce injustice wherever it may occur For instance Sartre himself denounced French torture in Algeria in the 1960s leading to the bombing of his house he attacked US policy in Vietnam joining the Bertrand Russell Peace tribunal and other national and international bodies against the US intervention indeed he canceled a lucrative lecture tour to the US in the 1960s and rejected a Nobel Peace prize to dramatize his opposition to the war Moreover Sartre was a model of a public intellectual who wrote spoke and intervened in the public sphere He founded and edited a journal Les temps modemes which involved itself in all the political and social issues of the day and in the 1960s and 1970s Sartre helped found and support a series of radical newspapers like La cause du peuple and J39Accuse which he sold in the streets and Liberation the first independent leftist daily newspaper in France Sartre also frequently gave interviews to newspapers journals and the radio and late in his life participated in television programs and even made movies to publicize his political positions For the most part however for Sartre his pen was his sword and his privileged activity was writing essays novels plays filmscripts and philosophical treatises to promote his ideas and his politics For Sartre quotthe true labor of the committed writer is to show demonstrate demystify and dissolve myths and fetishes in a little bath of critical acidquot 1974 375 and his own critical acid became more corrosive and burning than ever during his last decade of activity in the 1970s For Sartre the committed intellectual engages on the side of freedom and fights for expanding the realm of freedom to all 39J39II Against Sartre and this notion of the 39 Foucault J 39 39 A that Sartre represented an ideal of the universal intellectual who fought for universal values such as truth and freedom and assumed the task of speaking for humanity 1977 Against such an exalted and in his view exaggerated conception Foucault militated for a conception of the specific intellectual who intervened on the side of the oppressed in specific issues not claiming to speak for the oppressed but to intervene as an intellectual in specific issues and debates Out of this conception of the specific intellectual and a turn toward new social movements as the domain of contemporary politics Laclau and Mouffe 1985 replacing the state and the national realm of party politics there has emerged a new conception of postmodern politics For a postmodern politics power is diffuse and local and not merely to be found in macroinstitutions like the workplace the state or patriarchy Macropolitics that goes after big institutions like the state is to be replaced by micropolitics with specific intellectuals intervening in spheres like the university the prison the hospital or for the rights of specific oppressed groups like sexual or ethnic minorities Global and national politics and theories are rejected in favor of more local micro theories and politics and the discourse and function of the intellectuals is seen as more specific provisional and modest than in modern theory and politics subordinate to local struggles rather than more ambitious projects of emancipation and social transformation In my view such a binary distinction between macro and micro theory and politics is problematical as are absolutist commitments to either modern or postmodern theory tout court Best and Kellner 1991 Using the example of the events of 1989 that saw the collapse of communism for instance it is clear that the popular offensives against oppressive communist power combined micro and macropolitics moving from local and specific struggles rooted in union halls universities churches and small groups to mass demonstrations forcing democratic reforms and even classically revolutionary change and mass insurrection as in Romania In these struggles intellectuals played a variety of roles and deployed a diversity of discourses ranging from the local and specific to the national and general Thus whereas I would argue that postmodern theory contains important criticism of some of the illusions and ideologies of the traditional modern intellectual it goes too far in rejecting the classical role of the critical intellectual and that some of the modern conception of the critical and oppositional intellectual remains useful I would in fact reject the particularuniversal intellectual dichotomy in favor of developing a normative concept of the public intellectual The public intellectual on this conception intervenes in the public sphere fights against lies oppression and injustice and ghts for rights freedom and democracy A la Sartre39s committed intellectual But a democratic public intellectual does not speak for others does not abrogate or monopolize the function of speaking the truth but simply participates in discussion and debate defending specific ideas values or norms or principle that may be particular or universal But if universal like human rights they are contextual provisional normative and general and not valid for all time Indeed rights are products of social struggles and are thus social constructs and not innate or natural entities as the classical natural rights theorists would have it But rights can be generalized extended and can take universal forms as with for instance a UN charter of human rights that holds that certain rights are valid for all individuals at least in this world at this point in time Consequently one does not need all of the baggage of the universal intellectual to maintain a conception of a public or democratic intellectual in the present era Intellectuals may well seek to occupy a higher ground than particularistic interests a common ground seeking public interests and goods But intellectuals should not abrogate the right to speak for all and should be aware that they are speaking from a determinate position with its own biases and limitations Moreover intellectuals should learn to get out of their particular frame of reference for more general ones to take the position of the other to empathize with more marginal and oppressed groups to learn from them and to support their struggles To perpetually criticize oneself to develop the capacity for selfre ection and critique as well as selfexpression is thus part of the duty of the democratic intellectual In the following section I will suggest that it is Sartre and not Foucault or postmodern theory who provides both the most impressive articulation of the role of the intellectual in modern societies and who best criticizes the limitations of traditional intellectuals Then in the final sections I argue building on Sartre s conception for an expansion of the role of the intellectual in our time Sartre on the Intellectual It has not been generally noted that the problematic of defining the nature and function of the intellectual was a major theme of Sartre s philosophy or that he reformulated his concept of the committed intellectual in the 1970s during his last decade of political and intellectual activity In 1966 Sartre gave a series of lectures in Japan where he significantly developed his conception of an intellectual Collected as an essay quotA Plea for Intellectualsquot Sartre begins by posing the question quotWhat is an intellectualquot 1975 229ff He notes that intellectuals waver between serving a conservative and a critical function On one hand intellectuals have traditionally been assigned the task of preserving and transmitting culture thus often legitimating and fortifying the dominant ideologies and serving the interests of maintaining the existing society In present day society Sartre claims 39 are 39 39 quot 39 39 of practical knowledgequot who serve the technocratic function of devising efficient means to secure society s ends In this sense intellectuals serve an instrumental role of providing means ideas technologies and so on that will strengthen and streamline the established society 11 But although intellectuals serve these crucial social functions they are often looked upon with distrust by the authorities Intellectuals are often taken to be critical and negative types who ceaselessly make things difficult for the authorities by spreading the seeds of criticism dissent possibly subversion Thus the intellectual is reproached as quotsomeone who meddles in what is not his business and claims to question both received truths and the accepted behavior inspired by themquot 1975 230 The substantive noun quotintellectua quot in this quasipejorative sense Sartre suggests derives from the Dreyfus affair On June 14 1898 the quotmanifeste des intellectualsquot was published in the French newspaper L Aurore and the term quotintellectualquot was henceforth given a critical negative connotation in France where it was associated with the Left The Dreyfusards who challenged the French military tribune39s accusations against Dreyfus and insisted on his innocence were said to be meddling and interfering with quota domain that was outside their competencequot 1975 230 Intellectuals were thus seen as those pesky meddlers who inferred with matters beyond their proficiencies and that were an impediment to the construction of a stable and orderly society Sartre sees a certain irony in the charge that intellectuals quotmislead the peoplequot since once the intellectuals depart from cultural conservatism and serving the system they are intrinsically weak in that they are putting themselves outside of and against the established society often without a power base of their own and in many case without popular support This social political powerlessness of the critical intellectual accounts Sartre suggests for the intellectual s traditional moralism and idealism 1975 229 In a genealogy of the modern intellectual Sartre describes the ascendancy of what we now see as intellectuals rst in the clerical hierarchy in the Middle Ages and then he links the rise of the bourgeois intelligentsia with the triumph of capitalism and the bourgeoisie 1975 232237 Every society needs ideologies to legitimate their social relations and forms of domination and thus spawn intellectuals who will produce defend and fortify that ideology The division of labor in modern society creates new functions and roles for intellectuals and gives rise to quotspecialists of practical knowledgequot 1975 237 the intellectuals as a specific social grouping Intellectuals in contemporary society Sartre claims have a curious subordinate and ambiguous status in the social hierarchy The ruling elites define society s priorities allocating specific sums of money for education law health the military and various construction and public programs thus delineating the number ofjobs and sorts of positions that will be distributed to the intellectuals Thus both the intellectual39s position and salary are dependent on ruling elites In capitalist societies quotThe ruling class determines the number of technicians of practical knowledge in accordance with the dictates of profit which is its supreme endquot 1975 237 Today for instance the culture industries require growing numbers of applied psychologists copywriters statisticians computer operators managers and so on The increased specialization and technological imperatives of contemporary capitalism require increased numbers of technicians scientists and publicists and less philosophers historians and workers in the humanities The intellectuals like everyone and everything else are thus subject to the laws of capitalist accumulation although they are often the last to see this thinking that they operate in a realm above economics and material interests Intellectuals are thus often the dupes and servants of capital even though they are not actually serving it by choice Intellectuals are formed and educated by a selective and competitive system that tries to get them to accept its values and ideologies so that they in turn will propagate them They are taught to be specialists in research and custodians of tradition They are hence entrusted with the role of transmitting traditional values and attacking subversive ones quotAt this level they are agents of an ideological particularization which is sometimes openly admitted the aggressive nationalism of the Nazi theoreticians and sometimes concealed liberal humanism with its false universalityquot 1975 238 At this point a contradiction emerges Intellectuals are in theory quottechnicians of practical knowledgequot who develop techniques that can be applied by all for the good of all ie medicine law physics philosophy art and so on are to serve all the people they are universal goods and values But in a class society knowledge and techniques are not used for the good of all Only wealthy people in a certain class can afford adequate medical care the best lawyers exciting travel and so on Only those with a certain level of education can read philosophy and appreciate modern art only those with a certain amount of leisure can enjoy culture Thus certain groups and individuals monopolize the knowledge and techniques of the intellectual they use the intellectual39s production to increase and enhance ruling class domination and privileges Consequently a contradiction emerges between the universality of intellectual labor the search for universal truth and the good of all and the particularity of the interests served The intellectual who becomes aware of this contradiction sees itself as a tool of the ruling class and indirectly an oppressor of the working class Divorced from the working classes serving the ruling classes the intellectual quotis a middle man a middling man a middle class man The general ends toward which his activities lead are not his endsquot 1975 239 The intellectual thus is haunted by a series of contradictions that society and its education thrust upon them Let us more closely examine these contradictions The intellectual receives a humanist education which asserts that all people are equal and that freedom justice and human rights are the province of all human beings But the intellectual is living proof that all individuals are not equal They are superior to the subordinate classes who have not received adequate education and possess certain intellectual skills which give them a relatively privileged status Yet intellectuals are inferior to the ruling classes whose monopoly of wealth and power reduce the intellectuals to subordinate and instrumental functions The intellectual is thus in a good position to see the real inequalities of the society as well as the contradictions a class society thrusts upon its subordinates and underlinings In this way the intellectual suffers a contradiction between a humanist egalitarian ideology and the imhumanism of an inegalitarian society Moreover the intellectual is auniversalist by profession and training Their science and knowledge is universal in its form and is geared in theory toward universal and human ends Yet the intellectual often discovers that their knowledge and techniques are surreptitiously particularist subservient to the ends of the state ruling elites corporations and other social forces They may see that their ideas and research are used by the government corporations or military for purposes that are foreign to their humanist ends and values quotAt that moment in their very research they discover alienation they become aware that they are the instruments of ends which remain foreign to them and which they are forbidden to questionquot Sartre 1975 240 Take for example the medical researcher who discovers a cure for cancer and finds it cannot be marketed because of special medicalpharmaceutical interests which oppose it and block its use Or the researcher in atomic physics may discover that his research is used to commit genocide in bombing campaigns Or the psychologist whose research in human motivation may be used by advertisers or politicians to manipulate the public Or the sociologist may discover that his work is used as a means of social control The intellectual is thus forced to suffer the contradiction between their humanist values and the antihuman ends of the society which employs them A further contradiction