Introduction to Communication Studies
Introduction to Communication Studies COMM ST 10
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COMM ST 10
Mrs. Isobel Cummerata
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Popular in Communication Studies
This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Isobel Cummerata on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM ST 10 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by M. Suman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/177866/comm-st-10-university-of-california-los-angeles in Communication Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Comm Lecture Review 1252012 114000 PM Functions of Mass Media Content Function 0 Tied to the specific content you get from a medium 0 IE the weather How you get it is not important but the content of the information received Medium Function 0 Tied to the general nature of the media or the conditions of its use 0 IE going to the movie theater for a date The content of the movie is not important but the experience Manifest Function 0 The obvious surface intended function 0 IE TV being used for entertainment Latent Function 0 The unobvious unintended and sometimes subconscious function 0 IE using tv to alleviate tension between family members so you don t have to talk while watching it 2 Types of functions of the mass media 0 Societal Functions 6 0 Individual Functions 8 6 Societal Functions 0 SSPNSC Sometimes Stupid People Never Stop Calling 1 Status Conferral o The mass media can confer status of people events etc o It tells you what is important 0 IE Informs you that something is important by putting it on the cover of magazines or the top story of the news 2 Services the Political System 0 Helps to make the political system work 0 IE leaders use media to communicate to citizens 0 We find out about politics through the mass media 3 Passing on and enforcing of norms values traditions functions as a socializing agent 0 The mass media helps inform us of norms and what happens when they are broken 0 Sometimes the media even assigns the punishment 0 IE the man who left his bride at the altar but took their honeymoon tickets NY times put him on front pagepunishment o Homogenizing Effect Usually the media gives everyone in the country the same type of norms values and traditions 4 Narcotizing Effect 0 BAD o The media distorts our senses o Tends to give us too much information so that we don t feel sympathetic for anything and don t do anything about issues 0 Focuses on the superficial not the real problems that are happening 5 Services the Economy 0 Helps sell products through advertising more jobs 6 Creates Community and Social Cohesion o Brings us all together by providing a common base of knowledge 0 IE Millions of people watch American idol then they get together and talk about it this brings us together twice 0 It draws us together as a community especially during times of crisis or emergency by bringinghome the faces and feeling of the tragedy 8 Individual Functions 0 GGDPFEOS Good Gymnasts Do Practice Flips Entering Olympic Seasons 1 Guides our Behavior 0 Media is a guide for life and how we behave 0 IE Influences how warm you dress who you vote for etc 2 Guides our Understandings o Gives us a grasp of what the world is really like helps define our reality The Mean World Syndrome 0 Media tells us the world is violent so we think it is 0 IE People who watch more violent TV think the world is scary and violent 3 Develop SelfConcept 0 We explore reality through the mass media 0 The media reinforces who you are Identification 0 We identify with people we see in the mass media to create an image of self we pay special attention to those who are like us Roll Models 0 Good and bad roll models are provided by the media 0 IE Ethnic minorities have had an abundance of bad roll models on TV thus they learn from them and it reinforces who we are 4 Profession Tolls for Individuals 0 Helps you keep up with your professional field and gives professional advice 5 Facilitate Social Interaction 0 gives people things to talk about and a common ground of things to talk about 6 Emotional Release 0 We use media when we want to move from one emotional state to another 0 Can give us entertainment escape from tension relaxation etc 0 IE Listening to classical music calms people down 7 Order amp Structure Our Lives 0 Gives our lives a sense of structure order and security 0 IE Watching the news every night 11pm signals the end of our day 0 When we leave our media rituals we tend to get upset 8 Substitute Social Interactions 0 People especially shy ones can interact vicarious through the media 0 IE I wasn t alone last night I hung out with Jay Leno Jay Leno serves as social interaction 0 TV stars tend to be more approachable in person than movie stars because we feel that interaction with them in our homes rather than on the big screen Books Specialized 0 Books are the most specialized most varied content of the mass media Influential 0 Books are also the most influential of the mass media 0 Have the most long term power and influence 0 Used to communicate most important thoughts educate etc The Printing Press 0 The most important innovation for books Dime Novel 0 Affordable books that came into the mass media Great Growth of Books Paperback Books influence 0 Made books cheaper and able to be carried around more easily Book Clubs 0 Many books were sold for book clubs Organization of the Book Industry 0 Book publishing turned into a BIG BUSINESS 0 Large corporations took over instead of small publishing firms 0 They were especially interested in publish volume and quantity which helped popularity of books Education 0 More Americans were getting an education thus more people were learning to read There is a direct relationship with the amount of schooling you get and the amount of reading you do 7 Key Characteristics of Books 0 PRMCCRM Please Remember My Com Class Reading Material 1 Permanent 0 Books are the medium to which we have attached the most permanence 0 We have libraries books last for a long time 0 People Keep books on their shelves and pass them down to future generations 2 ReUse 0 Books have the highest reuse rate of all the mass media 3 Most Personal 0 We read alone at our own leisure 4 Complexities o The complexities in a book could never be expressed with magazines and radio 0 Authors have the opportunity to express complex ideas over many pages 5 Change 0 Books have one of the strongest ways to communicate emotion from one person to the next author reader 0 Can have a huge impact on your life and your beliefs 6 Respect 0 Books have an aura of respect that other media do not 0 Books are associated with education and intellectual activity 0 People right books so people can read after they die 7 Markers 0 Books can mark different stages in your life 0 We remember who we were when we read and were influenced by certain books 0 Serve as physical evidence of your past Contemporary Influences on Books TV 0 Authors tend to appear on TV to try and help the sales of their books which usually has a huge impact 0 Oprah s Book Club Nearly every book she chooses rises to the 1 best seller list Book Stores 0 Chains have started to take business away from independent book stores 0 We are starting to see books in places like WalMart Grocery Stores etc Used Books Online 0 The sale of books online has been the most increasingly popular sale type for books Harry Potter 0 Made reading COOL Not only did it sell tons of copies but it boosted children s book sales because kids wanted to read more Internet 0 Many books have been written but are only available online The only way you can get