Art of India and Southeast Asia
Art of India and Southeast Asia ART HIS 56A
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Virgil Schulist on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART HIS 56A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by R. Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see /class/177865/art-his-56a-university-of-california-los-angeles in Art History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
ANICONIC not in human or anthropomorphic form ANTHROPOMORPHIC human like qualities form AXIS MUNDI world center connection between heaven and earth Point where all four directions meet Communication between the higher and lower Represented as mostly feminine worlds center like the umbilical cord Worlds point of beginning May have the form ofanything manmade or natural ARYANS indo European speaking people that are debated to have invaded Indus Valley and caused its decline Cattle herders warrior peoples unlike Harappa culture texts written in Sanskrit personified nature deities made deities in perishable forms worshipped through long and elaborate rituals guided by Brahmansbrought the caste system BRAHMAN priest indo European Wealthy as they were paid in cattle and such wealthy and powerful often conducted rituals for others highest caste CASTES Brahman priests warrior kshatriyas merchants vaishyas and farmerslaborers shudras SANSKRIT ancient language dating back to the Vedic period after Indus valley used in Aryan ndo European times VEDAS four books written in Sanskrit books of prayers used by Brahmans for rituals SAMSARA rebirth one has several rebirths Buddhism and Hinduism KARMA actions both good and bad determine how you will be reborn determine rebirth and conditions in one s life NIRVANA ppint of extinctioninaction in Buddhism break from the cycle of samsara MOKSHApoint of extinctioninaction in Hinduism break from the cycle of samsara BUDDHA SAKYAMUNIfrom a noble family of the warrior caste an ascetic used meditation yoga to reach enlightenment after trying many religions reached enlightenment while sitting under a tree instead of going to nirvanaextinction he decided to stay on earth to teach his doctrine in North India taught that suffering was inevitable so desire must be destroyed freeing one from all attachments becoming a monk divorcing from self egoand family DHARMA law teaching sakyamuni BHOHDGAYA where sakyamuni reached enlightenment under a Bohdi tree NHAGARAIA snake king part of panindian art not Buddhist nor hindu but prebuddhism STUPA 2 oldest of 3 stupas in sanchi fence outside suggests was once made from wood has panindian images such as nhagaraja and peacock dome inside fence STUPA 1 larger than stupa 2 solid dome fence defining that it is sacred has circumambulation path above with a fence and altar like box with three umbrellas suggest deitysacred built over smaller brick stupa the four gates were the last to be built VIHARAS monasteries where monks lived sanchi has central open courtyard surrounded by small cells usually more than 1 floor first flood stone upper wood Monks and other devotees worshipped stupas by circumambulation in clockwisekeeping right GOOD side to monument AXIS MUNDI STUPA burial mound can have ashes body parts in it idea that a wooden pillar pinned clod of earth to ocean and became a tree CENTER OF THE EARTH PATRONS OF STUPAS SANCHI lay devotees and monks and nuns Can be seen in inscriptions in stupas most were monks and nuns rest were common people Attained merit for their karma by being patron and donating Patronage shows that sanchi was a town in a trade route GATES ON STUPA 1 NORTH AND EAST carvings on stupa gates 1 decoration 2 past Buddhas 3 past lives of buddha sakyamuni JATAKAS 4 life scenes of Sakyamuni NORTH GATE show past buddhas 7 at sanchi but number varies according to place past buddhas represented as stupa tree stupa tree til get 7 each buddha to teach the dharma history moves in circular motion has Vessantara jatake life form before sakyamuni on both sides of lowest beam story gives up horse chariotkids and wife Given everything back teaches charity one must detach from everything Taught that also charity helps monks detaching from everything without becoming a monk KALPA sakyamuni present Buddha MAlTREYA future Buddha waiting to be reborn EAST GATE 7 past Buddhas the great departure sakyamuni not shown depicted by aniconic images like umbrella footprints and flywhisks and because of his horse Buddha being worshipped YAKSHI TREEMOTHER GODDESS sensual woman hanging onto mango tree Not wearing much clothes represents celibacy of the monks and fertility as it terra cotta figures in Harrappan her pose indicates fertility