Research Design and Critique
Research Design and Critique NURSING 204
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Qualitative Approaches N204 MECN January 26 2007 Dr Jill Berg Lecture Ob ecti es Describe the underpinnings of qualitative research Discuss the major qualitative approaches Identify the role of the researcher the goal of the research and the philosophical stance in each of the qualitative approaches discussed Discuss the contribution of qualitative research to evidence based practice Additional References Berg BL 2006 Qualitative Research for the Social Sciences Boston Allyn and Bacon Greenhalgh T Taylor R 1998 How to read a paper Papers a go beyond numbers qualitative research Denzin N K and Lincoln Y S Eds 1994 Handbook of Qualitative Research Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications Giacomini M Cook DJ 2000 A User39s Guide to Qualitative Research in Health Care JAMA 2000 Jul 26284447882 See qualitative research methods group The Goal of Research THE GOAL OF RESEARCH IS TO FIND OUT THE TRUTH IN THE UNIVERSE So we begin with a question AND THEN we need to decide HOW to find the answer to the question Different T pes of Research Depends on NATURE OF QUESTION ASKED METHOD USED TO ANSWER THE QUESTION THE DEGREE OF PRECISION THE METHOD OFFERS IN ANSWERING THE QUESTION Salkind 2003 Some refer to the method used as the design of the study Two distinct types of design are qualitative and quantitative research Some would also suggest that research can be classified as experimental and nonexperimental and qualitative research is a type of nonexperimental research Overview of Qualitative B Ietliods What is Qualitative Research Importance of Philosophical amp Theoretical Underpinnings Major Qualitative Methods Analysis of Qualitative Data How have Qualitative Methods been used in Nursing Research How is quality of Qualitative studies evaluated Link to evidence based practice lical and Theoretical a Determine assumptions Reality How knowledge is developed Meaning Behavior 3 Interaction ii Purpose of knowledge Qualitative Research Some underlying assumptions in qualitative research are I The world is seen as dynamic and evolving there are multiple realities I Reality is different for every individual I Qualitative research is a way of discovering the epth and richness of the world Qualitative Research Major subcategories of qualitative researc Interpretive main thrust is to understand point of view of participants Critical Research generation of new knowledge thru research that is socially responsible Qualitative vs Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative l ResErcher is resErch l Researcher is instm ment coordinator an uss I Design evolves during dEVEIOPed iHStrumEH S stud Ongoing analysis and renec39iion I Is more structured and Is more holistic in focused perspective HOV 39 d When does the researcher decide V lich strategy to user Researcher considers I What s the question I What their background and discipline dictates Where they are heading with their research Example Dr Cheryl Beck Beck C T 1992 The lived exlperience of postpartum depression A phenomenolog ca study Nursing REEFCI I 41 166170 Beck C T 1993 Teetering on t eedge Asubstantive theory of postpartum depression Nursing Research 42 42 4 Beck CT 1996 Postpartum depressed mothers39 experiencE interacting with their children Nursing Research 45 98104 amp Gable RK 2000 Postpartum Depression nI Scale Development and psychometric testing Nursi 9 Research 49 272282 Beck CT amp Gable RK 2001 Further validation of the Postpartum Deprss on Screening Scale Nursing Research so 1 1 Beck C T 2004 Birth trauma In the eye of the beholder Nursing REEFCI I 53 2835 1 RIMor Interpretive AP oaches Ethnography henomenology Grounded Theory Historiography Case Study Ethnogra 1 Describes the cultural and social world of a particular group I portrait of a people Central aim is to describe another way of life from a native point of view oots are in anthropology Collection of information occurs in natural settings Ethnographic l Iethod 39 Two basic approaches I Emic studying behav ors from within the culture I Etc studying behaviors from outside a culture Data collection involves observation and interviewing Researcher learns from ke informantsquot meanings attached to activ es behaviors and rituals Phenomenoloq c Philosophical movement 3 Husserl Father of Phenomenology Four basic strategies I bracketing I analyzing I intuiting I describing Use of the Phenomenological I Iethod Identification of the phenomena of interest Identification of the target participants What is the lived experience 0 Interviewing occurs until there is complete saturation of the data Grounded Theo Collection and analysis of qualitative data for the purpose of generating theory 3 Based on symbolic interaction theory I Exploration of how people define reality and meaning to situations 1 Grounded theory method systematic Grounded Theor All steps of the process occur simultaneously Key hallmark of meth comparative proces I Every b t of information is constantly compared with every other b t od is the constant Data is gathered using a variety of techniques interview observation records