it is to order it online then they print it for you Ebooks are where you download books and read them on an electronic device Hasn t gained tons of popularity because of the physical aspect of books Newspapers True Mass 0 First to be available to a large number of people on a regular basis Democracy 0 The government does not have to approve what the newspaper writes so it allows people to make informed decisions 0 Allowed people to challenge informative power and gives the people the power of authority Challenge Monarchy 0 Many newspapers have been confined by many types of governments where there was no democracy Marketplace of Ideas 0 The government should not be able to control the press because there should be a free and open marketplace for ideas 0 All ideas should be able to be freely expressed in the end the right ideas will prevail 0 IE Watch Dog Criticizes the government and the people for doing wrong Truth as Defense 0 You should be able to print anything as long as it is true 0 ZENGER was thrown in jail for writing something detrimental to the British Government Later he was freed because what he wrote was true although it was detrimental Revolution 0 Newspapers played a huge role in the American Revolution 0 Used newspapers to get people to rally together against the british 0 Many of the founding fathers were writers of newspapers Penny Press 0 Newspaper was maid available for only 1 cent 0 Helped create great volume for newspapers through paperboys etc Headlines 0 Caused the birth of the MODERN REPORTER o Journalists started going out to try and find stories to create headlines that would sell papers Barons 0 Turned the newspaper into BIG BUSINESS 0 They were rich businessmen who would change the content of newspapers so people would be interested and want to buy 0 People read the newspaper to keep up with information and for excitement SensationalismYellow Journalism 0 Barons put stories into newspapers that combined entertainment with news coverage These things were exciting to people and caused them to keep buying 0 IE Flying around the world in under 80 days each day you could keep track of the journey Crusades for reform 0 Newspapers that focused on exposing corruption in high places Muckrakers 0 They exposed the problems in public life 0 IE Went after crime fought against police brutality 0 They helped society by bringing about changes that made peoples lives better 0 Led to the created of many laws Facets of the Modern Newspaper Local 0 Most newspapers have a local orientation 0 Regional content but also has national info General Newspaper 0 Newspaper intended for all readers in an area Specialized Newspaper 0 Paper that is aimed at a particular kind of reader 0 IE College newspapers ethnic groups etc Wire Services 0 An organization that collects info and provides news stories to papers all around the country 0 You see these in more regional newspapers 0 IE Reuters AP Inverted Pyramid 0 Wire services write their stories in this format 0 First paragraph has most important information and as the length increases the importance of content decreases o This is done so the stories can fit into different newspapers and are not confined by space If there isn t enough space they simply cut off the story and it will still make sense Syndicated Feature 0 They are put together by an organization and sold to newspapers across the country 0 IE Crossword puzzles cartoons advice columns Chains 0 One company that owns more than one newspaper o Leads to consolidation of the newspaper industry 0 80 of newspapers are owned by a chain Concerns with Newspaper Chains 0 Less Local The chains are not loyal to the community 0 Since the information comes from far away executives it is likely that they are unaware of what is really going on in that local community 0 Newspapers are becoming to concerned with profit than before 0 They just want the highest amount of circulation possible 0 Newspapers sacrifice quality of news cut staff and cost just to get more profit Declining Readership 0 Less and less young people read the newspaper Combating Declining Readership 0 Including special sections celebrities entertainment 0 Making the paper free for certain groups I 0 Making the news more practica news you can use 0 IE food guides etc Role Change 0 Not most timely Broadcast media became the fastest o More investigative dig deeper went indepth on stories 0 Local function covers local politics 0 Not just news variety of topics etc Finding a place in the world of electronic media 0 Online editions 0 Prevent people from going to onlinesources o Classified ads 0 Investment is minimal 0 More timely can be as fast as broadcast newsinternet Magazines Started out as a media for the elite few until they began to reach mass audiences National Audience 0 Became mass when they started to reach National Audience on a regular basis Specialized Magazines 0 The change went from generalized magazines to specialized as circulation grew 0 The majority of magazines today are specialized 0 Custom tailored to individual interests their ads are also specialized Specialization 0 Target audiences of every conceivable subculture in the US 5 Cent Magazine 0 is what made magazines truly a mass media 0 They become cheap enough for the masses to buy 0 Similar to the penny press of newspapers Demographic 0 They have a great demographic for ads 0 Higher class richer people tend to read 0 Magazine readers tend to be more educated Broadcasting Ownership 0 They produce the largest number of separate media 0 Broadcasting media need the least amount of money to start a magazine Selective Editing 0 Magazine editors have a sufficient enough amount of information about its readers 0 So much that it can customize the ads that go into a magazine based on your zip code Zines Zines are selfpublished magazines They tend to deal with issues and topics that are not considered mainstream Often found online the ones onine tend to be more personal and autobiographical o Zines tend to be more quirky and tackle many issues without restraint Average life of a Zine o The average life of a zine is two years Music and the Recording Industry The recording industry is considered the most changeable of the mass media Radio ends up helping the recording industry greatly once its focus changes to music High Turnover 0 Types of content and talent of music change constantly high turnover 1960 s 0 the 605 were a period of great growth for the recording industry Four growths that came into play during the 60 s 0 Rock music rock music birth and popularity comes 0 FM Radio better sound quality 0 Potential for Money record companies and artists begin to make a lot of money 0 Politicization of Music an element of counter culture Older Artists 0 Continue to top the charts continuously with their albums artists over 40 Younger artists 0 Popular for baby boomers John Meyer Nora Jones Contemporary Facets 0 Music Television MTV 0 Television Advertising Music Television MTV 0 Great impact on music because of their amazing advertising techniques Television Advertising 0 Many companies advertise on television and direct their ads towards babyboomers Why are ads directed towards babyboomers 0 They have less filesharing devices 0 Less CD burning friends to burn CDs for them 0 Have more to buy music First Legal FileSharing Subscription 0 Legal Subscriptions were the first breakthrough for online services 0 iTunes 0 65 Million songs sold per month 0 85 Million songs illegally downloaded PeertoPeer file sharing 0 you can download songs from friends Legal Subscription 0 Pay for downloading songs Pro s to legal subscriptions 0 No Ads 0 Songs are already labeled 0 high quality