ENVS Week 3 Ch 3/7
ENVS Week 3 Ch 3/7 ENVS 101 004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 101 004 at University of New Mexico taught by Priewisch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The Blue Planet in Environmental Science at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Minerals Tuesday September 1 Z 15 1 237 AM 0 Earths minerals 0 Building blocks of the geosphere 0 Must meet 5 requirements to be defined as a mineral I Naturally formed I Inorganic I Solid I Specific chemical composition I Characteristic crystal structure 0 Minerals 0 Characteristic that best allow for the study of minerals I Crystal structure the way the atoms of an element are packed together I Composition the major chemical elements that are present and their proportions 0 Minerals are defined by their distinct properties that result from their composition and crystal form I Crystal form and growth habit I Crystals only form when minerals can grow in open spaces I Every mineral has a characteristic crystal form I Cleavage I Tendency the mineral has to break in certain directions along weak planes I Hardness I Resistance of a mineral to being scratched I Determined by the crystal structure and strength of chemical bonds I Classified by using a relative hardness scale mmm2031 nzmgtmanz asset seem MOHS HARDNESS SCALE Q TALC GYPSUM CALCITE FLUORITE APATITE FELDSPAR QUARTZ TOPAZ CORUNDUM New Section 1 Page 1 0 Why are minerals important I They39re in our everyday items sunscreen mirrors frames etc I They are the building blocks of rocks New Section 1 Page 2 Matter Tuesday September 1 2 15 1 2 6 AM 0 Reading Questions 0 Chemical elements are the most fundamental substances into which matter can be separated I True 0 A positively charged ion is called I A cation 0 A mineral is naturally formed inorganic a solid or liquid has a specific chemical composition and a characteristic crystal structure I False O The most abundant minerals are I Silicates Mineral Cleavage is I A minerals tendency to break in preferred directions along planar surfaces 0 0 Matter 0 Is a substance 0 Different forms physical states of matter 0 3 states of matter I Solid keeps its shape has a fixed volume I liquid takes shape of container has a fixed volume I Gas takes shape of container fills volume of container 0 Earths materials 0 Materials occurring in the same state can still differ substantially I EX Lava and water are both liquid one nonaqueous the other aqueous 0 Chemical elements are the most fundamental substances into which matter can be separated I EX oxygen suffer gold nitrogen lead 0 An is the smallest individual particle that retains the distinctive properties of a given chemical element 0 Atoms are built of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons orbiting the nucleus 0 Atoms O The number of protons in the nucleus of an atomic is called the O The sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus is the 2 Atomio numbor H e Atomio symbol 400 a Atomio mass O are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers Some isotopes are radioactive and can be used in radioactive dating An atom is electrically neutral because the positive charge of the protons is balanced by the 00 New Section 1 Page 1 negative charge of the electrons I A positive ion is a I An atom with excessive positive or negative charge is an I I A negative ion is called an 0 When cations combine they form 0 Smallest unit that retains these compounds is called a 0 Atomic bonds 0 Cations combine to form a bond 0 Different atomic bonds I forms due to the attraction between a negative and positive ion III Are transferred from one atom to another III Bond is of quotmoderatequot strength III Weaker than a covalent bond I an example of carbon atoms bonding with a covalent atomic bond III Uncharged atoms that share electrons III Eight electrons full shell III Stronger then ionic bonds electrons roam freely among atoms III Mobility of electrons results in ability to conduct electricity III Roaming electrons reflect light to form metallic luster New Section 1 Page 2 Rocks Thursday September 3 2 15 1016 AM 0 Features to describe rocks 0 a naturally formed non living mass of solid matter that is part of the planet asteroid moon or other planetary object 0 There are 3 rock types 0 formed from the cooling and hardening of magmalava I Volcanic extrusive rocks that reach earths surface pumice basalt granite I Plutonic rocks that stay cool below the surface 0 forms as a result of high temperature high pressure or both schist gneiss marble quartzite I Foliation minerals reorient or form perpendicular to stress I Recrystallization small grains from large interlocking crystals recrystallizing into bigger minerals and crystals due to increase in temperature and pressure lm39rmsmg twinkrailin I bow grade muaxing pressure Eclogito O form by chemical precipitation from water or mineral particle deposition from wind or water conglomerate mudstone sandstone rock gypsum limestone Rock salt I Small grains that start off being compacted then cemented and result in a sedimentary rock I Two types clastic and chemical amp biogenic the overall appearance of a rock from the size shape and arrangement of mineral grains 0 or composition the kinds and relative amounts of minerals present 0 Weathering 0 Exposed rock of the geosphere that has been attacked by the hydrosphere atmosphere and biosphere O Rocks are physically broken apart and chemically altered as deep as air and water penetrate 0 Two types of weathering physical and chemical they work together 0 disintegration of the rock as a result of physical break up which results from ex Frost wedging salt wedging plant roots 0 0 Compaction and cementation 0 Also known as lithification New Section 1 Page 1 Energy and Society Tuesday September 12 2 15 954 AM 0 TrueFalse O The sun is the most important external energy source I True 0 Energy and Society 0 What does society use energy for I Lights water food exercise 0 We tap into energy from the earths reservoirs to extract power for I Transportation I Home and office use I Industrial use Energy consumed by global population annually is 30 x 10quot20joules 4 energy sources have been extensively developed I Fossil fuels I Biomass energy I Hydroelectric energy I Nuclear energy 5 other sources are being developed more extensively I Solar energy I Wind energy I Waves I Tides I Geothermal energy 00 0 New Section 1 Page 1
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