results from the fact that intellectuals are by training independent beings who put a high value on freedom autonomy unfettered research and the search for truth qualities necessary for their education and work But in late capitalist society intellectuals are increasingly dependent on the state and private enterprise for their livelihood in a society controlled by profit scarcity and competition Thus the contradiction develops between the free independent spirit of research which is necessary for intellectual and social progress contrasted to the intellectual39s material dependence and control by the ruling powers Wrenched by all these contradictions and the alienation and oppression which they contain the intellectual often becomes restive critical even rebellious For the authorities this unstable being the intellectual is therefore suspect Sartre 1975 243 The authorities must up to a point humor their intellectuals who serve an indispensable social function but they must keep a close watch on them and try to control their research and discourse They try to impose an ideology of universality liberty af uence and progress on their intellectuals to give them the impression that their work is serving universal and beneficent ends They try also to blind their intellectuals to classcon ict poverty oppression and the inequalities which their society perpetuates 1975 241 If the intellectuals see through this mystification they are subject to discipline punishment loss of salary and job and perhaps worse quotThus the researcher is simultaneously indispensable and yet suspect in the eyes of the dominant class He cannot fail to experience and interiorize this suspicion and to become suspect from the outset in his own eyesquot 1975 244 The intellectuals these quotbeingsincontradictionquot can respond to their contradictory situation in two ways They can conform submit to the authorities accept the dominant ideology they can practice selfcensorship adapt become apolitical in a word they can capitulate quotIn this case his rulers typically say with satisfaction of a man 39he is no intellectual39quot Sartre 1975 244 However if the technician of practical knowledge becomes aware of the contradictions between the particularism of the dominant ideology and the interests it serves contrasted with their humanist ideology and its universal ends if the intellectual refuses to be an agent of the ruling class if she finds the ends and rulers she serves intolerable if intellectuals become aware of their lack of real independence then the intellectual becomes a quotmonsterquot who quotattends to what concerns himquot and whom others refer to as someone who quotinterferes in what does not concern himquot 1975 244 For Sartre the intellectual is thus potentially a being who sees into its own contradictions and those of its society who has interiorized these contradictions and who seeks to resolve them This means that the genuine intellectual will be oppositional critical and negative The critical intellectual opposes the ruling ideology in the spirit of the search for theoretical and practical truth they oppose society s inhumanities inequalities and unfreedom in the name of humanity equality freedom and other positive values They reveal the untruth of the dominant ideology in the name of truth which means for Sartre that they unmask quotthe fundamental contradictions of the society that is to say the struggle between classes and within the dominant class itself the organic con ict between the truth the latter needs for its own purposes and the myths values and traditions with which it seeks to infect other classes in order to ensure its hegemonyquot Sartre 1975 246 In Sartre39s terms the intellectual39s quest for knowledge and the universal discloses that universality and humanity do not exist that a free egalitarian society and nonalienated human being remain to be achieved that a fully human being and a human society remain a task to be performed The genuine intellectual thus chooses to overcome the contradictions and alienations of its society in order to engender a more human state of affairs In Sartre s terms the intellectual strives quotto realize the practical ie free and sovereign subject and to discover the principles of a society capable of engendering such a subjectquot 1975 250 In the 1960s Sartre became dissatisfied with this conception of the critical intellectual and began developing concepts of the revolutionary who was a partisan of revolution and eventually proposed dissolving intellectuals in the masses see Sartre 1970 1971 and 1974 discussed in Kellner 197475 In retrospect Sartre s ultraleftism appears quaint and utopian after a couple of decades of conservative rule in most socalled capitalist democracies I wish thus to work with Sartre s concept of the critical intellectual as developed in his 1966 article quotA Plea for Intellectualsquot in the remainder of this article and will make my own case for a new type of intellectual who intervenes in new public spheres and who makes use of new technologies in the rapidly mutating media and computer societies of the present moment NewT 39 39 39 New Public Spheres and NewY quot 39 In Sartre s view the vocation of the intellectual was criticism and negation The critical project required concern with values and ends and capacity for vision seeing oppression and injustice and ways to ght it In the following discussion I will argue that although the public intellectual should assume new functions and activities today the critical capacities and vision of the classical critical intellectual are still relevant thus I suggest building on models of the past rather than simply throwing them over as in some types of postmodern theory In a certain sense there was no important connection between the classical intellectual and technology To be sure intellectuals especially scientific scholars like Leonardo de Vinci Galileo or Darwin deployed technologies and entire groups like the British Royal Society were concerned with technologies and were indeed often inventors themselves Some intellectuals used printing presses and were themselves printers and many though not all of the major intellectuals of the 20th century probably used a typewriter though I personally know of no major studies of the relationship between the typewriter and intellectuals Yet a classical intellectual did not have to intrinsically deploy any specific technology and there was thus no intimate betweenquot quot 39 and 39 39 J I now want to argue that in the contemporary high tech societies there is emerging a signi cant expansion and rede nition of the public sphere and that these developments connected primarily with media and computer technologies require a reformulation and expansion of the concept of critical or committed intellectual Earlier in the century Brecht and Benjamin saw the revolutionary potential of new technologies like film and radio and urged radical intellectuals to seize these new forces of production to quotrefunctionquot them and to turn them into instruments to democratize and revolutionize society Sartre too worked on radio and television series and insisted that quotcommitted writers must get into these relay station arts of the movies and radioquot 1974 177 for discussion ofhis Les temps modemes radio series see 177180 Previously radio television and the other electronic media of communication tended to be closed to critical and oppositional voices both in systems controlled by the state and in private corporations Public access and low power television and community and guerilla radio however open these technologies to intervention and use by critical intellectuals For some years now I have been urging progressives to make use of new communications broadcast media Kellner 1979 1985 1990 and have in fact been involved in a public access television program in Austin Texas since 1978 My argument was that radio television and other electronic modes of communication were creating new public spheres of debate discussion and information and that progressives who wanted to be where the people were at who wanted to communicate with the general public and who thus wanted to intervene in the public affairs of their society should make use of these technologies and develop new communication politics and new media projects In fact one can argue that the victory of Reagan and the Right in the United States in 1980 was related to the Right s effective use of television radio fax and computer communication direct mailings telephones and other sophisticated political uses of new technologies Furthermore one could argue that Clinton39s victory over Bush in 1992 and the surprising success of the Perot campaign were related to effective uses of communication technologies And more recently in the US the Republican and rightwing success in the 1994 elections can be related to their use of talk radio computer bulletin boards and other technologies Consequently I would argue that effective use of technology is essential in contemporary politics and that intellectuals who wish to intervene in the new public spheres need to deploy new communications media to participate in democratic debate and to shape the future of contemporary societies and culture My argument is that first broadcast media like radio and television and now computers have produced new public spheres and spaces for information debate and participation that contain both the potential to invigorate democracy and to increase the dissemination of critical and progressive ideas as well as new possibilities for manipulation and social control But participation in these new public spheres computer bulletin boards and discussion groups talk radio and television and the emerging sphere of what I call cyberspace democracy require intellectuals to gain new technical skills and to master new technologies I am thus suggesting that intellectuals in the present moment must master new technologies and that there is thus a more intimate 39 quot 391 between 39 quot 39 and 39 39 J than in previous social con gurations To be an intellectual today involves use of the most advanced forces of production to develop and circulate ideas to do research and involve oneself in political debate and discussion and to intervene in the new public spheres produced by broadcasting and computing technologies New public intellectuals should attempt to develop strategies that will use these technologies to attack domination and to promote education democracy and political struggle or whatever goals are normatively posited as desirable to attain There is thus an intrinsic connection in this argument between the fate of intellectuals and the forces of production which as always can be used for conservative or progressive ends For some decades now critical intellectuals have been involved in the use of broadcast technologies to develop alternative forms of culture and information and today in particular younger intellectuals are involved in the design and use of computers as new sources of information expression and discussion In a sense computer technologies are at least potentially more democratic and empowering than previous communication technologies that were more centralized often inaccessible to public intervention and involved in more oneway and top down communication Computer technology to the extent that it is spread throughout the public is more decentralized accessible to participation and thus both empowering and potentially capable of promoting democratic debate and discussion Thus the critical public intellectual who wants to intervene in the new public spheres of the emerging high tech society has to master the use of new technologies to be an effective intellectual who participates in some of the key debates and discussions currently going on The public intellectual of the present must thus learn how to use computers video equipment and other technologies in order to communicate with a broad public and to assume the role of critical intellectual in promoting democracy and progressive social change This requires modifying our conception of what an intellectual is and seeing closer connections between intellectuals and the mastery of communication technology that was previously the case Of course traditional humanist intellectuals who are intrinsically hostile to technology will not accept such arguments and many of those who identify themselves as progressives will dismiss such an argument as elitist or utopian But I would maintain that the argument that most individuals do not have computers or participate in computermediated discussion could soon become outdated as computers become central to schooling and part of the quotstandard packagequot of consumer items in the home along with televisions radios refrigerators telephones and the like More houses in the US for instance have television sets than indoor toilets and to the 99 penetration by television I have seen statistics that videorecorders are currently available in over 80 of US homes and will be universal by the end of the century It is conceivable that the situation will be similar with computers I have been giving workshops around the United States to grade school and high school teachers the past several years and have observed the rapid penetration of computer technologies in the school on all levels and have noted that US corporations donate their older computer models to poorer school districts for tax writeoffs so that computers are becoming a standard tool of education in all class and regional segments Even the Republican party in the US is suggesting that each family in the country should be given a laptop computer for access to the information quotsuper highwayquot and recent studies of job prospects suggest that without computer skills young people will not be able to enter the labor force and that therefore computer education is an essential part of future schooling Computer technologies thus may become more and more central to the home workplace and schooling and thus intellectuals will ifI am correct be forced to master these technologies Moreover CD Roms are becoming more widespread in public schools in the United States and elsewhere suggesting that they and other computer generated texts may massively supplement books requiring that intellectuals who want to intervene in their country s politics and culture will have to learn to produce CD Roms or at least use computer technologies in their research writing and dissemination Indeed with the proliferation of electronic technologies through major publishing companies such things as books and journals may become obsolete replaced by online electronic journals and information data bases In fact the major research for two of my recent books Kellner 1992 and 1995 was done from computer data bases and I find that I am spending much more time in data bases than in libraries for a variety of research projects Bulletinboard computer discussions often involve the most up todate and lively discussion of issues concerning communications theory and public policy and I also participate in lively discussions on popular culture film rock music and other bulletin boards as well as theoretical ones on Marx postmodern theory Baudrillard and other topics Such bulletinboards which also have their limitations as those who have observed ame wars and outright stupidity can attest allow instant communication of one s ideas without the mediation of gate keepers or watchdogs as well as breaking down the hierarchies between professors and students tenured and untenured and so on that structure standard academic communication Increasingly various discussion and information groups are establishing archives that allow one to peruse indepth texts and discussions and to download on their own computer recent material in areas that interest them Indeed there are more specialized archives in Shakespeare Marx postmodern theory and other topics as well as newspapers and journals that allow instant access to tremendous amounts of material so far free of charge for those with University or government affiliations One can also visit museum exhibits