sound 0 no viruses or ads Cons to legal subscriptions 0 Limited song availability 0 high costs 0 limits on sharing Recording Industry SUEING o The record industry is suing people who illegally download to scare people from doing it o The biggest culprit for illegal downloading is the college student Spoo ng o Spreading fake files on illegal downloading servers to discourage illegal downloading Mondegreen o A mondegreen is a misunderstood song lyric o A lot of times the lyric of a song is not the most important factor and is usually ignored or misunderstood 0 We naturally replace words with our primal urges wants and needs 0 That is why we replace song words with food and sex o A lot of times we decide that we like our own versions of the song better than the real version 0 IE take your passion and make it happen 9 take your pants down and make it happen Film Persistence of vision 0 A visual image remains on the retina for a fraction of a second after it is shown 0 This allows for the rapid succession of pictures to make the illusion of motion Pictoral Realism o The first films were focused on movement motion 0 Often seen in arcades 0 People were excited by the novelty of films because they had never seen a moving image like this before Nickelodeons 0 First motion picture theater where movies were shown for a nickel o Opened up and got popular quickly in the east coast where most Americans were living Birth of a Nation 0 Very important to movies because it showed that the film industry was BIG BUSINESS 0 First long full length feature that told a story 25 hours long 0 Was really popular and well received so it showed that movies would be profitable Motion Picture Patents Company MPPC o Controlled nearly all aspects of the Film Industry 0 Controlled the distribution production and exhibition of films 0 Stars identities were blocked from credits 0 Length and film topics were limited 0 The producers wanted to get away from the MPPC so they moved west to get as far away from NY where the corporate bosses were this lead the origins of most of today s major movie companies Hollywood 0 Hollywood is considered the center of the film universe o Started the new world of film 0 Feature length films 0 The Star System 0 Picture Palaces Why did they move to Hollywood 0 Pretty much the farthest you could get away from NYC 0 Great weather more sunshine to film movies 0 Lot of cheap land because there were not a lot of people in the area The year when sound came 0 1927 The First movie with Sound 0 The Jazz Singer How did sound change film 0 The production aspect changed because they had to have sound proof rooms quieter machines quiet on the set etc 0 Many actors had to leave the business because they could not crossover to voice 0 Took away the international aspect because now films were specific to English Comedy 0 Comedy changed into vocal comedy instead ofjust being visual Golden Age of Film 0 19301946 0 The golden age of film contrasts the hard times that were occurring because of WWII Film was used as a form of escapism Documentaries of gangster life became popular 0 Slapstick comedies and musicals became popular 0 Average household was going to the movie theater 25 times per week 0 7 Major Companies Fox Paramount Warner Brothers RKO Universal MGM Columbia Post WWII decline 4 important events 0 1 TV 0 2 Red Scare o 3 Paramount Court Case 0 4 Foreign Films 0 TV got popular in the 1950 s although it was really invented in the 1920 s 0 Many people decided to stay at home and watch TV instead of going out to the movies 0 13 of all movie theaters shut down because people stopped going as frequently Red Scare o The Red Scare was the search for communism in movies because people were afraid that they would infiltrate communism to the public through films 0 The House Unamerican Activities Committee HUAC was on the lookout for communism in movies 0 The blacklist was created so known communists could not participate in the creation of films 0 Influenced the nature of films because directors were afraid to put out anything too creative or unique because they might end up getting in trouble or accused for communism Paramount Court Case 0 Argued that there was an Oligopoly in the film industry 0 A small group of major film companies were controlling all aspects of the film industry 0 They were forced to break up vertical integration 0 Production distribution and exhibition of films must all be separated 0 Many film companies were forced to sell their theaters Foreign Films 0 There was a strong international film movement which created a competition with Hollywood Film Distribution 0 getting films to the market The Response from the Film Industry Decline 0 Hollywood tried to do everything it could to keep people coming to the movie theaters o Smellavision 3D more color stereophonic sound Conglomerates o NonHollywood Companies took charge of the film industry to save it Changes in the 19605 0 Films started to change dramatically in the 19605 0 The content of films changed to make more important social statements and deal with more specialized content 0 Film began to seek new audiences 0 Film became more experimental 0 Made people realize that film was different than TV LCD 0 Lowest Common Denominator 0 TV was the LCD because it appealed to everyone 0 Films didn t have to appeal to everyone and could deal with more complex ideas Youth 0 The youth were the ones that really contributed money to the industry 0 The audience was 1630 year olds o The movie industry started to make films directed towards youth 0 More films came out in the summer because there was no school Blockbuster Trend 0 Big high budget films like Star Wars and Jaws were created 0 These films were nut just successful but HUGE 0 Made people go watch them over and over Aesthetic Change 0 Start to focus on the sensational films instead of plot and character 0 Changes from simply being a plot and character driven sensation 0 Films became bigger louder and faster 0 not about the bad guy dying but HOW THE BAD GUY DIES What were the conglomerates and film industry now driven by 0 MONEY AND PROFIT Easy ways to make more money with film 0 Sequels o Sequels were used tto make even more money and profit 0 They could make 23 of the initial profit with a sequel 0 Remakes 0 Film remakes are made to update for youth 0 The make films based on popular tv shows video games etc o Bases on Other Media o It is said that it is too difficult to make a unique film now 0 Films are always based on books tv shows etc Actors 0 Actors are a huge part of the money making process of film and also have a lot of power in the industry 0 20 million dollar club actors get 20 million dollars to make a film Why do actors get paid so much 0 It is very important to open up a film strong and the first week of sales are the most important 0 A good way to open up a film strong is to have a popular actor in the film International Audiences 0 International box office success has been largely due to American films gone international Boys with Toys 0 A formula that always works action films will sell A man running with a gun 0 Everyone enjoys action films because they can really relate to them Why Dominance of Action Films o No need for subtitles 0 Action films go past cultural boundaries better than intellectual arguments 0 Physical Humor translates better than verbal brilliance 0 Heavy on special effects and flashy visuals Nationwide Release 0 A film opens on thousands of screens across the nation at one time o JAWS was the first film to do this 0 Today the winner is Matrix with 10000 screens 0 Before they used to open up on only a small number of screens and then slowly progress to