Week Two (31 Aug- 4 Sept. 2015) 1st Indochina War and Dr. Gary Hess
Week Two (31 Aug- 4 Sept. 2015) 1st Indochina War and Dr. Gary Hess HIST 3370
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3370 at Bowling Green State University taught by Benjamin Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see The Vietnam War in History at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Week Two 31 Aug 4 Sept 2015 1St Indochina War and Dr Gary Hess First Indochina War 19461954 MDRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam the independent Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh s Declaration of Independence North Vietnam after the split Bao Dai puppet emperor under French disliked by people abdicated by the time Ho Chi Minh declared independence Dien Bien Phu Final French defeat resulting in their Withdrawal from Vietnam US response to Vietnamese Declaration of Independence The North m and international Communism The South The French and BaoDai Solution The changing international context The Colonial War and the Cold War Battle Analysis Dien Bien Phu 13 Mar7 May 1954 1St Indochina War aka The French War What took priority when ideals collided Assumptions vs Assessments of the enemy Vietnamese Declaration of Independence DOI based on American and French Revolutions 2 Sept 1945 less revolutionarygt similar to US s DOI grievances against tyrannical power restrictions mentioned etc critique of colonialism principles in Tehran and San Francisco Tehran Tehran Conference to establish postwar goals to end colonialism San Francisco UN Charter signed people s right to choose own leader not like a Marxist Manifesto or like it s written by Moscow didn t sound threatening to US US Confronted by DOI how to implement anticolonialization ideals Docment Analysis What are US s options regarding approach to French Indochina l Trusteeship go to 3rd party like US or UK like Philippines in American Filipino War 190019023 1946Philippines independent 1947 India independent US better to rule than French had bad ruling practices Vietnamese thought to be inferior and incapable of selfrule Vietnamese unlikely to accept Total Immediate Independence SelfRule could fall to Communism but would end colonialism there Vietnamese already basing ideals off of US which is good to US French oppressed them to the point they aren t thought to be ready for selfrule racism in US believed Vietnamese to be racially inferior Maintain French Colonv Bad ruling practices but are US s ally and US wants stable Europe Postwar Povertv can give rise to what Hitler did Russian Revolution Communist Europe would challenge US trading to avoid Communism France needed to be prosperous and retain Vietnam When US principlespriorities clash which prevailed Support France vs End Colonialism France Prevailed FDR s Four Policemen 4 powers take over Asia to lead it out of colonialism End of WWII North Korea USSR South Korea US North Vietnam Nationalist China clashed looting and attack of political opponents by Chinese South Vietnam UK North vs South Vietnam large disparities equivalent to Detroit vs New Orleans North industrialist mining South agriculture religiously based M DRVNorth minimally supported by Chinese at start Chinese Civil War 46 49 minimal from USSR occupied With Europe and Stalin doesn t think highly of the Viet Minh seeking help from nationalist in Asia Thai etc FranceSouth gave US idea that Ho s a raging communist Who doesn t hate the French racially inferior and suppressed so long that they must be in the hands of the USSR US Secretary of State George Marshall end colonies by don t want them to be Communist Factors Outside Vietnam In uencing US between 49 50 Korean War June 50 Soviets discovering the atomic bomb US not only one with bomb now 49 fall of Nationalist China most populous nation now Communist 49 CCRUSSR Eastern Europe recognize DVR NSC 68 Apr 50 concludes USSR Abomb campaign of Soviet aggression US needs to counter to French 10 milliongt 100 million paid for 80 of French war cost recognize Bao Dai in South Vietnam known as The Playboy Emperor unpopular and ineffective Film portrayed French as incompetent outdated weapons low morale no knowledge of terrain wear of uniform m largely equipped by US Class Henri Navarre French Commander in Vietnam Christian de Castries French Commander at Dien Bien Phu Navarre Plan Strengthen Vietnamese Army increase and consolidate French offensive in Red River Delta to hinder supplies like Vietnamization train them to fight as you leave French Homefront tiring of war new prime minister wants peace agreement Operational Situation of Dien Bien Phu N Vietnam W of Hanoi many roads interdict Viet Minh s supplies draw weaker forces into a fight use it as a base of operations use air base Challenge far from supply Vietnamese Vo Nguyen Giap Napoleon Complex history teacher and law student journalist wife hung by French general of Viet Minh and People s Army died at 102 1St 3 days human wave attacks by Vietnamese took 3 outposts put French under siege 50 miles of trenches and tunnels ruined air field so supplies had to be dropped in but AA defenses of Vietnamese were too strong so inaccurate drops were captured by Vietnamese Surrounded Dien Bien Phu with Artillery 55 days 55000 French lose to 50000 Vietnamese who got aura of invincibility Dr Gary R Hess War at BGSU Taught at BGSU 19642009 1965real beginning of US war in Vietnam 2015 50th Anniversary Johnson openended commitment to Vietnam lowkey no address from oval office or to Congress Mission advisorygt combat role bomb N Vietnam combat troops end of 66 200000 troopsgt 500000 by 68 69 Impact that was felt widely and from the beginning was controversial small teachins at BGSU May 