specialized libraries government archives and many other sites via the Internet and other computer sites and routes Indeed as I suggest below fighting for continued and expanded free access to computer data bases and information and communication services is an important political issue for the future Being an intellectual in the emerging high tech societies thus requires new skills the mastery of new technologies and intervention in new public spheres This process requires expansion of the roles and functions of the intellectual new terrains and sites of interventions and new challenges and possibilities as well no doubt of new traps and illusions I want to suggest some of these new possibilities in the succeeding sections But first I want to affirm allegiance to the traditional functions of reading writing speaking teaching and interacting in face to face sites The new technologies and public sphere will probably not replace but rather supplement the previous sites and modes of intellectual intervention and I am personally still committed to traditional roles of reading and writing books articles and the like as well as face to face teaching and lecturing which I have been doing more of in recent years rather than less But even our roles as teachers and writers and activists in the traditional sense can be enhanced by new technologies which should be seen as essential supplements to our activities which involve new challenges and possibilities New Tasks for the Public Intellectual Building on Sartre I am thus proposing expansion and redefinition of the role of the critical oppositional and public intellectual who intervenes in the crucial issues and debates of the day Indeed a democratic intellectual an intellectual who wishes to promote democracy should participate in the potentially empowering and participatory spheres of public access and talk television and radio computer bulletinboards and the other spaces of an emerging cyberspace democracy I am aware that these technologies are not yet accessible to all and could be the basis for a new social division between information haves and have nots But I would argue that we begin thinking of the consequences of the emerging new technologies and how they can be used to empower people to promote democracy and progressive social change as well as new social problems and divisions Re ection on the roles of media and computer technologies in contemporary politics calls attention to the urgency of impending tasks for critical intellectuals that have been often been neglected or overlooked in the tumult and confusion of the present On the positive side we are living in exciting times in which new media and computer technologies are producing new possibilities for communication cultural expression and ways of living everyday life at least for privileged individuals and those using the new technologies We should not forget however the misery of the vast majority and should struggle so that they can attain the same opportunities as those more fortunate Kellner 1995 Moreover we need to consciously come to terms with our new technologies and culture and devise ways to use them to enhance our lives and to make them available to all This requires re ection on media and technology and the challenges and problems of living in a new mediatechnological society With these concerns in mind I would suggest that media and cultural studies need to address several topics that require re ection on expanded activity for critical intellectuals in the present era Insurgentquotquot 39 andNewT 39 39 I also want to stress that a variety of insurgent intellectuals are already making use of these new technologies and public spheres in their political struggles The peasants and guerilla armies struggling in Chiapis Mexico from the beginning used computer data bases guerrilla radio and other forms of media to circulate their struggles and ideas Every manifesto text and bulletin written in Chiapis was immediately circulated through the world via computer networks As I revise this paper in January 1995 the Mexican government is moving against the insurgent movement and computer networks are being used to inform and mobilize individuals and groups throughout the world to support their struggles against repressive Mexican government action Earlier audiotapes were used to promote the revolution in Iran and to promote alternative information by political movements throughout the world The Tianenaman Square democracy movement in China and various groups struggling against the remanents of Stalinism in the former communist bloc and Soviet Union used computer bulletin boards as well as a variety of forms of communications to circulate their struggles Thus using new technologies to link theory and practice to circulate struggles is neither extraneous to political struggle nor merely utopian Indeed a series of struggles around gender and race are also mediated by new communications technologies After the 1991 Clarence Thomas Hearings in the United States on his fitness to be Supreme Court Justice Thomas s assault on claims of sexual harassment by Anita Hill and others and the failure of the almost all male US Senate to disqualify the obviously unqualified Thomas prompted women to use computer and other technologies to attack male privilege in the political system in the United States and to rally women to support women candidates The result in the 1992 election was the election of more women candidates than in any previous election and a general rejection of conservative rule I have already suggested that the turn to the right in the 1994 election was largely due to more effective conservative use of media and computer technologies Likewise AfricanAmerican insurgent intellectuals have made use of broadcast and computer technologies to circulate their struggles John Fiske 1994 has described some African American radio projects in the quottechostrugglesquot of the present age and the central role of the media in recent struggles around race and gender AfricanAmerican quotknowledge warriorsquot are using radio computer bulletinboards and other media to circulate their ideas and counter knowledge on a variety of issues contesting the mainstream and offering alternative views and politics Likewise activists in communities of color like Oakland Harlem and Los Angeles are setting up community computer and media centers to teach the skills necessary to survive the onslaught of the mediazation of culture and computerization of society to people in their communities Consequently a variety of insurgent intellectuals in the present are using the new technologies to circulate their struggles and information The technologies of communication are becoming more and more accessible to young people and average citizens and they should be used to promote democratic self expression and social progress Thus technologies that have traditionally blocked the expansion of participatory democracy by transforming politics into media spectacles and the battle of images could also be used to help invigorate democratic debate and participation Media and Cultural Activism Critical media and cultural studies has been especially negligent of developing strategies and practices for media intervention and the production of alternative media There has been little discussion within cultural studies circles concerning how radio television film and other media could be transformed and used as instruments of social enlightenment and progress Likewise the Frankfurt School seemed inherently skeptical of media technologies and viewed them as totally controlled by capitalist corporations Indeed when the classical theories of the cultural industries were being formed this was more or less the case The failure of media and cultural studies today to engage the issue of alternative media is more puzzling and less excusable since there are today a variety of venues for alternative lm and video production community radio computer bulletin boards and discussion forums and other forms of communications within which progressives can readily intervene Thus critical media theory today should discuss how the media and culture can be transformed into instruments of social enlightenment and progress This requires more focus on alternative media than has previously been evident and re ections on how media technology can be reconfigured and used to empower individuals It requires developing activist strategies to intervene in public access television community radio computer bulletinboards and other domains currently emerging To genuinely empower individuals requires giving them knowledge of media production and allowing them to produce media that are then disseminated to the public Increasing media activism could significantly enhance democracy making possible the proliferation of voices and allowing those voices that have been silenced or marginalized to speak New public spheres and technologies thus produce new roles and functions for intellectuals Media and computer culture is producing new cyberspaces to explore and map and new terrains of political struggle and intervention The new cyberintellectuals of the present may not be the organic intellectuals of a class but we can become technointellectuals of new technologies cultural experiences and spaces charting and navigating through the brave new worlds of media culture and technoculture These technologies can be used as instruments of domination or liberation of manipulation or social enlightenment and it is up to the activist intellectuals of the present and future to determine which way the new technologies will be used and developed and whose interests they serve A democratic media politics will accordingly be concerned that the new media and computer technologies will be used to serve the interests of the people and not corporate elites A democratic media politics will strive to see that media are used to inform and enlighten individuals rather than to manipulate them A democratic media politics will teach individuals how to use the new technologies to articulate their own experiences and interests and to promote democratic debate and diversity allowing a full range of voices and ideas to become part of the cyberdemocracy of the future Media and Cultural Politics Now more than ever media and cultural politics are of utmost importance to the future of democracy Who will control the media and technologies of the future and debates over the public39s access to media media accountability and responsibility media funding and regulation and what kinds of culture are best for cultivating individual freedom democracy and human happiness and wellbeing will become increasingly important in the future The proliferation of media culture and technologies focuses attention on the importance of media politics and the need for public intervention in debates over the future of media culture and communications in the information highways and entertainment by ways of the future One of the key issues of the future will concern whether communications and culture are 39 39 I J39Lquot 1 1 J39Lquot y reu or are red Defenders of commercial television in the United States are always praising quotfree televisionquot a dubious product however only made possible at the expense of allowing advertising to clutter the airwaves and giving advertisers and commercial interests significant power over programming In the future however even individual TV programs may be commodified owned by corporations which will charge for everything Likewise today computer bulletin boards and routes of communication on the Internet are free to those who have University or government accounts whereas all computer communication may be commodified in the future as is telephone communication The struggle here is therefore to decommodify computer communication and information to make the Internet and other information highways of the future open to everyone free of charge to expand public access television and community radio and to develop alternative cultural institutions and practices that are funded by the community or state and made available to the people It is possible that failures to address political economy and to adequately develop a media politics within contemporary cultural studies is a main source of the avoidance of public policy concerns that Tony Bennett has been criticizing 1992 in Grossberg et al Without a sense of how the larger social forces ie the nature of the broadcasting industry state policy towards communications etc impinge on everyday life it is impossible to grasp the relevance of public policy and media politics on the nature of the system of communications and culture in a given society Yet in a context in which new technologies of communications are creating dramatic changes in culture leisure activity and everyday life it is important to perceive the importance of media politics and the ways that the system and framework of communications in a given society helps determine what sort of programming and effects are produced But without situating discussions of public policy within the context of social theory and political economy that analyzes existing configurations of power and domination discussions of public policy are hopelessly abstract and besides the point In the United States during the reign of Reagan and Bush 1980 1992 there really weren t any openings for progressive public policy interventions on the national level Instead the political urgency at the time on the level of national politics was defending liberal gains of the past against conservative onslaughts I would imagine that something like this was also the case in England during the regimes of Thatcher and Major and in other countries ruled by conservative governments On the other hand the era of conservative rule saw many exciting local interventions with lively alternative cultures proliferating and intense political struggles often cultural in focus taking part on the local level This experience perhaps in uenced the postmodern politics which emphasized local rather than global struggles but it is important to see that both local and national struggles and issues are important On the local level one can often more visibly make a difference though even rearguard defensive operations on the national level are important as are public policy interventions that advocate genuine reform on any level The neglect of cultural politics by critical cultural and communications studies that should advocate such a cultural and media politics is distressing and is a sign of the depoliticalization of intellectual life in the present moment The New Critical Intellectual Thus critical intellectuals have some important tasks for the future and can become part of a process of empowerment and enlightenment or intellectuals can ignore the new technologies and their impact and possibilities and condemn themselves to irrelevancy and obsolescence Yet I would also insist that many functions of the classical critical intellectual are still relevant and are indeed more urgent than ever How the communications of the future are designed who will gain access protocols for democratic discussion and debate and how information is circulated and distributed are key questions concerning the future of our media and computer societies The critical and normative functions of intellectuals are therefore still necessary as we move into a society that may well have more and more varied and con ictual communication that previous societies Questions concerning norms and principles of criticism and discussion of balancing freedom and rights of how to promote democracy indeed on what constitutes genuine democracy will become even more burning Indeed these issues are heatedly and interestingly debated everyday on computer bulletinboards which in many cases circulate more lively and gripping ideas and information than both print and broadcast media Likewise the need for literacy is as essential as ever and to book and print literacy we should add media and computer literacy It is indeed not a question of books or computers for education and producing democratic citizens