others Agents 0 When the studios lost control of the actors the agents took over 0 The studios were in control of the actors the actors left the studios the agents took over 0 They would present a whole package with all of the creative talent needed for a movie Director writer actors producer they just needed a dealmaker to give the money to make it happen Independent Films 0 Also called INDIES 0 Hollywood has never really been about making art 0 Industry fled the artistic center of the world and went to the middle of nowhere o More profit driven and focused towards entertainment 0 Indies are the exception to this general rule 0 They tend to be more edgy 0 Foreign films and Indies have the same function but indies took over because people took to them more 0 No big stars low budget 0 Studios are starting to pick up on the Indie idea and now the worry is that Indies are becoming too entertainment driven ie My Big Fat Greek Wedding Theaters Role with Indies 0 As theater size increased they tended to leave a few screens for indies to play CineplexMultiplex o theater with usually 35 screens Megaplex o Cineplex with 1416 screens or more 0 Usually in malls because there is more exposure in the mall The majority of people who see movies also do some shopping in the mall at some point Changing Role of Theaters 0 Before small theaters with 1 or 2 theaters used to be the norm Not anymore 0 Now people are encouraged to spend as much time as they can in the theater 0 Integration of Cafes restaurants etc in theaters so people will spend more time 0 13 to 12 of the revenue for theaters is made from concessions The Relationship of Film and TV 0 Audience from film started to be drained by TV 0 Film decided if you cant beat themjoin them 0 Once films got played out in theaters they started to be played on TV and continue to make money 0 Soon studios started making made for TV movies that would never appear on the big screen 0 Studios actually started to produce some TV shows Video Rentals 0 At first the Film Industry thought that Video rentals would be the demise and end of the industry because people would never want to leave their homes and would only watch movies at home 0 Soon they found out that they could make a lot of money by using video rentals and actually ended up making more money through videos than from the box office 0 They would sell a copy of a movie to a rental store for 100 to make profit Sell Through 0 Soon they realized they could make a profit from selling films directly to the public 0 They would sell the films for a low price 30 but it would be okay because they would sell a large amount at that price 0 At first the biggest seller was family films because children enjoy watching the same film over and over so parents would buy those films for their children 0 Soon they started selling all genres of film DirecttoVideo Video 0 A film that is created and is sold directly on video because there is no plan for it to be seen in theaters 0 At first this was only used for bad movies 0 Later it was used for Animations and sequels to animations like Cinderella etc KEY NOTE ABOUT FILM MAKING MONEY 0 There are many ways for the film industry to make money besides selling tickets at the box office Videos tv merchandise etc o STREAMING make notecard for this NETFLIX Current Film Audience 0 The biggest audience for film is the Youth Audience still Youth Audience 0 Biggest audience for film today 0 Most likely to go see a film more than once 0 Movies that teens like tend to cost less 0 Buy more concessions 0 Less affected by what critics say 0 Male teenagers are impatient and want to see the film as soon as it comes out Nature of Films 2 o Persuasive o Clich Persuasive 0 People argue that film is the most persuasive of all the mass media 0 Use films to evoke emotions and induce patriotism in times of war 0 Although films have a huge opportunity to be persuasive a lot of times they are not and simply focused on entertainment 0 Why not persuasive 0 Because a lot of times people use films as a way to escape form the many pressures of the world Clich o Clich s are used over and over to entertain us 0 IE In scary films the girl always has to fall flat on her face while the killer is chasing her 0 IE In a fight scene with 99 against one they all attack one at a time The Regulation of Film 0 A court case decided that film was not a way to express ideas but rather a forprofit business 0 This made film not protected by the 1st amendment and the government was able to regulate film content Hays Office Code 0 Self Regulation of the film industry 0 All films had to pass through the Hays Office to see if the films were appropriate 0 If they were they would receive a stamp of approval and then be allowed to be viewed in theaters The Miracle Case o Reversed the supreme courts decision that films were not an outlet for expression 0 Caused the Hays Office to die MPAA Codes Motion Picture Association of America Codes 0 After the Hays Office died the film industry decided that it still needed to rate themselves 0 The MPAA code was used 0 This led to more sexualrisky content to be seen by a younger audience Internet and Film 0 We are starting to see movies pirated on the internet 0 Some companies are allowing their films to be downloaded like music 0 There is still hesitation in downloading movies because they are afraid that movies will be duplicated like music Radio The most everpresent media device Profit Made By Radio Sets 0 At first the profit to sustain the radio business was the sale of radio sets 0 Once everyone had a radio the sells fell and this was not sufficient to support the business 0 Thus we see the introduction of ads and networks to radio Radio Networks 0 The cost of programming could be shared because the network could produce the programming and the stations could put it on air 0 The first network was made by RCA NBC Networks 0 Columbia 9 CBS Radio Advertising 0 Radio advertising started because a Brooklyn business paid for a station airtime After that his business was booming and this became a standard for advertising on the radio Chaos on the Radio 0 The many stations on the radio frequency began to interfere with each other 0 They had to alleviate the signals interfering with one another so they created to Electromagnetic Spectrum EM SPECTRUM EM Spectrum o Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 Created to alleviate the signals interfering with one another 0 Segment used to distinguish between the size of the waves to distinguish between AM and FM radio FCC 0 Federal Communication Commission 0 The Federal Communications Commission started to regulate the radio 0 You had to go through the FCC to be able to broadcast on radio Two Things you had to get to broadcast on radio 0 License to broadcast 0 Serve Public Interest Two thoughts on Public Interest 0 Elitist o Populist Elitist 0 What s good for the public should be played on the radio because it served the public interest 0 IE Classical and Opera music Populist o What the public is interested in should be played on the radio because it serves public interest 0 IE Pop Music Mindless Chatter what s on FM TV39s effect on Radio TV stole the audience from Radio and radio had to completely reinvent itself At first Radio was focused on entertaining people by telling them stories ie soap operas TV stole this aspect from radio because people did not care to just hear the story if they could see it on TV too Transformations of Radio 3 0 Organization amp Structure 0 Style amp Content 0 Function Organization amp Structure change 0 Started at a national medium localized network medium slowly moving back to national 0 Radio stations became