Hst 309 Unit I: (The Iberian Powers) part One
Hst 309 Unit I: (The Iberian Powers) part One HST 309
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charlotte McFarland on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 309 at Arizona State University taught by Debra Neill in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Exploration and Empire in History at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Unit I The Iberian Powers Motives driving the Age of Discovery Money Africa Middle east India Southeast asia China These items were sought out by for personal means and to sell to the masses Spices were needed for making otherwise bland food taste better and were a large portion of the money making schema of this time Ames 23 Religion Christianity was staging the crusades at this time and the goal was to spread Christianity all over the world as they knew it Ames 35 World Power Royals sought to expand their empire to create wealth Obtaining the areas that held the items that they wanted would lower or eliminate the cost of said items Ames 3 Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henrique of Portugal 14181460death funded and organized voyages of discovery and conquest of the west coast of Africa His goals included discovering land beyond that which had been discovered before to expand the Christian faith as an act of war on Islam s almost equal power at the time and to fulfill a personal destiny His horoscope stated that he would become a great man who sought the knowledge of the unknown landsAmes 45 Mercantilism As feudalism declined a new class of people came into power The merchants believed that trade generated wealth and wealth generated power Not all of the items needed for trade were available in Europe so merchants supported the age of discovery as they needed to obtain the items that the wealthy class sought out Ames 8 Definition of Mercantilism the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances which a government should encourage by means of protectionism by the people in power who were also profiting from the trade Dictionary This system dominated Western European economic thought and policies from the sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries The goal of these policies was supposedly to achieve a favorable balance of trade that would bring gold and silver into the country and also to maintain domestic employment LaHaye What knowledge and technology needed by Europeans to undertake this period of exploration and expansion Map making with the use of astrology and geography This means that make makers needed to know mathematics and be verse in the works of many of the early scholars Ship makers had to design new types of ships to sail in different waters and they eventually created the caravel that was used by the most famous explorer Christopher Columbus They developed the compass astrolabe quadrant and cross staff to help them navigate the open seas The importance of the Arabs and Ptolemy This is where the Arabs came in The Arabs translated Ptolemy s Almagest Ames 9 Ptolemy s model of the earth was a geocentric model or a model that placed the earth at the center of the solar system While this as we know it today is not an accurate model his knowledge of the earth geography serves as a starting point for the Arabs who added their own knowledge of the earth geography to it Despite this most Europeans felt that the claims made by Ptolemy that the region south of the equator was too dangerous to travel was more accurate What are portolani and why were they important The portolani were considered particle sailing charts These charts were based off land marks Once a sailor was out to sea these charts were useless Ames 11 Which two Iberian powers dominated trade and exploration from 1490 to 1600 The Portuguese and the Spaniards What conditions helped the European rivals of the Iberians challenge their dominance abroad King Philip of Spain took over both the Portuguese and the Spanish thrown These two kingdoms had small populations and were having a hard time populating the new worlds found In Northern Europe the protestant reformation had begun to emerge As the rise of merchant capitalism was upon them Europeans began to take power away from the Iberians Trading companies were created by Europeans that further challenged the SpaniardsPortuguese kingdom Ames l9 Ames Glenn Joseph quotIntroductionquot The Globe Encompassed The Age of European Discovery 15001700 Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Prentice Hall 2008 Print Laura LaHaye quotMercantilismquot The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics 2008 Library of Economics and Liberty Retrieved August 29 2015 from the World Wide Web httpwwweconliborglibraryEncMercantilismhtml