but rather a question of both The need for traditional skills of reading writing expression and critical thinking is even more essential in an era of information overload in which reading and writing may become even more central to success in education and employment Distinguishing between valid and invalid arguments accurate or inaccurate information truth and propaganda will be as important as ever thus it is not a question of throwing away books and the traditional skills of the intellectual but expanding them into new technologies and public spheres Of course one might choose to defend certain traditional values and activities in the face of their onslaught by new technologies Some criticisms of email and bulletinboard communication for instance are provocative and thoughtprovoking and can enhance future communication through the preservation and dissemination of traditional skills and standards of literacy Moreover new forms of computermediated communication might create a new public sphere that is less esoteric elitist and inflated than the academic culture of recent decades though new technologies might also produce new life for obsolete theories and continue to promote esoteric theoretical languages that promote primarily the interests and cultural capital of academic elites Indeed one of the scandals of the past decades is that at the very moment when the economy polity society and culture were undergoing momentous upheavals on both the global and local level many academic intellectuals took refuge in the most arcane theoretical discourse and specialized academic languages I myself have been involved in these discourse games and believe that theory can actually be of use in a variety of academic and practical domains but believe that the search for a common discourse for publicly accessible language for clear thought and expression is an urgent necessity of the present moment and that the responsibility of intellectuals today is to speak out in language accessible to ordinary citizens Indeed the technological changes of the present moment are farreaching and force us to rethink everything the role of intellectuals the nature of democracy the shape of the good society and good life Theory and politics are up for grabs in the current moment and it is up to the public intellectuals of the future to devise languages and strategies of communication that make use of the new technologies and public spheres of the present age to redefine intellectuals and to struggle toward a better future Notes On the variety of often con icting postmodern politics see the survey in Best and Kellner 1991 Sartre formulated a conception of the committed writer and intellectual in his 1947 text What is Literature 1962 and developed a model of the committed intellectual as one engaged on the side of freedom and against oppression In the light of the polemics against Sartre by those associated with structuralist and poststructuralist theory ie LeviStrauss Lacan Foucault Derrida Lyotard etc it has rarely been noted that Sartre had a massive influence on these critics as well as those more closely associated with his own thought I just completed making a CDRom on Emile de Antonio39s film Painters Painting with Ron Mann for Voyager and am very excited about the potential of this technology The CDRom made possible not only digitization of the film but also entire transcripts of de Antonio s interviews with painters his Diary re ections on the film and his relationships with major painters of the period reviews of the film as well as video interview material with the lmmaker outtakes of the interviews and other documentary material thus creating an entire archive on American painting in the postWorld War II period The exception here was Walter Benjamin 1969Baudrillard 1983 is especially contemptuous of alternative media For more on alternative media see Kellner 1979 1985 and 1990 On media and communications politics of the present see Schiller 1989 and Kellner 1990 On media literacy see Giroux 1992 and 1994 McLaren Hammer et al 1995 and Kellner 1995a References Barth Hans 1976 Truth and Ideology Berkeley University of California Press Baudrillard Jean 1983 quotThe Ecstasy of Communicationquot in Hal Foster ed The Anti Aesthetic 126134 Benjamin Walter 1969 Illuminations New York Harcourt Brace amp World Bennett Tony 1990 Outside Literature London Routledge 1992 quotPutting Policy into Cultural Studiesquot in Grossberg et al 1992 2334 Best Steven and Douglas Kellner 1991 Postmodern Theory Critical Interrogations London and New York Macmillan and Guilford Downing John 1984 Radical Media Boston South End Press Fiske John 1994 Media Matters Minneapolis Minn University of Minnesota Press Foucault Michel 1977 Language CounterMemory Practice Ithaca New York Cornell University Press GirouX Henry 1992 Border Crossing New York Routledge 1994 Disturbing Pleasures New York Routledge Grossberg Lawrence Nelson Cary and Paula Treichler 1992 Cultural Studies New York Routledge Habermas Jurgen 1989 The Public Sphere Cambridge Mass The MIT Press Horkheimer MaX and TW Adomo 1972 Dialectic of Enlightenment New York Seabury Kellner Douglas 19745 quotThe Latest Sartrequot Telos 22 Winter 188201 1979 quotTV Ideology and Emancipatory Popular Culturequot Socialist Review 45 MayJune 1353 1985 quotPublic Access Television Alternative Viewsquot Radical Science Journal 16 Making Waves 7992 1990 Television and the Crisis of Democracy Boulder Col Westview 1992 The Persian Gulf TV War Boulder Col Westview 1995 Media Culture London and New York Routledge Laclau Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe 1985 Hegemony and Socialist Strategy London Verso Books MarX Karl and Friedrich Engels 1975 The German Ideology in MarxEngels Collected Writings Volume 5 New York International Publishers McLaren Peter Rhonda Hammer David Sholle and Susan Reilly 1995 Rethinking Media Literacy New York Peter Lang Institute for International Studies quot8 Stanford University a LECTURE TRANSCRIPT April 8 2003 AFTER BIPOLARITY BALANCING AGAINST MR BIG Josef Joffe Editor Die Zeit The history of the modern state system proffers a number of watershed dates 1648 when the Westphalian order of state sovereignties was established in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War 1815 when the Vienna Congress disposed of Napoleon s conquests and reshaped the European balance 1919 and 1945 when a new order was born in the aftermath of Germany s grab for hegemony My favorite recent watershed is March 5 2003 Why March 5 What great event transpired on this already forgotten date That day is worth remembering because this was the day when France Germany and Russia appeared on stage 51 lrois to declare that they would stop America s war against Iraq by voting against any such resolution in the UN Security Council This is what historians when French was still the language of diplomacy call a renversemenl des alliances a reversal of alliances Akin to the mother of all reversals in 1757 when the French and the Austrians mortal enemies for two centuries suddenly banded together in any alliance against Frederick the Great the king of upstart Prussia The point of this tale is to highlight the contours of a newly international order that may well have begun to emerge on March 5 of this year Two longtime American allies Germany and France suddenly joined hands with their old enemy Russia to oppose their former friend the United States If these new system grows and persists it will supersede for good the old order that was born on the ruins of the Nazi conquest in 1945 What was the old order and what might be the features of the new The old order was called bipolarity It had three de ning characteristics One power was concentrated at the top in the hands of the United States and the Soviet Union Two alliances were xed and frozen There was not one iota of a chance that France or Germany would switch to the Soviet side Three though astronomically bigger than all of the rest US and Soviet power were nicely stalemated because the two giants contained constrained and thus largely neutralized each other The death of bipolarity can be xed in time with a high degree of precision It occurred on Christmas Day 1991 when the hammerandsickle ag over the Kremlin was hauled down for the last time and replaced by the tricolour of Russia On the day the Soviet Union committed suicide by selfdissolution suddenly the other pole of the bipolar system was no more The United States now was the last remaining superpower and this was bound to have enormous consequences Why did it take a full dozen years until March 5 2003 for these consequences to become fully visible One answer is that world history always moves at its own pace It took about 7 years until 1822 for the antiNapoleon alliance to fall apart The antiGerman alliance of World War I collapsed in the mid 1920s And ten years had to pass for another reversal of alliances after 1945 when defeated West Germany was fully incorporated into America s antiSoviet alliance by the name of NATO And thus this time the Alliance has been dying a slow death ever since Christmas Day 1991 After victory in the Cold War NATO lost its central purpose and began to crumble like a bridge no longer in use 7 slowly almost invisibly In 1994 the departure of the last Russian troops from Central Europe signaled that Moscow s capitulation was complete What was the silent but historical message of this surrender The Europeans saw their existential dependence on the United States lifted and the latter its lesser but still vital need for a European glacis The historical consequences did not take long to assert themselves By the time of the Bosnian Wars 19951999 NATO as quasisupranational army was already defunct for those who fought alongside the US were but a loose coalition of the willing and able The clearest watershed was 911 It was not that the Europeans withheld fealty from the United States indeed as the Alliance invoked Article 5 numerous NATO members contributed forces to the American cause The deeper message of 911 and the Afghan campaign was one of systemic transformation Above all the United States demonstrated a surfeit of autonomous power much more so than in the rst Iraq war that finally rendered explicit the transition from bi to unipolarity The US was now truly Mr Big and Number One Moving unopposed and then several militarytechnological orbits above the rest it needed merely assistants not allies And so Secretary of Defense Don Rumsfeld would famously proclaim that the mission determines the coalition and not the other way round This spelled the unheralded demise of NATO as we knew it 7 as a community that would either act together or not at all Alliance was now ad hoc and a la carte Or even less as the runup to the Second Iraq War demonstrated History and theory have always predicted more than just the death of alliances as price of victory The larger warning was that the international system abhors imbalances that power begets counterpower Surreptitiously balancing against the United States had already begun in the latter 1990s when it regularly found itself alone and on the other side of such issues as the ABM Treaty the Complete Test Ban or the International Criminal Court At heart all of these duels were not about principle but power If the United States wanted to scratch the ABM Treaty in favor of Missile Defense Europe China and Russia strenuously tried to uphold it on the sound assumption that a better defense makes for a better offense hence for richer US military options than under conditions of vulnerability A lessthancomplete Test Ban would also enhance US options by allowing the development of smaller hence more useable nuclear weapons Naturally Europe et al insisted on adherence while the US balked And so with the International Criminal Court ICC In the end even the Clinton Administration correctly understood the underlying thrust of the ICC Claiming the right to pass judgment on military interventions by prosecuting malfeasants ex post facto the Court might constrain if not deter America s forays abroad Not to put too fine a point on it Europe and others cherished this expansion of multilateral oversight precisely for the reason why the United States opposed it Great powers loathe international institutions they cannot dominate lesser nations like them the way the Lilliputians liked their ropes on Gulliver The name of the game was balancingonthesly and both sides knew it though it was conducted in the name of law not of power The contest turned from jiujitsu to wrestling in summer of 2002 7 once the Bush administration began to prepare the world for a second round against Saddam Hussein The first clarion call was Gerhard s Schroder s indictment of American adventurism It was followed by a categorical refusal to join the American effort 7 not even under a UN mandate In the Land campaigns of Hesse and Lower Saxony in January 2003 he went one worse by threatening to vote against a war resolution in the Security Council To argue that Schroder tapped into the reservoir of German pacifism to save his sinking campaign misses the deeper point Spawned by strategic imperative the Federal Republic was practically the child of America No German chancellor even of the left would have dared play politics with the American connection while Soviet armies were poised to lunge across the Fulda Gap Better to lose the elections than to lose the Americans That Schroder chose to save himself provides the most vivid proof of bipolarity lost and dependence unhinged Indeed the demise of bipolarity abroad translated immediately into its collapse at home For fifty years there had always been an American party in the system 7 the Christian Democratic and Liberal right 7 and a victorious one to boot Yet this time their leaders did not rush to the defense of the United States unlike the Adenauers and Kohls they merely squirmed and waf ed2 It may be true that all politics is local but it helps to have a permissive international environment on your side The French an Economy power that always tries to y Business played a subtler game From De Gaulle onward they have sought to capitalize on their nuisance value Patiently and skillfully they went up against the US in the Security Council to execute with Russia and China a supple balancing strategy The purpose was to entangle Gulliver in the ropes of greatpower diplomacy And entangle they did 7 when the US consented to prosecute its war against Iraq by way of the UN The fruits of France s labor was Resolution 1441 dire threats against Iraq but no automaticity of force serious consequences but UN inspections first When Hans Blix returned from his various forays France s stand predictably hardened The signal repeated by Moscow and Beijing was more inspections 7 on the plausible assumption that the approach of spring and summer would close America s window of military opportunity and postpone an attack sine die Compared to Schroder s footstomping this was a far more subtle performance but the underlying thrust was the same The objective was to constrain and contain the United States that had mutated from last remaining superpower to hyperpower and empire And why not given that America s might was no longer stalemated by the Soviet Union The French and the Germans as well as Russia and China acted as if they feared the hyperpower more than Saddam s imperialist re exes and his vehicles of mass destruction And well they might in this new era of Gulliver Unbound Assume an American victory that is not only swift but also sustainable that will intimidate rather than in ame Arabs and Iranians that will relieve dependence on demanding clients such as SaudiArabia and Egypt Such an outcome will install the US as arbiter over the Middle East over its oil and politics This prospect can hardly enthuse the lesser players for it would certify what is already the case de facto the global primacy of the United States So it should not come as a surprise that America s rivals and former allies would try to balance against No l by enmeshing him in the ropes of institutional dependence And balance they did all the way to March 5 when