local in terms of the content audience and source of income 0 Today it s moving back to the national direction because of radio chains which have the same playlistsame music to everyone 0 Satellite radio also caused radio to go more national again Style amp Content change 0 From narrative stories 9 MUSIC 0 FM Radio BOOMS FM Radio 0 FM Frequency Modulation o Becomes the most popular type of radio 0 Has higher sound quality which is great for playing music Function change 0 Immobile 9 Mobile 0 Collective 9 Individual medium 0 Secondary Medium 0 Highly Personalized o Specialized Selective Audiences Immobile 9 Mobile 0 Before you would sit down and listen to the radio in one spot now that is rare and radio is portable Collective 9 Individual 0 It has become and individual medium because before people used to sit with their entire family and listen to the radio now each person listens to the radio in isolation Secondary Medium 0 You usually listen to the radio while doing something else usually driving or exercising Highly Personalized 0 Everyone can listen to their radio on their own time on their own station for whatever reason they want Specialized Selective Audiences 0 Everyone can listen to their own stations and people can listen to the radio for different reasons at different times Format Broadcasting A radio station selects a certain audience that they want to target and target this audience for their entire programming Most radio stations are based on format broadcasting IE HipHop RampB stations focus on black and Latino people in metropolitan areas Narrowcasting o Broadcasting to a specific group of people instead of a wide general audience and linking to a format that speaks their language 0 You accomplish Narrowcasting through FORMATS Telecom Act of 1996 o Greatly relaxed the limits of how many radio stations a single owner could own 0 At this time many radio stations changed ownership Consolidation o More radio stations falling into fewer hands 0 In 1996 no owner owned over 30 radio stations now ClearChannel owns over 1200 radio stations 0 Before you could tell the difference in stations when driving across the country now it s hard to distinguish Homogenization o The same music is generally played all across the country Internet Radio 0 Helps to overcome space and time restrictions of radio 0 You can archive radio programs and listen to them whenever you want Portability of Internet Radio 0 The only way that internet is going to be successful is if they create a way for you to listen to it somewhere besides your computer Pod Casting 0 Recorded audio programs recorded from websites Satellite Radio National you can get the service if you pay a subscription Pulling people away from terrestrial radio at a 15 rate Although it has been successful it has not yet been able to turn a profit 0 There are only two satellite radio stations XM and Sirius Response to Satellite and Internet Radio 0 There has been a cutting down of commercials o Added songs to playlists Digital Technology 0 The ability to deliver digital signals will allow better quality sound 0 FM radio would sound like a CD Multicasting 0 Just starting to be experimented with 0 One Terrestrial station could split its channel into multiple channels 0 IE 10432 Television Networks 0 Allows programming to affiliate stations 0 In the beginning the government was worried that TV would turn into an oligopoly like the film industry so they restricted the number of tv stations one network could own 0 Owned and Operated o A station that is directly owned and run by a network 0 IE Channel 2 is owned by CBS channel 3 is ABC these are both network stations Affiliates 0 As you get to smaller cities you see an increase in affiliate stations 0 These stations play network programming with small segments of local programming 0 Independently owned not owned by the network Relationship with Radio 0 Must of the content from TV came from RADIO 0 IE Westerns soap operas comedy shows etc 0 First TV stars were former Radio Stars Video Tape Development 0 Before the coming of video tapes network programming was broadcast live 0 Once videotapes came along most programming was taped Benefits of PreRecording network programming 0 Errors o If there were errors you didn t have to worry about it you could just edit it and redo o ReRuns 0 Tons of profit from a show because you could show it for a second time The second time it is shown It is pure profit Distribution of TV Programming In the beginning tv programming was accomplished by running millions of cables through the ground into houses Satellites 0 Now satellites are used to distribute TV programming Uplink 0 Ground based transmission station that sends the programming to a satellite 0 IE a news station sends their show through an uplink to the satellite Downlink o Downlinks are receiving stations that feed local stations Transponders o Amplifies signal from uplink and sends it to the downlink Geosynchronous Orbit o The Satellite is rotating around in space at the same rate as the earth They are synchronized so the satellites stay in a fixed location in the sky Head end 0 Used if you are using cable and sends the programming from the downlink into homes Process of programming 0 Network uplink transponder downlink home o If using cable Network uplink transponder downlink head end home Geographically Challenged o The original use of cables was to get cable to the geographically chaHenged 0 IE Someone who lived where a mountain blocked the satellite signal from getting to their home They would run cables from the satellite to put programming into their home News There are so many thing going on in the world but we only hear about a small amount of things from the news Agenda Setting 0 The news media determines what is important for us to hear about 0 It may not determine what we think but plays a large role in what we think about Gatekeeper 0 Anyone involved in the selection of what we see in the news media 0 The peopleperson involved in deciding the agenda setting Mirror Analogy o The news isjust like a mirror 0 The news is like a mirror reflecting the world The news reports what is happening in the world objectively and accurately 0 Not so true because there are so many things going on in the world that the news couldn t possibly report all of it Factors Influencing Selection in News 5 0 Factors within the Story 0 Audience 0 Technology 0 Organizational Pressures o Newspeople o FATON Newspeople o Newspeople are not objective machine 5 0 They usually have a subjectivity in specific a political bias Political Bias 0 Many people say that the newspeople have a political bias that tends to be more liberal o 86 of Americans voted for Clinton 0 Some people argue that the media has a conservative bias 0 Many newspeople are high paid individuals so they tend to be on the more conservative part of the spectrum SubCultural Bias 0 Many news people have the same school of thought because they went through the same education in journalism and are in close proximity with one another 0 This influences what they decide to put into the news Different Organization Pressures o The Beat System 0 Pack Journalism 0 Regularized Phenomenon o Deadlines Beat System 0 The specific location or theme that a newsperson is assigned to 0 Things happen at specific places and with specific people and newspeople are designated to make sure that the coverage of their beat happens 0 IE Whitehouse Beat Award Show Beat 0 Whatever happens at that event no matter what is news 0 IE They are assigned to whitehouse meeting whatever happens at this meeting is news Pack Journalism 0 One reporter or journalist decides that a piece of news is