65gt Fall 65 larger teachin immoral war Beginning of war at BGSU number protests on campus most on lawn between Williams Mosley and University Halls Notable Speakers Sen Ernest Green voted against Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Jane Fonda antiwar actress Norman Thomas a socialist pacifist 67 National Day of Protest Disrupted ROTC ReView Student Groups antiwar SDS Students for Democratic Society Support war Young Americans for Freedom Hawks favorescalate war Dovesantiwar 68 more Americans think the war s a mistake astounded by Tet s impact shortcoming of Johnson s promise that the war would be quick went down in public opinion March 31 deescalation of US in Vietnam and not candidate in Presidential run Enormous enthusiasm at BGSU testimony to how far he d fallen Few day later MLK s death and Robert Kennedy s death in June Exam week students concerned with country s direction concemed over whether there should be commencement William Jerome called together faculty and student leaders Student body president said commencement should go ahead End of 68 Nixon elected plan to end Vietnam students organized telegram campaign 3500 BGSU students signed to remind him to end war 70nation shaken by KSU student deaths beginning of end of war protesting expansion into Cambodia DVRViet Cong used it as a sanctuary Violence in KSU burning of ROTC building Monday May 4th was shooting BG found out by yers being passed around campus 4 KSU students killed President Jerome cancelled weekly class Tuesday was Vigil 7000 people couldn t go back to business as usual many places closed for semester BGSU stayed open but had a programgttake SU grades New Universitygtspecial classes on events in country helped keep university open distinction of being unique in staying open essential arguments debate began in mid 60s and continued until wars end and into today need to understand the depth of the debate that took place as the war was waged Opinion of New courses shallow exception were those who put time into them Pres Jerome was lame duck President and this was his last act Correlation between campus then and now then concern on campus was much more intense surprising how much students were paying attention to reading about war Support for ROTC then more extreme antiwar movements targeted ROTC disruption of parade in 67 70 movement to abolish ROTC not allow university credit for it led into disruption of spring review roped in area but some protestors broke through and attempted to disrupt it hostility wasn t necessarily widespread Protests most thing were advertised well in advance a lot of music Williams difficult place to work usually well scripted LIFE Magazine leading magazine BG News 69 70 A Year of Transition week of March 14th President Moore remarked that 70 was good time to leave not enter office Reception staying open criticism especially by Miami University What was it like teaching during the war 90 of the time didn t affect the class faculty more doveish than hawkish teachins discussions on war certain inVited because of how outspoken their Vies were business college more hawks arts amp scienceshumanitiessocial sciences doves 65 discussion4 on panel and a couple dozen students there expert on panel because he went to Asia hard to find information on Vietnam Fear of being drafted no coincidence that many students stayed in college also married and married with kids Student drafted after graduation antiwar ended up in Germany Conscientious Obiectors documented them before they qualified Draft attitude once drafted worked to disadvantage of lowerclass men major system draft boards had quotas of drafteesvolunteers Attitudes of troops changed at end suffer morale during deescalation more drugsalcohol m Fully balanced analysis on major points of different all wars become the subject of literature different from other wars because of O orthodox Standard vs Revisionists O SpanishAmericanWWIWWIIhad to be fought see wars as good tricked into wars war was mistake somehow Shouldn t of been fought or needed to be fought differently Different Ocritical of war fool s errand mistake unwinnable within any acceptable use of military power wrong war wrong time good war differently if fought differently winnable Tried to select mai or topics full statement of both sides views 1 Bottom line of war vital to security of US Onot necessary war necessary 2 How US got involved 61 Kennedy 65Johnson a Not simple 0 mistake but disagree on what Kennedy would do typical Cold Warrior or experienced negotiator vs R missed opportunities to negotiate instead of war nothing to bargain with vs didn t go for peace more troops and investment trap O and R agree Johnson did bad job 34 how war could of ended more successfully certain doctrines of warfare need to be followed Klauzwitz coordinate ends with means concentrate power to enemy understand objective clearly Harry Summers agrees Hearts and mind explanationwon if won over Vietnamese villagers over lost them before it even started because Communists won them over already 5 Media s Coverage of Vietnam know there was liberal biasgt more complex than that 6 Tet Offensive US won 0 devastating loss 7 Nixon and war s end promised peace gave S Vietnam chance vs prolonging inevitable loos for 4 years 8 War s lesson doctrines of war from the war Colin Powellnever fight another Vietnam WinebergerPowell Doctrine Certain criteria before war David Betravus counterinsurgency in Vietnam was thesis proponent of Hearts and Minds and Counterinsurgency Kennedv s 1St thing learned in office Never believe experts Opinion of most beneficial thing from war not to make another commitment of that level
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