former friends and old foes ganged up on Mr Big by vowing to veto any war resolution in the Security Council How will this story of bipolarity lost unfold The only thing we know is that the past is not over yet Suddenly on January 3 1 those who would fashion a diplomatic axis against the United States found themselves 1 In January 2003 Germany entered the Security Council as a rotating member in February it became chairman 2 By March 2003 parts of the Christian Democrats notably their leader Angela Merkel cautiously maneuvered to return to the American fold but hardly to the universal applause of the rest of the party confronted with an equally soft alliance against themselves 7 when Britain Spain Italy Poland Czechoslovakia Hungary Denmark and Portugal ever so politely told Messrs Chirac and Schroder to back off In Diplomatese the message said of Iraq Our goal is to safeguard world peace and security by insuring that this regime gives up its weapons of mass destruction Our governments have a common responsibility to face this threat And We are confident that the Security Council will face up to its responsibility Decoded however the missive read We are not amused that France and Germany are trying to gang up on the United States Saddam must be disarmed by force if need be The message repeated by the Vilnius10 a few days later was that 18 European countries from A like Albania to S like Slovenia were not yet ready to take on the hyperpower 7 and even less ready to submit to the French and Germans as wouldbe gang leaders The implication for US policy is ambiguous On the one hand it has lost its former Continental sword Germany Germany s escape from dependence was the most vivid illustration of system transformation for the French have opposed the US in the past without ever completely slamming the door on cooperation true to style they dispatched their aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle toward the Suez Canal while entrapping Washington in the corridors of the UN On the other hand the US may have gained a large group of new playmates The Euro8 and the Vilnius10 are a motley bunch Some of them resent the FrancoGerman tandem s claim to Europe leadership other would rather depend for their security on a remote superpower than on weaker nearby neighbours with the strong Continental ambitions Indeed the closer geographically a nation to Russia the closer it feels politically to the United States At any rate if NATO was the first victim of system transformation Europe s pretension to a common foreign and security policy was the second The game is now wide open for balance andmaneuver on the part of all comers As the broadsides of the 18 showed the US can play this game too The point here is system transformation no matter what Frozen alliances and loyalties are now definitely a thing of the past It is Back to the Future with shifting coalitions and allegiances with mixed games of cooperation and competition But history whispers ever more loudly that power shall be balanced that great power begets counterpower And since the United States is the one and only hyperpower since it dominates the global chessboard along all dimensions military economic and cultural the target of balancing will be the United States This has been and will be the price of overwhelming power Or to borrow from Freud The anatomy of the international system is its destiny IMPLICATIONS FOR US POLICY How well is the United States equipped to play this oldnew game of balance and maneuver Balancing in the way of 18Lh and l9Lh century Britain has not been America s greatest forte given those classical cycles of American foreign policy that have swung back and forth between retraction and unilateralism But let us pose another question Is there perhaps an escape from this dour verdict of history and theory that power shall be balanced Perhaps 7 if America learned to soften the edge of its unprecedented power with the soothing balm of trust In his State of the Union Address of 2003 George W Bush did not hold out such relief when he asserted In the end the course of this nation does not depend on the decisions of others Does this imply the road to empire Real empires routinely crush their rivals and they go on conquering until they are exhausted like Rome Russia or Turkey But America is only an imperial republic as Raymond Aron mused forty years ago Democracies as his compatriot Alexis de Tocqueville reminded us are fickle and inwardbound Presumably they pay decent respect to the opinions of mankind because they cherish that respect for themselves They are better off leading by heeding because they cannot sustain the brutish ways of Rome for any length of time There is also practical matter that highlights some critical differences between the 21st and the 19111 century Apart from crushing characters as despicable and dangerous as Saddam Hussein the most interesting Kissing Pedro Martinez Existential anankastic conditionals and rationale clauses Jon Nissenbaurn McGil University Anankastic conditional AC sentences like 1 which express conditions that are necessary or sufficient for achieving a goal have been shown in recent work 13141617 to resist treatment both under a traditional possible worlds framework and under Kratzer s 15 enrichment of that framework The meanings of ACs are teleological they can be paraphrased with rationale claases 2 1 You have to take the Atrain ifyou want to go to Harlem Saebo 2001 2 You have to take the Atrain in order to go to Harlem Various modi cations of a Kratzerian analysis have been proposed in the literature cited above to deal with the meanings of ACs This talk identi es a problem that all of these proposals suffer from posed by existential ACs like 3 and the RCs like 4 that paraphrase them After showing why these are problematic I argue that the right treatment for ACs involves a modi cation of the approach developed by von Fintel and Iatridou 2004 3 You can take the Atrain ifyou want to go to Harlem Existential AC 4 You can take the A train in order to go to Harlem Both von Fintel amp Iatridou VFampI and Huitink 2004 propose in essence that the material expressed by the if clause in 1 or the to clause in 2 serves to designate the goal by determining the most desirable among the possible worlds quanti ed over by the modal Both take as a starting point Kratzer s doubly relativized theory of modality according to which modal operators are restricted rst by a modal base f which assigns to the evaluation world it a set of propositions w that describe the worlds that are circumstantially or epistemically accessible from w and then by an ordering source g which establishes a partial order on the set given byfw based on relevant laws etc in w deontic modality or on the goals aims etc held in w bouletic modality Both proposals are essentially elaborations of Saebo s 2001 idea that in ACs material in the if clause restricts the ordering source not the modal base VFampI notice that Saebo s account runs into a problem whenever the ordering source provides con icting goals such as i going to Harlem and ii going to Hoboken They suggest a modi cation whereby the to clause in 2 identi es the propositions that the ordering source ranks most highly thus expressing the designated goal Further they propose that ACs have elliptical to clauses serving as the direct arguments of the modal As for the if clause they suggest cf also von Stechow et al 2004 that it restricts the teleological modal base although they leave open the possibility that it is actually the restrictor of a covert higher epistemic modal operator Thus 1 and 2 have a basic structure like 5 5 HAVETOyou take the A trainto go to Harlem which will be true in a world it relative to a modal base w and ordering source gw iff in all the gwbest worlds in w in which you go to Harlem you take the A train Huitink points out that this proposal too makes a wrong prediction this time whenever two non con icting goals both characterize all the gwbest worlds such as the goals of i going to Harlem and ii kissing the Dutch soccer star Ruud van Nistelrooy if he s around Huitink proposes that in ACs gw gives the singleton set you go to Harlem eliminating other potential goals from consideration Here is the problem posed by existential ACs like 3 and their RC paraphrases 4 All the theories predict one way or another that these sentences will be true in w relative to f g iff 6 At least one of the gwbest worlds w E w is such that you take the A train in w and in the gw best worlds in the only gw worlds Huitink you go to Harlem As far as it goes this is fine since 3 and 4 will be true if your goal is indeed to go to Harlem M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 1 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF SPEMANN S ORGANIZER AND NEURAL INDUCTION Lecture 5 Having discussed the early events in mesoderrn induction we now turn to signaling evens that take place during gastrulatiorl A v D A LA 0 Cleavage Lale mastula E vcen stag any Gailum Neulal maucuan and mesudctm mum lcurnzal lolauon mesodelm inducllu naummg by o39gmm M5 lrlltlrfdlloll 1 Dorsalization of mesoderm and neural induction by Spemann s Organizer during gastrulation The Organizer experiment Spemann and Mangold 1924 is the best known experiment in embryology It has led more than any other to the current view that development occurs A through a cascade of cellcell interactions If the dorsal lip the site where gastrulation starts of the blastopore is transplanted to the opposite side of the embryo it is able to recruit host cells organi 39 them into a secondary twinned body axis containing many histotypes and complex structures Tr cristatus Tr taeniatus bryo 11 m hu optic cup at veliclu d 1111 bud D i 1th side I econ e bryu u vulcln It In an m udul Lnry tube And two row a M H 8pm a nd and Mold quot mm b In neurun 0 Triton de moilEM M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Robertis Page 2 Salt D R Eek Prowl S 21 Had Salt Ch The organizer has three main properties 1 it induces neural tissue on the overlying ectoderrn 2 imparts more dorsal characteristics to the mesoderrn of the marginal zone ie dorsalizes mesoderm leading to the formation of somites and trunk muscles and 3 it induces a secondary gut dorsalization of the endoderm This small region of the gastrula has been a goldmine for the isolation of new molecules involved in cell signaling We made organizerspeci c libraries and screened them for cDNAs expressed in the organizer eg identi cation of goosecoid chordin cerbems Frzb I Other labs used lnctional injection assays injecting pools of synthetic mRNAs into the ventral side of embryos and then doing sibselection until a single gene is identi ed eg identi cation of noggin Siamois thn dickkopf Homeobox genes secreted factors dissected dorsal lip st 10 gastrula M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Robertis Page 3 91 Xenopus dorsalspeci c cDNAs isolated by differential screening Bouwmeester et al 1996 Gene Product of isolates chordin novel secreted protein 70 cerberus novel secreted protein 11 goosecoid homeoboxtranscription factor 3 pintallavWKHI transcription factor 2 PAPC protocadherinstructural gene 2 XnatZ homcoboxtranscription factor 1 XlimI homcoboxtranscription factor 1 FrzbI novel secreted protein 1 N uclear factors ectoderm Gsc Xlim1 HNF3B Xnot Xanf1 OtxZ Siamois thn lro3 bozozok mesoderm endoderm ventral Secreted factors chordin noggin follistatin ADMP shh XNR1234 cerberus Antivin Frzb1 Dkk1 Most of the molecules isolated were transcription factors especially homeobox genes or secreted proteins Ventral microinjection of these homeoboxcontaining mRNAs goosecoz39d Siamois thn Xlz39mI boz Xnot can cause secondary axes and recruit neighboring uninjected cells into them as in Spemann s experiments Since they encode DNA binding proteins the inductive effects on neighboring cells are mediated by changes in the expression of secreted proteins The factors secreted by the organizer pattern the three germ layers The effects of the organizerspeci c factors are opposed by ventralizing genes that are expressed in ventrolateral regions of the embryos Notable among the latter are BMPZ EMF4 and Xwnt8 M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Robertis Page 4 2 Chordin noggin and follistatin antagonize BMP ventralizing signals Microinjection of chordin noggin or follistatin mRNA will induce secondary axes rescue UV embryos dorsalize mesoderm in ventral marginal zone eXplants and induce CNS differentiation in animal caps BMP4 Ventralizailon and Dorsalizallon and antlncurl Icllvlllol neural Induclian Modal D In Molecular Mechanism by Which chordin muonizes EMF4 Signaling To our surprise coinjection of EMF4 abolished neural induction by chordin by noggin and by follistatin which are secreted proteins of entirely different structures This antagonism takes place in the extracellular space as indicated by injecting different blastomeres Production of the proteins in tissue culture showed that both noggin and chordin bind to BlVIPs and prevent their binding to BlVIP receptors The lack of BlVIP signaling in turn leads to the dorsalization of mesoderm and neuralization of ectoderm The same result can be obtained using a DNBlVIPReceptor construct Thus the surprising nding was that neural induction and the dorsalization of mesoderm and also of endoderm had the same molecular basis antagonism of ventral BlVIP signals The biggest surprise from these studies on Spemann s organizer was that patterning by the organizer is effected through secreted antagonists of growth factors Chordin Frzb1 Noggin Dkk1 Cerberus Follistatin l l Xwnt8 Xwnt8 ans BMPs BMPs M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Rober s Page 5 Epidermal ectoderm Neural ectoderm 391 Chordin Noggin Follistatin Dorsal endoderm Model indicating that the same set of regulatory signals may provide the positional information that patterns ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm in Xenopus On the dorsal side right the organizer oval provides dorsal positional values to ectodermal animal cap top and mesodermal marginal zone middle tissues by secreting organizer factors such as end noggin and folistatin On the opposite side left ventralizing factors such as BMP4 and presumably other signals give ventral positional values to the tissues antagonizing organizer signals High dorsal values promote neural differentiation in the ectoderm and formation of notochord and muscle in mesoderm while high ventral values lead to epidermogenesis in ectoderm and differentiation of blood island and mesenchymes in the mesoderm Spemann s organizer is full of inhibitors Some think that it may have been easier perhaps to produce inhibitors during the course of evolution to modulate pathways a spanner in the works than to evolve entirely new signaling pathways A large number of secreted antagonists have been discovered in various tissues Fizb1 FrzbA crescent Chordin sizzled Noggin WIFS Cerberus Follisfatin Gremlin l l Wnt Wnt BMP Nodal Activin BMP BMP Dirk1 Argos Lefty an3 Hip LRPG dEGFR NodalR BMPR Shh ActivinR 3 The Chordino mutation in zebra sh A large screen for mutations affecting zebra sh development has been carried out Two ventralized mutants less notochord and somites more blood and small head were identi ed A ventralized mutant is what one would expect from a Spemann organizer mutant gain M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 6 The strongest one ding was found to be a loss of function of chordin and renamed Chordino At the gastrula stage chordirm embryos have less neural plate marked by forkedhead 3 less dorsal mesoderm marked by sonic hedgehog and more ventral mesoderm marked by eveI a homeobox gene At later stages the sh recover somewhat The lethality canbe rescued by injecting chordin or noggin orDN BWR mRNA into the embryo x 1 A Wild Type R Chordino d3 EMP Chordin eve 1 5quotquot These studies validate the view that a single gene can pattern the ectoderm and the mesoderm Other zebra sh mutations at least 6 have a dorsalized phenotype more notochord somites less blood The strongest one of these called swirl is a mutation in EMF 2 Mutation of EMF2 secondarily