important so all of the other newspeople follow and do coverage Regularized Phenomenon o The news must comes out everyday and must be put together each day 0 Even if there is no news they have to come up with something 0 They must fill up the same amount of time in the news shows the same amount of space in the papers each day they must make something news Deadlines 0 Stories that miss the deadline don t usually make the news at all 0 Stories must make deadlines to have time for preparation before news shows or publication 0 The only exception to this is late breaking news Technology 0 Makes the gathering and distribution of news quicker o Allows more news organizations especially local ones to cover more news o Involving technology in news costs MONEY so the companies are definitely going to use the feature leads to them showing certain types of stories Factors Within the Story 0 The news simply likes some stories better than others Events 0 they like events that happen at a specific time and place rather than ideas 0 They want timely dramatic events Events that are Timely 0 They want current news not old news Dramatic Events 0 They want timely dramatic events with a beginning middle and end Conflict 0 they want news that has conflict which adds to the dramatic aspect of the news Unpredictable or unusual 0 Want news that is unusual but happens at a predictable place and time so that they can get the coverage 0 If a dog bites a man this is not news if a man bites a dogthis is news Proximity 0 People tend to be interesting in things that are of close proximity 0 These types of stories are easier to cover and can be localized 0 People are more interested in what is going on in their backyard than what is going on with the world Personalization 0 Issues are humanized so people can relate to the news 0 It is helpful to bring celebrities into the news because they attract viewers ie anna Nicole smith Good Film 0 People want good visuals to go along with the news Audience 0 News media wants as large of an audience as they can get 0 This causes the news to focus more on entertainment than the news 0 Turns news into showbiz and superficial things 0 IE They cover political bloopers rather than the news that is happening in politics Ethics Ethics Definition 0 Issues of Good vs Bad 11 Ethical Issues PAST GUCC BMW 0 Privacy Issues 0 Basic Obligations to Fellow Human Beings 0 Conflict of Interests 0 Media Trials 0 Gifts and Payola o Stereotypes 0 Accuracy of Info 0 Undercover Reporting 0 Checkbook Journalism 0 War Photos 0 Taste o BMW Privacy 0 The is a conflict between the publics right to know and individuals rights of privacy 0 Funerals weddings sexual orientation scandal are all being revealed to public 0 New technology and paparazzi are making the invasion of privacy easier than ever Basic Obligations to Fellow Human Beings o The main issue is the issue of human decency 0 Should reporters be exempt from showing general human decency in order to get the story 0 IE the man was setting himself on fire and all the news reporters were around to get the storythe last minute one of the reporters went to stop him 0 They have to stand around and watch preventable thingsjust so they can get the coverage 0 News reporters who do not sacrifice human decency are criticized Conflict of Interests 0 Conflict between showing actual news coverage or showing things that will aide profit for the parent company of the news source 0 IE ABC show is owned by Disney and shows footage of Disney related things Media Trials 0 Bringing cameras into the courtroom can influence the decision and hinder the possibility of a fair trial 0 Witnesses might not want to testify because it is high profile some will lie to get attention in the media Gifts amp Payola 0 Giving gifts or money to hopefully bring about positive media coverage 0 IE Film reviewers getting huge packages to attend film premiers with everything paid for so that they will right a good review about the film 0 The name PAYOLA came from record companies giving DJ s money to play their tracks Stereotypes 0 Different groups of people get angry for the ways they are portrayed through the media Accuracy of Information 0 The media is held responsible for reporting accurate info without lying making fake quotes stories etc Undercover Reporting 0 Lying about identity or putting in hidden cameras to get a story 0 IE posing as a restaurant worker just to get the story and rank a worker 0 IE using hidden cameras to show bad things that happen in restaurants Checkbook Journalism 0 Reporter should not pay someone to get their story This leads to fabrication so that the person who is paid can get more money IE journalist paying someone from the columbine shooting to get personal things from his home War Photos 0 Some argue that media should be sensitive with disturbing war photos to keep in mind the families of the dead and protecting privacy Taste On the other hand they argue that we should be allowed to see the disturbing war photos so people can see the true effects and costs of war Showing something that might be too graphic for people to see People argue that this may not be tasteful IE showing a mother grieving over her dead children after the Tsunami and showing the kids feet coming from under a blanket Is this tasteful Regulation of Media The government regulates broadcast media more than any other media Deregulation Overall we are seen the getting rid of previous regulations placed by the government IE before no company could own over 3 TV stations but now than can own as many as they want as they don t exceed reaching 40 of the population There have been some new regulation on tv but overall we are seeing the deregulation of tv SelfRegulation Much of the US media regulation is selfregulation They have rules that they abide by and they usually pertain to ethics more than legal rules IE AOL bans users who show inappropriate photos InterestAdvocacy Groups Parents 0 Groups that pressure the media to include or not include certain programming IE The American Family Association did not like the sex in NYPD Blue so they said General Motors advertises on this show so we will boycott general motors Organize boycotts We are unsure how effective these groups are and sometimes we find out that they actually have counterproductive efforts Parents play a large role in censoring books schools IE they pulled goldilocks because she did not get arrested for breakingin entrythis violated their religious beliefs Right Wing Parents Concern o 3 5 5 Sex Satanism and Swearing 0 Most right winged parents are concerned with these issues Left Wing Parents Concern 0 Most left winged parents are concerned with racial and cultural issues Companies Involved in Regulation 0 WalMart o Blockbuster Walmart o WalMart is the number 1 music seller in the country 0 They refuse to sell music that has an advisory warning inappropriate cover art or offensive lyrics 0 This causes record labels to change the content of their music and change cover art just so they can sell at walmart Blockbuster o Blockbuster controls 30 of the rental industry 0 They refuse to rent out NC17 Movies 0 Film companies decide not to make movies with this rating so that they can have rentals done at Blockbuster 1st Amendment The first amendment offers us the freedom of speech and the freedom of the press Some people would argue that the US is one of the most free environments because of the first amendment Congress should make no law abridging freedom of speech or freedom of press Liberal Democracy 0 We live In a liberal democracy 0 A liberal democracy is ruled by the majority of the people Democracy 0 ruled by the people Liberal 