as she kicks the tree trunk to arouse sap for flowers and tree to bloom sexual innuendo BHAKTI love for ther diety possible reason for why anthro image of Buddha created personal and loving relationship with a deity belief that englightenment could be reached through devotion to a deity Possible reasons love for a deity bhakti competition with the Hindus interests of the lay worshipers STYLES OF THE BUDDHA both created under Kushans dynasty MATHURA stands stiffly upright with legs straight and arm akimbo up saying do not fear see through clothes BALA BUDDHA Yaksha inspired GHANDARA western inspired Roman inspired heavy drapery with deep folds that cover body hair is in wavy pattern with a tied bun YAKSHA pan Indian local gods found throughout north india AJANTA BUDDHIST anthropomorphic images of Buddha bc around time when image was invented 28 rockcut caves PATRONAGE unlike sanchi it is from wealthy important people and royaltyinscriptions are not just simple like sanchi but long and elaborate indicating status HARlSHENAking of the Vakatakas NOT DIRECTLY PATRON BUT POSSIBLY CAVE l VARAHADEVA prime minister of Harashidena cave 16vihara adornment for gods deities UPENDRAGUPTA Rishika s rulerwhere Ajanta was located patron of caves 1720 personal motivation for his younger brother who diedmerit for his dead brother BUDDHABHADRA patron of cave 26 says was close friend to Ashmakawas a monk motivation for cave just because he was wealthy CHAITYA place where monks worshipped cave 19 VIHARA where monks lived cells cave 1 CAVE 1 one of last caves to be made has a porch with pillars and windows a central courtyard inside like Sanchi with viharas surrounding it mostly dark inside room in the back with a Buddha image in yoga posture turning the wheelmudra indicating the scene from his first sermon paintings all inside are the same theme as in SanchiSakyamuni and his past lives and decoarations prolly not meant to be readseen but just to create the holy atmosphere mostly white colored images to reflect light better MUDRA gesture like turning of the wheel BODHISA I39I39VA enlightenment being able to be a Buddha but stays on Earth to help teach ppl how to reach nirvana vows not to become a Buddha until everyone has reached their goalkind pair of people outside Buddha shrinecave1 MAHAJANAKA JATAKA CAVE 1 story of King Janaka wants to give up life to be ascetic story of Buddha himself wife puts dancerssex to stop him from leaving leaves sees women weaving cotton and bracelets 2 represent how life w wife would be problems and a single bracelet representing solitude was to be peaceful leaves on his elephant CAVE 19 chaitya hall built by Upendragupta single door horse shoe shaped windowc0vereddark insidelots of images on exterior mostly Buddha images of all sizespossibly represent patronage from donors to gain merit during chaos inside rounded rectangular room with circumambulation pathrounded ceiling and rock cut stupa at the end of cave with standing Buddha in front meaning that Buddha is part of the stupapaintings of Buddha stupa patterns SHIVA four armed dances with phallus erect ascetic hairdo third eye on forehead sometimes carries a spear NATARAJA SHIVA depiction of shiva dances a lot dances on one leg stepping on a dwarf upper 2 hands hold a drumcreation of the universe and bowl of firezdestruction of universe must be done before creation lower left hand points down indicating safe place and lower right is raised hand indicated fear not spins on one leg indicating the axis mundi with erect phallus rpresents fertilitiy and power COSMIC DANCER dancers posture LINGA most popular form of Shiva represents erect phallus and axis mundi found in Shaiva temple aniconic symbololten placed on a base representing vagine connection between deity and devotee PUJA worship devotional attention to deitiesmaking offerings washing chanting etc MAMALLAPURAM Hindu site in south india named after king Mammala who had many monuments patronage was done by ther king four types of monuments rock cut caves rock cut temples rathas structural temples structural reliefs RATHAS rock cut temples DURGA CAVE named after Durga who kills buffalo demon granite shallow open porche with three rooms in back Vishnu shiva durga on right wall is Durga slaying form of Devi has 8 arms rides lion vehicle army of dwarfs and amazon women On the left side is image of Vishnu on the cosmic snake at the time of destruction of old universe and creation of new universe snake represents ocean which will create new lifeasleep will bring lotus from navel so new world can be created demons above him but protected by personified weapons
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