also reduces expression of EMF4 in ventral regions of the gastrula Double mutants swirl7 chordinojr have a swirl phenotype ie swirl is epistatic to ding This indicates that the function of chordin is to antagonize BMIPS Other zebra sh dorsalized mutations have been mapped to EMF7 Smad5 a BMIP receptor and Tolloid 39139 5 50 4 In Xenopus Chordin is required for 9 p QN Spemann s organizer phenomenon x 3quot x x 99 9 9 0 In Xenopus antisense my Chm morpholinos produce a moderately ventralized phenotype very similar to Chordino supernatant cell extract However by experimentally manipulating the embryo much stronger requiremenm are seen For example the LiCl effect has an absolute requirement for Chordin M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 7 Organizer grafm to the ventral side demonstrate that Chordin is required for Spemann s organizer to induce a CNS In control grafm of dorsal lip into the dorsal region an unexpected cellautonomous requirement for Chordin was revealed The embryo prefers to make CNS from cells that express Chordin Cells injected with Chd MO remain in the skin ectoderm instead of differenciating into CNS Why D A an an mi ank 9 5 An early phase of Chordin expression The Preorganizer Right a er midblastula there is an early phase of Chordin expression in a region called the preorganizer which gives rise to the CNS later on midblasluia late blaslula gastrula 0335 CNS Pm mazme quot quotquotquot vomrzl sun arm39s masoderm Organizer Nienwkoap VegT Vg1 Nudals GEM Chordin Chordin stage 9 stage 105 O Wesser et al Dev Biol 234 161173 2001 M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 EddyDe Robertis Page 8 At gastrula Chd requires Nodal signaling and can be inhibited by Cerberusshort mRNA The blastula preorganizer expression requires 3 Catenin signals since it is blockec by AN TCF3 stage 105 G stage 105 H stage 105 Injection of Bcatenin or GSK3 mRNA or treatment with LiCl Will induce CNS formation in animal caps neural differentiation marked by Six3 Otx2 Rx2a En2 Krox20 NCAM and Neurotubulin All anterior neural markers require Chordin and Noggin Thus Bcatenin induces neural tissue through BMP inhibitors such as Chordin and Noggin expressed at the blastula stage a mo Smaan mum RT PCRIC v or gt dnGSK m mmn LICIImalmenx musz Phenometh 5m 9 E pun w F u i I ILl E n The preorganizer is required for anterior CNS formation explaining findings by Embryologists of the 1920 s Brain tissue can be induced even if the formation of the gastrula organizer is blocked with the inhibitor Cer Short These findings help clarify old observations in which planar signals diffusing in the plane of the ectoderm versus vertical M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 9 signals emanating from the mesoderm were analyzed The early Bcatenin signal that takes place in the future CNS predetermines the position of the CNS Signals from the mesoderm Chordin Noggin and Cerberus that are also required explain the vertical induction discovered by organizer gra s I will show a few additional slides to demonstrate this 4 4 4 non neural Ir emoderm neural vertical induction mesoderm V g planar induction 5 Shongastmlation antagonizes dpp In Drosophila there are several zygotic genes involved in dorsoventral patterning They are controlled by the maternal morphogen dorsal twisted gaskmlalinn cmn Ian 9 Zyzauuwwmlwmnumnw panamnlmammemm umpmla enmryns and melt muram relatives Saved gm 3r swew hameoban W in m wall m at m embryo mm mm a MIDI aw5 a Dr 1 a mum mama tor a mm m 4 Wm M W to EMP4 5 mural am twistedtaxmanquot um a mm mm to dpp D mtan comm sun wan m m a a mm mm shrew BMW lamr mm m lll39llw 6 at 7 mal mm lam hammers Wt mmnemmnnmmmmvarmamemtemmmanm I g mwimm o 1 X shun gastrulalion 7 and a z u gt A breakthrough came whenXenopus chd andDrosophila mg were found to be similar and to functionally substitute for each other 477 25 30 39 31 ld n lly l u a u ii l XENOPUS NHZlD l l u DEID on CH R1 R2 R3 R4 Wig NHzIElL 39 l l EHZHZI coon R1 R2 R3 R4 I hydrophobic segment ysrich at icon I Nglycosylatlon The amino acid sequences of Xenopus chd and Drosophila Shortgastrulazi39on share similarities Both proteins have a secretory signal sequence or hydrophobic segment at the amino NHZ end dark box several putative Nglycosylation sites vertical lines and four cysteinerich repeam The first repeat R1 of chd is more similar to R1 of mg than to any of M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 10 the other repeam in chd The same is true for R4 indicating that both genes are derived from a COIHIHOI ancestor D u quotNahum A O p v m V n MC DD M A F V i mlodmnywlu m m y y i V i hypaumsis um pmioslames nnd dzuicmmmcs had undergonu a douseVenn inversion during cvululion 7 TolloidXolloid proteases cleave sagchd Geoffroy s victory Tolloid and is Xenopus homologue Xolloid encodes a secreted zinc metalloprotease that has five proteinprotein interaction repeam present in complement Cl subunits and two EGF repeam The zebra sh tolloid homologue is mutated in the mini n dorsalized mutant Pro Protease c1 c1 IEGFI c1 Ed c1 c1 u prodpp 9 Tldgt dpp D 509 control xolloid JIM sogdpr l imam Td dpp Tbllaid was thuugh to increase app activity by pmteolytica y quot processing pi However rolloid Punk also an by d die homologucyefallmd quotmm WW mP x39 its mRNA is micmiiijemd Note die loss ornomhordandincieascdblood M267 March 2003 Eddy De Roba tis This proposition was tested by direct biochemical experimenm by Piccolo et al In co injection experimenm Xolloid inhibited the secondary axisforming ability of chordin but not that of noggin follistatin or DN BWR Conditioned medium from cells transfected with binant chordin but not noggin at two sites Xolloid also cleaves chordinBW complexes at the same sites Cleavage of chordin inactivates is activity and Xolloid cleaved recom Lecture 5 Page 11 releases active EMF4 from inactive ChordJn BW complexes SIGNALING DDLYN DRSYL Vertebrates Drosophila de tld Chd sog BMP dpp antineural ntineural ventralization dorsalization NO SIGNALING xcLLulD lrluc vo awn Acxlw BMW SIGNALING DSMQS DGAGS In parallel sludius M O Connor showed that Dlosophl39lu 1010121 cleaves the sagdpp complex Cone usion these studies indicate mat the entire of dorsa in 1822 forty years before Darwin eolmy s Hllalre39s lemons lobster mls dlssecllon me ammal ls presenleu ln Iho orlcmallun opposlle lo mal ll wn normally have mm respect in me grullml me mnlral newoussyslem cns or nerve com l5 abuve and ls ms N may plan of h resembles x mm Frum rcl 1 by coup l E n m Snemal Callecl Laulsc M Dallln Lllnary UCLA c lllel and mam mood vessels lhll Muscles lmu ank he ln lms ouemallun me M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 12 Proteolytic control plays a crucial role in the formation of gradienm of growth factor activity Achve Dppnamp Acivve moon 6 D99 Bmp q SogChd I O i LIHQQ 49900 0 qU 3quot 39QQ g9 000 DppBmp 3 0 9 9 0 activity Q 9 5 a 9 a quot99909 990 a Drosophia enopus V D Gerry Weinmaster SClENCEVOL 279 IGJANUARY i958 8 The antiBM activity of chordin resides in the cysteinerich modules It has been found that the cysteine rich domains CRs are BMPbinding modules Construcm containing individual CRs of about 80 amino acids in particular CR1 and CM are able to bind BMPs Xolloid cum Chordin just downstream of CR1 and CM Although the CR domain can bind BMP it does so with 10fold lower affinity than intact Chordin 2 2amp1 25584 2525 KD3X1O391 M g laz KD3x10399M Ventral injections m embryos umanm w 2mm A v CR1 Injecllnn Phanuiypem 3 8 CR1 CR2 CR3 Legg39m H20 Inununoprecipitation of BMP4 with CR5 0 l I nMCR15nMEMP4 IPuMyc l CR1 CR2 CR3 CR4 ngm M2313 M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 13 Chordin ltT i ea 71 are Dun in many extracellular matrix proteins such as F quotagequotquotA J fib 39llar procollagens the most abundant Neurann n proteins in the body thrombospondin 39 quot von Willebrand factor Neura inl KMquot Crossveinless2 Keilin CTGF connective tissue growth factor and other proteins Crossvainlessz In the case of collagen the CR Ammmess modules bind BMPs and TGFB The bound growth factors in principle might Grim1 39IIEJi 39 iiesieil also be released by metalloproteases that cut close downstream of the module as in Nequot 39 dwarf g the case of chordin providing active 395 Esmmlns signaling actors when required for tissue CTGF 39 homeostasis inthea t wee vs a mmmen V quotmquot m e m procoll IIB Nprolelnase PCP C EMF 9 I and mHNA Induces see my axes mneme e ma he snrce men Call Us belong ms C domams is rnacnve m mrs essay rener Lalrar39n ereV 2000 c llypalliencalmodel re me e g orgWM m pr pe Ielx me armon shows now me reserves a mum ck acmeme m the a 0 Que I a pm sdpraiaassmal like revold wandrersaseacwa mm xlirs ExlrscsVulnl reservoir 01 growth Iacxars sea text when required or neeue homeostasis M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 14 9 An additional player Twisted Gastrulation The Drosophila gene Twistedgastrulation deg encodes a secreted protein that is required for the formation of the amnioserosa the tissue that requires the highest levels of dppscrew activity Thus deg functions to promote maximal BMP signaling Oelgeschlager et al 2000 noted that szg shared some sequence similarity to the part of the CR domains of chordin This suggested that szg might be a BMPbinding protein which it was a b BMFAUnM sz an cm Gms NixNDvsPs mum n at k k 5 cm arm mv mn OPVHLPDQ Pv a s zquot o 5 o m smsw xv ms mpmmsn ma a a m 7 t W 5 a quot5 BM F Ts 35 szngg szg binds BMP but it does not compete with fulllength chordin for the binding of BMP On the contrary it stimulated it because szg is also a chordinbinding protein capable of forming a stable ternary complex of chordin EM and szg However when the proteolytic product of chordin digestion by Xolloid CR1 was used the resulm were very different the residual BMP binding activity of CR1 was dislodged by szg in crosslinking experimenm cruelawiz rrssiz Chdl BMPh 105 g EMPirrsgi 50 a CR1l IBMPI lt x w Chd BMP complex E v gt W w CRI BMP binary complex The ternary complex is a much better inhibitor of BMP signaling and the proteolytic cleavage of Chordin subsequently provides the molecular switch that permim BMPszg to be released allowing binding of BMP to is receptor M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Robertis Page 15 Chordm gt 159 amp DEGRADATION Conclusion A nely regulated molecular pathway involving Chordin Xolloid and Twistedgastrulation regulates the dorsalventral activity gradient of bone morphogenetic protein inXenopus 10 Head induction I Dickkopf Dickkopf l German for bighead stubborn was isolated by Christof Niehrs by screening pools of 150 synthetic mRNAs coinjected with truncated dominantnegative BMP receptor This was followed by sib selection He knew that BMP inhibition gives trunk organizer and BMP and Wnt double inhibition head organizer lnduchM VV nt Fig L Twninhlbllnr mmkl In mgmm wgimaiimlhm lnmk 39 39 39 il Chaldm n u hum imluunun 099iquot P mp um um Inhlhlliun uf Wm ml 8MP signalling n gaunt c 9mm um mm mm mm mm or slgmli munmu um folllsmln x 1 Mb mud mum Clmnlm m mm Rrgiunulspxx39 lynflnduu muner dx tmmml m mumm mum omnuxknllmld mm NM and mmin 1 nu be Impnmml in WI quotmm ml rm mpwa mm cum I m IU JD Trunk l BMP 599 E The new gene was expressed in prechordal mesoderm and induced large heads or complete axes trunk head Cerberus does not induce trunks 0 a M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Robertis Page 16 Dkk1 mRNA inhibited early Xwnt 8 mRNA effects and also late effects caused by injection of plasmid DNA of cytogeletal actin promoterXwntS pCSKAXwnt S at the gastrula stage This effect occurred upstream of Dsh Since Dkk encodes a secreted protein it should function as a secreted Wnt antagonist InXenopus antibody injections into the blastocoel caused cyclopia W Luquot anti 14 Ab 5y 39 39 gt 39 How does this head inducer work By inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling as described in lecture 2 11 Head induction II Frzb l antagonizes XwntS Another factor secreted by the organizer is Ferl which antagonizes the ventralizing effects of Xwnt 8 a gene normally expressed in the lateral and ventral marginal zone Xwnt 8 DNA constructs that drive expression of Xwnt 8 at gastrula turn head and notochord structures into muscle ie into more ventral structures Frzbl is a secreted protein containing a domain similar to the putative Wntbinding region of the frizzled family of transmembrane receptors F erI is widely expressed in adult mammalian tissues In the Xenopus gastrula it is expressed and regulated as a typical Spemann organizer component Injection of F erI mRNA blocks expression of WyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks An antiBMP coinjected with Frzbl induces heads Cultured cells transfected with a membranetethered form of Wntl bind epitopetagged Frzbl in the 103910 M range The organizer secretes many other Wnt antagonists of the Fer At a later stage during gastrulation a second secreted frizzledlike protein is secreted by the ventral marginal zone This gene called sizzled was discovered by M Kirschner at Harvard and serves to restrictXwnt 8 activity to the somite forming region The marginal zone becomes subdivided by multiple inhibitory factors into regions of distinct cell fates M267 March 2003 Lecture 5 Eddy De Roba tis Page 17 Venxral I Or anlzzr m m the Sluled Frz d mu 1 i me n m m w mm mm mm mm WSW 7 Wm uqu e W Wm a an V 39 wm The inibition of BMP and Wnt signaling can be suf cient for the formation of head organizer whereas BMIP inhibition is required for trunk organizer The work on Cerberus suggesm that inhibiting Nodal is also an important step for the formation of the head eld 12 Head induction 1 Cerberus and head development Cerberus a factor with headinducing activities is a secreted inhibitor that antagonizes simultaenously Nodal BMP4 and Xwnt 8 nlecled mm a Single 134 venlral vegetsi blas mmere of a 321 s Xr39ilopllS ombry induces head structures as well as a duplicated heart and liver Tue seeon ary eye a smr gle Lycloplc eye and olfactory placode can be readily seen From Bouwmeester 9 3 1996 photograph comm m E M De Rnber s Cerberus is expressed in the anteriormost endoderm and provided the first suggestion that anterior endoderrn is involved inhead induction Lecture 5 M267 March 2003 Page 18 Eddy De Roba tis amenor endoderm s pcmaun nl39gunicr ventral cerberus Cerberus is activated by early signals in Endoderrn Vgl nodal and by organizer factors such as Chordin and Frzbl The secretion of Cerberus into the extracellular space at the mid gastrula stage would be an important downstream event that locks the head program in place by simultaneously blocking three signaling pathways iNodal EMF4 and Xwnt 8 7 that are involved in trunk formation Cerberus generates a trunkfree territory in the anterior of the embryo Studies in mouse embryos strongly suggest an important role for anterior endoderm in head formation Organizer Anlagansls Chordin Noggin Fan1 Dickkopl Nodal vm ANTEHOR mucosaw Cerberus NODAL Emu Wm TRUNK INHIEIYION HEAD DEVELOPMENT Flgum Mode 21 In Vomauun na luncuan a nmenur endndmm m Xenaau new devemnmnnl References Lecture 5 De Robertis EM Larrain J Oelgeschlager M and Wessely O 2000 The establishment of Spemann s Organizer and patteming of the vertebrate embryo Nature Reviews Genetics 1 171181 This is required reading Harland R and Gerhart J 1997 Formation and function of Spemann s Organizer Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 13 611667 De Robertis EM and Sasai Y 1996 A common plan for dorsoventral patteming in Bilateria Nature 380 3740 Piccolo S Agius E Lu B Goodman 8 Dale L and De Robertis EM 1997 Cleavage of Chordin by the Xolloid metalloprotease suggests a role for proteolytic processing in regulation of Spemann organizer activity Cell 91 407416 Discourse Dictators and Democrats Lecture 16 Moving to Democracy From the Soviet Union to Russia Topics Dictatorship and democracy the Soviet Union to Russia Politics 1966 Change in elevation elongation and enlargement Spreading identi cation popular response to changing discourse From privative to positive oppositions Transformation of parochial altruism ls Russia today