0 We have certain rights that simply cannot be taken away from us Tyranny of the Majority 0 Protected by the Liberal part of our government 0 IE 999 of the population thinks a man that committed a crime should be hung and killed but this cannotjust happen regardless of the majority s opinion on the topic The Philosophical Basis of the 1st Amendment The ideas of three men 0 Milton 0 Jefferson 0 Mill Milton 0 Brought forth the idea of Marketplace of Ideas 0 All ideas should be freely expressed in the end truth will prevail Jefferson 0 Said that the freedom of speech is an inalienable right for all 0 Human beings are rational creatures and if given all of the information will make the correct decisions 0 Thus freedom of speech not be limited because you want all of the information to get out to keep a successful democracy 0 Decided on a Press without Government Interference Mill 0 Mill offered the ThreePronged Defense system ThreePronged Defense System 0 1 If opinion is silences truth may be silenced o 2 Even false ideas or opinions may contain some element of truth 0 3 Even if a commonly accepted opinion is the whole truth it will be viewed as prejudice if people do not get to defend it in the face of people who disagree 0 Once people get to defend their opinions they truly become their own ClassicLibertarianism 0 Putting the ideas of all three men together Milton Jefferson and Mill 0 Summary the government cannot force you to sayprint something There should be a free flow of ideas and in the end the truth will prevail Absolutists o Absolutists believe in takes the literal translation of the 1St amendment and believes the NO RESTRICTION of speech whatsoever should be done Consensus Definition 0 Believe that the 1st amendment is made to protect unpopular ideas tyranny of the majority thus some restriction of the freedom of speech is necessary 0 IE It is legal to burn the American flag because although most Americans are against it a law against it would go against the 1st amendment Social Harm Criteria 0 The Social Harm Criteria is that if information creates such great harm that the government should have the power to regulate it Realms of Social Harm 7 Libel amp Slander National Security H o o 0 Privacy 0 Copyright False Advertising Certain Political Statements O SJIPWN l o Hate Speech Libel and Slander o Libel is written things that falsely defames someone s character 0 Slander is spoken things that falsely defame someone s character 0 Truth is the ultimate defense when it can bring damages to a person especially if it s a lie National Security 0 The government can censor what you say or print if it can endanger the security of the country 0 You cannot disclose secret government information 0 IE a man was handing out pamphlets that advocated for people not to go fight in the warhe was found guilty because it endangered national security Privacy 0 You have the right to keep certain things about you private 0 IE celebrities have rights to their images and they cannot be used for economic reasons Copyright 0 Using someone s copyrighted logo or trademark as your own 0 Includes sounds writing images etc o Is becoming a bigger problem with internet False Advertising 0 You do not have the right to lie about products in your advertising Certain Political Statements 0 You are allowed to make political statements without the government stepping in as long as they do not ask for a violent overthrow Hate Speech Speech Codes 0 A lot of colleges have speech codes 0 You don t have the right to say certain things in class or put down someone for their race religion or sexual orientation 0 A lot of speech codes are being shut down because of the first amendment but there are still some that exist Threats 0 You do not have the right to threaten someone Exceptions to the first amendment protection 0 When there are exceptions made to the first amendment there is usually a problem between defining the exception and the cost benefit analysis 0 If the benefits from restriction outweigh taking away a right Advertisement A lot of money is spent on advertising for one specific reason because it works Why advertisers like Magazines 0 Advertisers love to use Magazines because they are specialized 0 IE there is no better place to advertise your stereo system than in a stereolovers magazine DUH Who they like newspapers 0 Local Retail 0 Local retail stores and local advertisers like to use newspapers 0 Newspapers are called the backbone for local advertising and retail Why TV 0 TV shows are made to deliver the audience to the advertisers 1849 Demographic 0 Advertisers tend to aim at this age group People who are older tend to have brand loyalty and do not want to switch Young people are going to be around longer to use the product and create a brand loyalty with the product Advertisers don t tend to focus on old people because they are less willing to try new things and have new experiences and they have a brand loyalty The exception to the old people rule is babyboomers because they still try to embrace their youth and try are more healthy than previous elderly people Family 0 People in this age group usually live with family the more people you live with the more people you have to buy for Scatter Plans spots o A series of ads scattered across various shows 0 This is the most popular form ofTV advertising today Sponsored 0 When one advertisers ads are the only one shown throughout the entire show 0 This got too costly for advertisers 0 Networks did not like this as much because the sponsor would have too much influence on the content of programming 0 IE if the sponsor didn t like cigarettes they wouldn t include the cigarettes so they could keep the sponsor 0 Rare now National Ads 0 TV is the best way to reach a national audience with your ads Advertising is Ubiquitous o Ubiquitousit is EVERYWHERE 0 We see nearly 5000 ads a day on average 0 IE 0 Merchandising movies have toys to be sold that advertise their movie 0 Sky Writing 0 Billboards 0 Mail to your home o Blimps Place Based Advertising 0 Video screens are placed in random locations with advertisements on them elevators grocery stores malls etc Institutional Ads 0 Take a different approach 0 They do not attempt to sell you a company s products but try to give you a good image of the company itself 0 A lot of times this is done to get rid of negative images that people may have about the company 0 Done to align the company with various social issues ie aids fighting music in schools etc 0 Federal Trade Commission 0 All advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission 0 The FTC is responsible for protecting trademarks and copyrights 0 They punish companies for false advertising 0 They punish companies who falsely advertise by forcing them to make a corrective ad Corrective Ad 0 A corrective ad is an ad that says how the company misled the public and includes an apology for its actions FCC 0 Federal Communication Commission 0 Also deal with ads Counter Ads 0 The FCC deals with counter ads 0 When an ad deals with public importance space is left for the opposing side to be heard 0 IE if there are cigarette ads free space is given for the other side to be heard antismoking 13 ratio Logos and Brand Names 0 Logos and Brand names are words images sounds and colors used by a company to identify itself 0 The lifespan of a typical logo 1520 years After this it needs to be revamped to look more modern Problems with Logos and Brand Names 0 Becoming Generic o If it becomes to popular you lose the rights because it gets incorporated into the English language and is used as a general term for the product 0 IE escalator yoyo and aspirin were all product