Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes PHI2630
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI2630 at Florida State University taught by Stephen Kearns in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Ethical Issues/ Life Choices in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Mistaking Correlation for Causation 0 Night follows day Day must cause night One event following another can be repeatedly nightday Latin quotafter this therefore because of thisquot A occurred then B occurred Therefore A caused B When B is undesirable avoiding A will prevent B Slippery Slope 0 If we allow gay marriage we 39ll soon allow marriage to pets then marrying inanimate objects will become compulsory and any other form of love will be banned If we allow A to happen then 2 will happen too Therefore we should not let A happen No proof is presented to show that such extreme hypotheticals will occur Straw Man 0 I don 39t know how to respond to your argument but I can respond to a much worse version of your argument which I can then attribute to you It will look like I39ve won Substituting a person39s position with a much distorted version of that position 1 Person A has position X 2 Person B presents position Y distorted version of X 3 Person B attacks position Y 4 Therefore X is flawed False Dilemma 0 You either love the president or you hate America A situation where only limited options are presented when there is at least one additional op on Usually forces you to choose an option that you39re not comfortable with Not Giving an Inch 0 If a certain action is right to perform everything speaks in its favor Problem of Induction 0 This chair is made of wood therefore all chairs are made of wood 1 Generalizing about the properties of a class of objects 2 Presupposing that a sequence of events will occur again like it has in the past ETHICAL ISSUES Normative Ethics The branch of ethics concerned with giving a general account of what is right and wrong A normative theory will fill in this biconditional An action A is rightwrong iff if and only if RELATIVISM A Descriptive is a term used to refer to the existence of moral disagreements between cultures or individuals B Prescriptive different groups of people ought to have different ethical standards for evaluating acts as right or wrong CONSEQUENTIALISM Resultsbased ethical theory In the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one39s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct This means that no type of act is inherently wrong not even murder quotWhat you ought to do is what is best to doquot Whatever action has the best outcome UTILITARIANISM maximizing happiness and welfare the rightness or wrongness of actions depends entirely on how they affect human welfare or happiness Conjunction of the following theses Consequentialism an action is right just in case it has the best consequences Hedonism pleasure is the only thing that is valuable Universalism the consequences for every being at every time are relevant RU LE CONSEQU ENTIALISM An act is right iff it is in accord with that set of rules the near universal acceptance of which would make things go best From the book An action is right iff and because it is permitted by a rule whose acceptance value is at least as high as the acceptance value of any other rule applying to the situation DEONTOLOGICAL TH EORIES Dutybased ethical theories Some actions are wrong or right in themselves regardless of the consequences Our moral obligations are not entirely tied with the consequences of out actions There are some universal moral rules such as it is always wrong to kill innocent people steal etc
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