a democracy Limits of the theory Dictatorship and Democracy The only difference between dictatorship and democracy concerns who chooses political leaders Dictators appoint themselves with the choice of dictator e Ratirication ortne selrappointment may but need not involve voting A democracy exists when all are or can become eligible to join in choosing those who make decisions binding on all e voting occurs in democracy because it is tne cneapest and surest way to ensure universal eligioilitytoioin in cnoosing 7 Could nold a universal consultation but it would cost to rnucn and nave no derinite result Unsatisfactory Definition snouldn t democracy mean rule by tne people 7 7 Nu incentive ror any individual to monitor actions by government 7 PopularWilldependsnotonlyonalwatpeoplewantputtp ninat voting rule is used to aggregate tneir preferences ZUEIEI electlun snouldn t democracy mean observance of civil rlghts e uustiried as enablan rule by tne people 7 Jus as an apsolute good conrlicts vvlth cnoice by all snouldn t democrac mean egalitarian distribution 7 ConrlictsWitn cnoice bya ir eoual entitlement gnes each an incentive to reduce tne ettort tnatiointly pruducesthe amuunttu be dlstrlbuted redudlun u ellun by all ultlmately reduces amount pruducedtu nuthlng and nu une meters 3 share u nuthlng uosepn Schurnpeter We are provided w a a onably erricient criterion by wnicn to distinguisn democratic governments fr otners My derinition l5 however not Schurnpeter s Discourse and Democracy Elevation elongation and enlargement combine to presage dictatorshi Intermediate discourse presages democracy interrupted by violence 7 A discourse cnaracterized by some elevation metapnors and a distinctive language Hign German precedes NaZl takeover e A compromise discourse kalharevnusa precedes elections interrupted by military coups in Greece 7 Use or a roreign language Englisn by politicians precedes violence by oilinguals comoining Englisn Witn dirrerent local languages in lltenya What kind of discourse would presage democracy Soviet to Russian Politics 196693 Soviet Union ruled by a selfappointing Politburo headed by a Genera Secretary In 1989 General Secretary began to rule as Chairman elected by a national legislature and in 1990 as President chosen by the legislature Armed coup in August 1991 forces dissolution of Soviet Union in December 1991 emergence of independent Russia Russia since 1993 governed by an elected President and an elected legislature with restricted separate powers Politburo Appointed lts Voters General Secretary complied llSt of future Polltburo rnernbers EXlStlrlg Politburo approved tne list and presented it ror ratirication by vote or Central Committee me bers 7 Ce tr l C mmittee could and tvvlce did reiect tne list 1957 and 1964 Central Committee consisted or appointees by Politburo e Malnlytup administrators Some were neads or regional Communist Pany cummlllees cnarged wllh regional appointments Selected regional appointees attended a convention eve y nve yearswnere lheyunanlmuusly rained tne GeneralSecrelary s lls1 or entra Committee members luslhelr potential replacements called kandldaty e r istinguisned citizens Brezhnev 196471982 W0 brlef lrlterrnedlarles arld Gorbachev 198571990 Choserl by Sarne procedures 7 Certain rerorms undertaken in 199D wnen Gorbacnev was already ruling as President ratnertnan General Secretary Political Transition 19891991 1988 Corbacnev gains approval ror election or a Congress witn power to amend tne Constitution 1989 election contested by more tnan one candidate in most locations 7 All candidates preapproved by local communist party orricials e A rewcandidates opposed by local orricials nevertneless secured rignt to n in rtain ma or cities ecause or popular pressure and intervention by o a ev e Tvvurthlrds or seats allocated by district one tnird or seats allocated to publlc urgarllzatlurls controlled by Communist Party including tne Pa itselr 1989 Congress cnooses oorbacnev as Chalrrnarl he snirts nis staff rrom oeneral Secretary s ornce to ornce or Chalrrnarl 1990 Congress amends Constitution to enable its members to elect oorbacnev as President Perorms preserve Politburo control tnrougn appointments ratiried by voters Russian Politics 19781991 Sovlet Urllorl lrlCluded a Subdlvlslorl for Russa i e Russlarl Socialist Pederated Soviet Republlc RSFSR e ssra in Germany ltvvas by rartne largest subdivision 7 in c ntrastto otner subdivisions it lacked a regional communist party ln 1990 tne PSPSP elected a Congress witn power to amend tne Constitution 7 A maiority cnose tne rormer Politburo handldal Elurleeltslrl as cnairman wnen Gorbacnev intervened to rorce tne rival Communist candidate to wtndrawnomtne con est 7 Yeltslrl s disgrace and expulslurl by tne Politburo nad made nim a popular nero ln Jurle l99lYeltslrl was elected President ortne PSPSP by a freely contested popular vote ln December 19 Belarus and Ukralrle autnority to do so sin an leaders or two other Slavic regions declared dissolution or Soviet Urllorl witnout Russian Politics 19911993 Fearing Gorbachev s plans for the Soviet Union Russian communists and na ionalists tried he armed coup of August When the coup failed they used control ofthe Russian Congress to oppose Yeltsln s pre 39 cy September 1993 Yeltsin unconstitutionally suspended the Congress and declared elections held Dec 1993 for a a new Constitution turning the Congress into b a LI a e To be called tne Pourtn Duma e Pirsttnrougn tnird Duma were elected advisory councilsto tne Emperor berore 1917 P New constitution would combine an elected President witn elected advisers 7 never intended separation or powers Discursive Conditions Transition from Soviet Union to Russia replaced self appointed leaders with elected leaders even ifthe elected president ultimately gained disproportionate powers How did discourse participate in the transformation of selfappointment into election Soviet rulers spoke about politics in Russian which was spok n y most but far from all people under their rule Discourse supports dictatorship if it cues people with elevation elongation and enlargement Did elevation elongation and enlargement diminish in political use of Russian Elevation Elongation Enlargement Occurr nce per 1000 words fRussian terms corresponding to English High wide big large and reatquot e o Fi y printed texts per period attributed to rulers or political gures 7 compilations publisned 1977 and 1993 Elongation A Clau se Combines at least ne verb plus one or more nouns e Zerurfurm presentrtense to be in Russian Length of ciauses can tnererore be estimated byjtne number of nouns per ver 1976 cc of our party andtne government are engaged daiiv witn issues of fuIIersatisfaction r and requirements of tne atiun Ms Lewinsky Elongation cues separation Electoral Russian 1996 I was shocked in Voronezh province the capital of the Black Earth when in Semiluki two women me to me one with four children the other with ve and with tears in their eyes they asked What do we feed our children besides millet we don39t see anything but us we re not birdies to peck at nothing but millet And they don39t give us anything more You feel awful when one person comes to another with a request to borrow money to pay to take a child to the hospital There39s not even money for that Elongation and Identification More words do more Narration versus description 7 Panicuiarity versus generality r Emotionaiity versus impersonaiitv Each clause is terse even ifthe sequence of clauses is longer 1976 speaker is maximally far from whole population 1996 speaker is close to two women Both speakers are communists but one achieves identi cation 7 n 976appointedcniefOkarainian region r In 1 96 Communist Par of Russian Federation presidential Candidate Who received 0 3 Wu 0f the vote in losing the runoff to Boris Yeltsin r 30 million identifiers Increased Identification Identi cation is the inverse of depersonalization or stereot in As elevation elongation ar ement able to ma e istinctions among political speakers They become able to decide which politician is more like themselves Source of Identification Many Russiansvenemently dissociate from communist discourse since perestroika our e es nave opened mucn nas become more understandable aitnoug even before people didn t mucn believe tnis deiirium Remember they d uietiv criticize tne government and ridicuieit and now man iokeswerecirculating or course i W about tnistem it makes vou sad tnatevervtning nere was in sucn disarrav Thank God tnat tne maiontv of people nave made a morai escape from tnis nigntmare Novv it strue eopie nave no reat e ce yone from forming anv doubts Everyone was eiieve tnese speeches tnese slogans and think alike Horrible I hope mv children If tnev ever must read anvtning like this wiii not even understand wnat is going on Identi cation Transforming Privative into Positive Opposition Soviet Union Communists and nonparty ersonsquot Gorbachev 1989 The party will only strengthen its positions if it will interact with those movements wi e whole society Partyquot movementsquot partysocietyquot 992 The Union of Renewal a new centrist party should be open to active cooperation with other parties with whom there is agreement on basic positions Precisel so it should be ready for honest dialogue with ose who have other s convrction Discussion Questions for The Origin of Language The video The Mind Language shown in week 7 had a segment relevant to this week s topic and a study question repeated here for convenience 3 Week 9 Why does Lieberman believe that the reconstructed vocal organs have implications for how the brain has to be reconstructed Why does he believe that Neanderthal could not have had speech as we know it What evidence does he give for the selective advantage of speech See week 6 discussion questions for answers 1 From The Nature Enquirer Local Parrots Adopt Human Languages By PARRY KEAT large numbers of fruit parrot serving as spokesbird trees in backyards have for one o the ocks pa i n lertieoigs 12112 allowed the birds to explained Squawk life area are now using human survrve Ioutsrde the1r was tough IPeople were language t0 communicate nat1ve hab1tat spraymg therr trees wrth among themselves Recently a number of porson there were k1ds w1th Floeks of parrots have people have reported beebee guns You know long been Observed in the hearing English and how it goes We just had to Los Angeles basin The occasronally Spamsh frnd a way to pass mfor parrots presumbly are es comrng from local tree matron around I Those capees from pet Shops and tops Further mvestrga squawks of ours drdn t cut people s homes who have tron revealed parrots chat 1t We decrded amongst banded together because of ting among themselves ourselves to take a cue from the gregarious Ilature of In an interview with the humans and start using the birds The Enquirer Paul E language instead The mild weather and Kraquer an African grey Why should we be skeptical of this report from The Nature Enquirer In discussion animal communication we found that other mammals much less parrots do not have the vocal organs for producing spoken language Parrots can make language like sounds but they are using entirely different physical mechanisms from humans More important however is the point made in this lecture that it goes against everything we know about evolution to think that an organism could develop a complex system such as the combination of mental and physical structures necessary for language then discover a use for that system Such a system must have evolved by small accumlated steps where each step had some sort of adaptive value 2 From The Scientlfic Van Nuysian February 1997 THE INSCRIPTION 0F AXES Axes or axelike tools have been connected with humans and with hominid fossils ranging back as much as 2000000 years Paleontologists working with archeologists have recently found that throughout history ax makers have consistently made identifying inscri tions on axes Plates 1 4 show exam le axes from four eras in hominid history m Ongm army1g 2 m 39n m1 mg sash and n in m n Is39saxquotxespecnvely Tn msm and ax uf Miamiquot lespechvely easedmscnh axzsa enhz mumm mquot 3 Wm cauldth am new mscnpunns an s um nngm pmvldz mfm39ma nn anthz angn andax evahman at hngvag n wm dseem m m last he evxdzme m hung am a use 5mm Tn manpmm seem an stamexthufmpusaml m place me n Wm cm d n Neandan mscnpnans an n um mgm pmvldz mimmaunn an an angn andax evahman at hngvag Lune an Han exec manpmm may ale evxdzme m u at symth Thzy suggestahegmmngafsynmx mn Ameans ax 1252mm ngnnnaym mmehmaf sgmng we have m evxdznce m madmu e g apassesmn Hawevex mm chmpame quot315mm c Wm dam La nmscnpnans Mlusascampaled m an Neandznhay Lam ethts a number at ames shng um n n m Languge m n a 12m duahty at pammmg ands mum lmk gemuve marhng between an m Wald a Haw dues an change mmscnpnan between Laun and Spanlsh m ex um an change he ween Neamznhal and Lanm m Bpmhahlyanacwalchange msymmhetween Neamznhal mangnw cannm m ahmhmlysnle Neandan m an my 1m dues nm vldznce at swan Th2 change between Lann and Spamsh 1 manual lmgmsnc changerthue 1 change In fundaman dzngn at an sysmm ande 2 gm cigar m Ongm army1g a a m in awmgxs a tame mm hyald wamznm a nmam East mm vulage n 1 slammed mm m stary gm hack mm an nun gemxa nns m uva DAUGHTER n s sald um an at an ancestms gave mm m mm mm The at thzm we saw cmmmmmm s wanna m m mm by mm m a mahng m mums Eaa39 39and mquot whlchamy mm each m a special wa h wanna a mad mum y Ifhzwanm h wm ds a Haw dues hssmrymusham h pmss armmwm m xsmumphcaonn vanaunn and h any n Haw mm m Image mckaf h ugy 515mquot have been 3 mm mm mm su m cammunlcanve syslemana m mam n appalen yallnwed mm pmduce a wldzxvanety afsmmds Inpamcular n seems m We mm m a pmduce an am camamm whlch wm d mm m pasmhlz m h mama Planquot vacal ham c Wm step mm sanafthz ugysxsm tahe um mums m cammumcauve sysmm an a mm mm H useth vacalslgnalsvalnntznlyamathamy nmummsma spams 1 Wm mayax sup mxgm this table 15mm as an bxplananunquot at haw Language 5mm Haw wmlldanmganmn hegnmvmmrmm l use mm wcahnunny Haw wm d m cumu39nvz sup m asmcme a vacal gyms symhnl m placw The Origin of Language 4 4 Why would we not find the following 0 A fish which can smoke cigarettes Fish done have lungs they could not inhale smoke In addition wet tobacco does not burn well 0 A human who can do the 800 meter in 80 seconds 8 X 100m X 10quot100m Though there are humans who can run 100 meters in 10 seconds they do not have the oxygen producing capacity to sustain this 0 A talking dog Dogs have the Standard Plan upper respiratory tract They cannot make human language sounds A six week old child who can recite The Pledge of Allegiance Besides lack of cognitive development an infant this age could not make the necessary variety of sounds Specialists in the Heimlich maneuver on the staff for primates in a zoo Non human primates have a Standard Plan upper respiratory tract which would not allow food to pass through the larynx 5 The lecture notes on The Origin of Language include the following quote from Philip Lieberman s Biology and Evolution of Language The species specific aspects of human language indeed may be at the level of speech production and speech perception which appear to reflect the presence of specialized neural devices that in terface with a cognitive generalipurpose neural computer The properties of human speech if this view is correct then must reflect the neural devices that govern the production and perception of speech Lieberman p 259 How does this view differ from the one presented by Pinker and in this course Lieberman sees the brain evolution as a general increase in its capacity as a general purpose neural computer with evolution of a vocal tract being the central feature in the evolution of language in that it provides a more effective means of delivering highly articulated messages rapidly Pinker s and Schuh s view is that evolution of cerebral modules specialized for a communication system of a particular design must be in parallel to evolution of the vocal tract The Origin of Language 5 6 Which of the following might be useful in identifying earlier or intermediate stages in the evolution of Language For each