names but got too popular and now they have entered the language as general words for the product 0 People being offended o Proctor and Gamble had a man looking at 13 stars 0 Christians said that this was Satanism and sued Strategies used by Advertisers Rational Appeal 0 Focuses on the characteristics and advantages of a product Testimonials 0 Tales of a products success 0 IE a mother comes on the screen and says how great this bleach is FEAR Fear is one of the main things advertisers use to get you to buy their product They make it seem like you will be inadequate without their product IE bad breathif you don t buy gum your breath will stink and you are gross 0 They deliver the fear then give you a way to handle it Competitive Ads 0 Talking or implying things about your competitor and saying why your product is superior 0 IE PC and Mac ads Kids Nag 0 When children see ads they will nag their parents so that they will buy it for them 0 Controversial because internet is getting information from children 0 IE Budweiser frogs on tv seem appeal to kids then you go online and the bios of the frogs are completely inappropriate Provocative 0 Now more explicit images and provocative ideas are placed in mainstream ads 0 The Euro approach is going towards American mainstream ads 0 IE putting butts in underwear ads New Music in Ads 0 Using new music in ads appeals to the younger crowd 0 Before artists would be seen as a sell out if they supported a product it is a way for new artists to gain exposure 0 Some big stars go do this overseas because they do not want to be seen as a sellout in the US o The companies are able to get new music from new artists for a cheaper price than classics Integrated Ads 0 Ads that appear directly in the entertainment portion of broadcast 0 IE American Idol saying use your Cingular phones to text message your vote when you can actually use any phone they are just promoting the product Virtual Ads 0 Ads that are only seen by the viewers who are watching the form of entertainment on TV 0 IE you see the ads change on the tennis court or at the basketball game from home but if you are at the game they are not there Internet 0 There has been a bigger growth in Internet than any other media 0 You can see how many people are clicking and seeing your add so it is a great indicator 0 We are starting to see marketers with myspace and facebook pages Viral Ads 0 Ads are entertaining so that a person will want to send it to their friends FLOGS 0 Fake Blogs 0 You click on a blog to read it but it actually is a paid advertisement for the person to write something that promotes a product Infomercials o 30 minute ads on TV with demonstrations testimonials and studio audiences o 120 billion dollars of merchandise is sold through infomercials The Superbowl 0 Highest rated show on TV 0 Many people watch the superbowl simply to watch the ads rather than the game 0 Companies spend big money to make their superbowl commercials this year was 26 million dollars for a 30 second spot They bring out huge amount of creativity for superbowl commercials Acronyms 9272011 22800 PM Sometimes Stupid People Never Stop Calling o 6 Societal Functions of Mass Media Good Gymnasts Do Practice Flips Entering Olympic Seasons o 8 Individual Functions of Mass Media Please Remember My Com Class Reading Material o 7 Key Characteristics of Books FATON o 5 Things that influence selection of news PAST GUCC BMW o 11 ethical issues LNP CFCH o 7 Realms of Social Harm Worksheet Notes 9272011 22800 PM Issue 1 yes o The capitalists use the five myths to promote a capitalist status cuo They use the mass media to benefit themselves ie selling private property 1 Myth One everyone wants the American dream you get property you get the American dream o If you are an immigrant and you come to the country the American dream says that you CAN and WILL succeed on your own terms It doesn t take into account the obstacles of culture o Everyone thinks that you are able to fulfill the American dream by yourself Mind Managers the capitalists are training us to think in a way that benefits them and suits the status cuo No need to memorize all of the myths but you should know the details of each one Issue 1 No o TV is a forum 0 TV Acts as a cultural forum a program functions as an artifact of cultural periods in history IE watching something on WWII that was made in WWII is a history 0 TV acts to promote discussion you can always negotiate write letters etc to what is being shown on tv It promotes discussion because you can always control your own culture o Transportation View 0 A process of transporting messages at a distance for the purpose of control 0 You are making tv programs and they are conveying messages from the dominant people of society to everyone else to get them to conform to their views o Liminal view liminality o In between reality and fake It is a safe place that helps present ideas to people that they can either choose to keep or discard It is the difference between TV reality and real reality o Ritual View TV is a process not a finished product o Overall thesis criticizing transportational view he is promoting the ritual view 0 Tv is used as a method of control but that is not it s only function 0 Issue 4 yes 0 Myths 0 1 The research on video game violence is inconclusive It actually is conclusive and proves that media violence causes more aggression o 2 Media Violence Affects a small number of people 0 3 Violent media is a way for a person to get rid of violent tendencies You want to behave more aggressively after playing videogames In the shortterm right afterwards o 4 The studies that have been done are only lab studies and are not real studies 0 5 The effect of video games is not that dangerous It IS It causes more aggression Issue 4 No o Video game violence decreases since the 1990 s c There are benefits know them Issue 11 o Why are there less public interest views 0 Media is more concerned with sensationalism for don t self disclose 0 Journalism has changed over timee muckraking o How can journalism change this trendgt 0 Use the internet regulation of public broadcasting not allowing themselves to 0 Know at least 4 of the reasons o Conglomeration is BAD because you get a homogenous view of the media instead of a localized and different view of media No side know the major different views Short answer possibility according to first amendment center what is the majorities attitude towards adult content 0 Or what do people know about the first amendment going into the survey THEY ONLY KNOW ONE OF THE RIGHTS Issue 12 yes o Sexual racial and religious slurs are included in the hostile environment law 0 The employer is liable o The yes side is in favor of the law but he is worried that the law could go too far and could restrict too much Issue 12 No o Know the 8 major findings end Issue 6 Squeeze The advertisers are putting the squeeze on the editors you are not putting my advertisement on the way that I want it if you are putting things out that are against our views you cannot get our money Example from the no side Define the Wall according to Baker Issue 7 No trends of news management over the years 0 A republican controlled congress discloses less to the press Fewer opportunities for reporters o The news is able to bargain with who they want to give information too 0 The white house is getting tighter over the years so it is setting a norm for giving information o NO dealing with how the government is so closed to press because the press is so focused on scandal Provides a lot of strategies to make the press better o YES focused on describing the situation
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