say why or why not it would be useful and why a A Homo erectus body found frozen in a Siberian glacier perfectly preserved including all soft tissues Useful It could not tell us what his communication system itself was like but we would have the detailed anatomy of his upper respiratory tract and brain which we could compare with those of modern humans b The discovery that orangutans could discriminate and learn signs for colors such as purple vermilion magenta puce mauve and beige and could make such sign combinations as magenta antimacassar beige taupee purple love seat etc Not useful We already know that apes can learn symbols and combine at least two symbols The fact that the symbols refer to unusual concepts or objects does not increase what we already know about apes and it seems likely that this represents informative intermediate stages c The discovery and decipherment of documents from a cave in the Sahara desert from a civilization of some 8000 years ago approximately 2000 years older than the oldest previously known written documents Not useful This would be a human language with all the design features of modern language It would obviously be of great interest for linguists and historians but it would say nothing about language origin and evolution d A time machine which would permit us to travel to any time in the past or future Useful Would provide direct attestation of how early hominids communicated e Isolation of a group of children from birth permitting no contact with adult speakers of any language so that we could study the type of vocal communication the children develop Hard to say Presumably they would develop a communication system of some kind and child language and pidgins do appear to be quotintermediatequot systems of a type However there are problems aside from the ethics of such an experiment First human children are HUMANS ie they do not have quotintermediate brains and vocal tractsquot so we cannot be sure that the system they come up with really looks like the actual precursors of language Second the children would be coming up with their system from scratch whereas for any precursor to human language the system would have been in use in the community with children acquiring it along the same lines as children acquire human languages ie children would not be creating a brand new system Lipids Lipids are organic compounds that contain hydrocarbons which are the foundation for the structure and function of living cells Lipids are non polar so they are soluble in nonpolar environments thus not being water soluble because water is polar Fatty Acids Stearic acid Oleic acid An lScarborl fatty acid An 18carborl fatty acids with no double bonds with one double bond Fatty acids are carboxylic acids or organic acid often with a long aliphatic tails long chains either saturated or unsaturated When a fatty acid is saturated it is an indication that there are no carboncarbon double bonds and if the fatty acid is saturated it is an indication that it has at least one carboncarbon double bond As the following data indicate the saturated acids have higher melting points than unsaturated acids of corresponding size If a fatty acid has more than one double bond then this is an indication that it is a polyunsaturated fatty acid The fatty acids most frequently found in nature are shown in the table below Most naturally occurring fatty acids contain an even number of carbon atoms and are unbranched 2 FATTY ACIDS Saturated Unsaturated Formula Common Name Melting Point Formula Common Name Melting Paint CH3CH2luCOzH laurlc acld 45 ac CH3CH25CHCHCH27COzH palmltulelc acld u no CH3CH212C02H myrlstll acld 55 ac CH3CH27CHCHCH27COzH ulelc acld l3 ac CH3CH2MC02H palmltl acld 63 ac CH3CHINCHCHCHzCHCHCHz7COzH llnulelc acld 75 ac CH3CH2lBCOzH steam acld 68 ac CH3CH2CHCHCH2CHCHCHZCHCHCH27C02H llrlulerlll acld all Do CH3CH21BC02H arachldlc acld 7B ac CH3CH2tCHCHcHztcHzzc02H arachldunlc acld 749 ac Saturated fatty acids have higher melting points due to their ability to pack their molecules together thus leading to a straight rodlike shape Unsaturated fatty acids on the other hand have cisdouble bonds that create a kink in their structure which doesn t allow them to group their molecules in straight rodlike shape Question Of the following pairs identify the one with the higher melting point a palmitic acid and stearic acid b lauric acid and oleic acid c arachidic acid and arachidonic acid 1 httgenwikipediaorgWikiFam acid 09062006 2 hfrn39 wwwcpm m ll immlTp tlinirl hfrnifzf ifl 09062006 Waxes Waxes are esters formed from longchain carboxylic acids and longalcohols Bruice Pg 1078 Three ofthe more common waxes seen are shown below spermaceti eesw ha wax CH3CHZNCOZ39CHZ15CH3 CH3CH22 C027CH225CH3 CH3CH23UC027CH233CH3 From the head of sperm whales Structural material ofbeehives Coating on the leaves ofBrazilian palm Waxes are seen all over in nature The leaves and fruits of many plants have waxy coatings which may protect them from dehydration and small predators The feathers of birds and the fur of some animals have similar coatings which serve as a water repellent Carnuba wax is valued for its toughness and water resistance 3 great for car wax Fats and Oils Triacylglycerols are the products of a reaction in which three OH groups of glycerol are ester ed with fatty acids A simple triacylglycerol is a triacylglycerol with three of the same fatty acid components A mixed triacylglycerol is a triacylglycerol that contains two or three different fatty acid components and are more common than sim le triacylglycerols Bruice Pg 1078 Fat is the name given to a class oftriglycerides that ar as solid or semisolid at room temperature fats are mainly present in animals Oil is the name given to class triglycerides that appear as a liquid at room temperature oils are mainly present in plants and sometimes in sh The fact that saturated fatty acid tails can bunch up closely together its allows the triacylglycerols relatively high melting points which in turn allows them to appear as solids at room temperature The opposite goes for unsaturated fatty acids their tails cannot pack as closely together so in turn they have relatively low melting points which causes them to appear as liquids at room tempera Fats usually consist of saturated fatty acids while oils usually consist of unsaturated fatty acids By a process known as catalytic hydrogenation some or all of the double bonds of the polyunsaturated oils can be reduced which will allow them to be solids at room temperature Bruice Pg 1079 4 RCHCHCH2CHCHCH2CHCH Pl RCH2CH2CH2CHCHCH2CH2CH2 Mar arine and shortening originate from vegetable oils ie soybean oil and saf ower oil that have been hydrogenated This process is called hardening of oils When fats are consumed the body hydrolysis s the dietary fat in the intestine which regenerates the glycerol and fatty acids Bruice Pg 1079 Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids Thus soaps are obtained when fats or oils are hydrolyzed under basic conditions Bruice Pg 700 How does soap Work7 s b havxor m water due to the presenee ofboth hydrophth water lovmig cos and hydrophobe Waterfeanng alkyl regrons m the same moleculequot 7 Nonpolar hydrocarbon chams attraetedto nonpolar grease0x1 or other stearate chamsquot Pg 92 of the summer 2006 Thmkbook by Dr 5 Hardmger micellesM the dm m areas that are notwater soluble o m t quot lm W mm whreh allows for the denvatron ofthe words hard waterquot These dwalent caucus cause aggregatron of the mree11eswhreh then depost s a duty seum quot Soluuonr the use of detergents because of therrgreater solubrhty Membranes out of the eeu Bruree1gtg 1082 Phospholipids Phospholipid Components NH HOOH Fatthmds HON HZCrOH OH satuvateds Ethanmamme t mete HciNHz u vcem 0 knOH ee 3H 3 3 HemHehecHs Hd OH HON sphmqasme DHDSDHDHE amd chahne thFDXVdE otherresu1trngrn phosphohprd bxlayerquot shown below Pg 9 of the summer 2006 Thmkbook by Dr 5 Hardmger httE www cam msu enhW ExzuschV xmanex39lhgxds htrnasnnE QEI Z j smite03030232033sz Ml i zl wagggaggmMaggies Planar Water The blue eireies are the hydrophihe heads andthe black 21g zag hnes are the hydrophobic tails Main biological function Their role as a cell membrane Prostaglandins Proslaglandin is any member ofa group of 1ipid compounds that are derived enzymaticany from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body Every p rostag1andin contains 20 carbon atoms mc1udmg ascarbon ring Prostag1andins are pain the induction oflabor pGanipha see below for structure and s1eepvmke cyc1e Bruice Pg 1085 own ueio 39 in h is when 39 quot 39 quot A 1eads to in ammation Pg 94 ofthe summer 2006 Thinkbook by Dr s Hardinger mundane sou i Mggyfgjgfggx iiitiomu n in NW cog1 o plusmcvdm eyuthu PSIHwyqu reductase ol in 5H prostnginndm Hi PGH2 5 PGHVPGE 7 g immense H5 5H gs Pluslaghndm Fin P553 E quot cola H0 6H Pia m cm smglnndm PG spinnacicuiu 0H Pmsmghndm E 637 Source Pg 94 ofthe summer 2006 Thinkbook by Dr 5 Hardinger 5 htto en wtkioedia orgWlkJProstgglandm 09062006 r Prostaglandrns are named by followmg the PGX formula where x desrgnates the PGAs PGBs m P 11 mm m double bond determrnes whether prostnglandrn 15 PGA PGB OR PG and GEs ar bemrhydroxy ketones PGFs are 13 d1ols The subscnptr dreates the total number of double bonds tn the s1de charns and the alpha and beta rndreates a C15 d1ol and trans d1ol respectwe1y Entree Pg 10 Steroids and one fwermembered rrng as shown m the dlagmm below The four nngs are desrgnated A B c amp D as noted 1n blue and the numbers 1n red represent the carbons 5 he Stem Carbun sketetnn 95 of summer 2006 Thmkbook or Pg 1101 m Lhe7Bru1ce 4quot edrtron for the b1osynLhes1s P encountered by ammals Bruree Pg 1098 Some rrnportant sterords are shownbelow ch Ob H c 7 0 HOH novethmdmne tomsune an mat Wazepwg n antt39m ammatuvy humane MedtctnaHv Usetut Stermds zhotestemt matte and a Common smut HO 0H s we and Tvptcat Ammat Stermds hug wawran msueduP EreusnhVmualTaalxgxds htrmstemm numum 7 hug Nan Wthgedla ur wthStamdwgI Z Hsc ch OH ch O 00 0 0 HO ngestemne testostemne Sternld 52x Hmmnnes Lipophilic Vitamins Vitamin An organic compound otherthan fat protein or carbohydrates required for L quot g i her Dr s Hardinger vitamins A D E andKare inthe lipid famlly Bruice pg 1090 Betarcarolene is sliced to create two molecules ofVitamin A Vitamin A which is 1090 it works LogeLherwth the llghtrharvestlng portion ofrhodopsln Vlslon protein Pg 97 of the summer 2006 Thinkb ook by Dr s Hardingergt Hci vitamin A CanamO panutt tsualpiumsn vitamin K plays a key role in allowlng blood to clotprpperly The letter K is derived from koagutarian whlch is German for u clottingquot Bruice Pg 1068 o f f x 1YCH1 If CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 vixamin K a MEIle i lumruj fziutm Call14502 7 Vitamin E is a watersoluble compound that holds radicals in nonpolar membranes CA m in our quot quot preventing unwanted radical reactions B 7353 It also prevents ruicelgtgs 352 luau Pg 97 i ui Dr s Hardinger Topics as Speech Acts An Analysis of Conditionals Keywords Conditionals Topicality Speech Acts 1 illustrates two types of conditionals namely indicative conditionals IC 1a and biscuit conditionals BC 1b Two decisive characteristics of BCs are the following 1 unlike ICs the truth of the consequent is independent of the truth of the antecedent 2 the antecedent states under which conditions the consequent is relevant 3 and 9 propose to analyze BCs as canditianal assertians and existential quanti cation over patential literal acts respectively However these proposals are too weak after the utterance of a BC the speech act pertaining to the consequent has been performed irrespective of the truth of the antecedent cf 2 That there is a close connection of conditionals and the information structural notion of topicality has been noted at various places see eg 1 and 6 5 discusses two particular instances of these two forms of topicality in German namely German left dislocation GLD 3a and Hanging Topic left dislocation HTLD 3b GLD is a mark for abautness typicality establishing the entity the sentence is about whereas HTLD is an instance of frame setting establishing a frame of interpretation for which the following material is relevant just like more general frame setting constructions as 4 The content of the matrix clause is implied to be relevant wrt questions regarding the pastor 5 notes that the following syntactic characteristics set apart GLD and HTLD 1 GLD requires the presence of a resumptive weak d pronoun and 2 GLD but not HTLD allows for binding into the dislocated phrase from within the clause We nd the same characteristics wrt the distinction of ICs and BCs 1 ICs are similar to correlative constructions where a free relative clause is adjoined to the matrix clause that contains a coindexed proform then has been argued to be such a proform cf 1 2 10 2 Binding into the ifclause is possible for ICs but not for BCs 5 This shows that ICs with then pattern with aboutness topic constructions and BCs with frame setting constructions 4 argues that topics must be interpreted in a separate speech act of tapic establishment resembling an act of referring cf 8 This act crucially must be performed befare the speech act of the original utterance For instance an assertion 3a would come out as 6 The act of topic establishment REF introduces a discourse referent d for the topic marked constituent here the pastor and is conjoined via speech act conjunction amp to the original speech act Crucially the weak d pronoun den is interpreted as the topic discourse referent Hence the case of aboutness topicality corresponds to a simple relation of predicatian where the comment can be regarded as a predicate of the topic We propose to extend this mechanism to handle cases of frame setting as well The matrix clause in 3b contains the pronoun him interpreted by a free variable 2 and possibly resolved to d in 7 Hence the case of frame setting does not correspond to a predicative relation of comment and topic but to a discoursive relation of the act of topic establishment and the assertion This is even clearer with 4 At this point the issue of relevance comes in on standard Gricean assumptions an assertion is only felicitous if it is relevant to the preceding discourse In 8 the immediately preceding discourse developed by establishing the pastor as topic The following assertion is felicitous only if it is relevant for questions regarding the pastor In case of aboutness topicality this relevance condition is trivially ful lled because a predication is obviously relevant to its argument To account for ICs and BCs we adopt the approach of 7 who analyzes ifclauses as de nite descriptions over possible worlds such that the rst clause of 1a is interpreted as the unique possible world which is most similar to the actual world among all worlds where Peter went shopping is true The entire conditional is then considered true if this world is among the worlds where the consequent is true Above we noted that ICs parallel GLDaboutness topic constructions An analysis of 1a analogous to 6 yields 9 The act of topic establishment introduces a discourse referent for the topic marked constituent here the selected world mentioned above and is conjoined to the original speech act Crucially then is interpreted as a world pronoun namely the topic discourse referent Again this is a case of predication and hence the relevance requirement is trivially ful lled In contrast our analysis of 1b yields 10 As the matrix clause does not contain any proform relating to the topical component the content of the comment assertion is evaluated in the actual world of utterance per default Hence the assertion is about the existence of pizza in the fridge in the actual world Note that this act is performed unconditionally which is exactly what we observed for BCs Secondly the relevance requirement comes down to the requirement that the assertion of there pizza being in the fridge is relevant to the act of establishing the situations where the listener is hungry as conversation topic Again this is exactly the observed relevance implicature for BCs
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