Historiograph a Refers to the review of past events Purpose is to gain understanding of past often to prepare for future events those that do not understand the past are doomed to repeat it Use of the Historical I Iethod Gathering of data written oral I Researcher fOCLISE on establishing whether sourcE are entic Primary and secondary sources are obtained and examined I Primary sourcE are accounts of an event by a person experiencing them I Secondary sourcE are usually a step removed and may help to interpret primary sources Criticism of data I External criticism stablishing authenticity I Internal crit srn stablishing understanding 7 Involves an exploration of a single unit of studyperson family group community or institution Burns amp Grove 2001 Popular method with medical science where the common or unique i highlighted Narrative 3 Roots in the Humanities C Assumption Meaning made through stories 1 Societalcultural narratives as well as l indiVI ua a How the story is told Structure semantics goal ii Reveals meaning amp meaning making processes Evolving Qualitative B Ietliods 7 Critical Social Theory Feminist Participatory Action Research Evolving lletl1ods Cont Concerned with a critique of existing social structures and with envisioning new possibilities Polit amp Beck 2004 Evolving lletl1ods Cont Focuses on how gender domination and discrimination shape women s lives and their consciousness Produces knowledge through close collaboration with groupscommunities that are vulnerable to control or oppression F 34 Philosophical Inquir quot Three types I Foundational Inquiry provides analyses of the structure of nursing science and the process of thinking in nursing I Philosophical Analysesdeveloping theories of meaning concept analyses amp linguistic analyses I Ethical Inquir 39 entifies principles to guide conduct in nursing Critical Social Theo 39 Feminist research 1 Purpose of study is to identify the constraints operating on the nurse 9 Research is intended to empower the participant group Participatory Research Participants of study are included in the research decision making 3 Valuing of participants as having unique and expert knowledge 1 Subjects may be involved in any or all aspects of the stud Socially responsible method giving back to community that is being studied Special Issues in Qualitative i Iethods 39 Strengths l Rich descriptive information Weaknesses l Extremely time consuming Reliability and validity issues a Analysis of data A1131 Zing Qualitative Data Labor intensive No universal rules Varies by approach Close readin Immersion in the data Coding Movement to higher levels of abstraction Concurrent with data collection A1131 is in Ethnograpl s Observational interview amp experiential Identifies patterns of relations used in the group Describe meaning and use of cultural symbols Identifies cultural structures and organizational patterns 51 l1 quots Ethnog l ethod Locating an informant Interviewing an informant Making an ethnographic record Asking descriptive questions Analyzing ethnographic interviews Making a domain analsis 1St level of analysis Spradl I Iethod Cont Asking structural questions Making a taxonomic analsis 2quotd leve Asking contrast questions Making a comonential analsis 3r11 leve Discovering cultural themes theme analsis 4th level Writing the ethnography Pol l amp Beck 2004 A112 is in Phenomenolo Variety of approaches Identify presuppositions May or may not bracket Identification of essential themes Description of meaning of lived experience A1131 is in Grounded Theor Line by Iine coding Grouping of codes to develop categories Dimensionalizing categories Sampling until categories saturated Identifying relationships within and between categories Developing concepts grounded in the data Co1nparison of Glaser s and 5t LlSS 2111 E 01 3111 S ethLS GlASER s1RAUss amp CORBIN Imlioldaiu analysis 39 39 39 39 quot V J l V lo incidenl so pallems emerge senlence observolion and lncidenl Open iclSelacliva Types oi coding Open seleniive lhaorelicol Conneclions Lam is ceding lumilies Paradigm model imam culegories contexts nclionmlemclionul siruiegiu and consequences Oulcuma a quot Narrative Analy 39 Draws from Humanities Literary critique Identifies stories Identifies structure of stories Emplotment characters context Describes structures used to connect within amp between stories Identifies shifts in structure amp story goals Moves to higher abstraction to uncover meaning Evaluation of lzllitative Studies Identification of assumptive base Demonstration of need for qualitative approach Appropriateness of method chosen Complete description of data collection methods and decisions Clear articulation of analytic approach Description of confirmation methods used HOWAIC 7 39 t h IethOds Used in Nursma Understand a poorly understood experience from patient s perspective Understand meaning amp meaning making process Describe processes Foundation for instrument development or refinement Evaluate interventions Refine interventions HOV is qualitative f kc fch used in EBP ance for appl ing qualitative research Ind gs to practice MmquotquotJumpsumimm mannwpmq WWW quotMama 1 mmquot mum m Manama mm a 351 m 2mm I Does this study deepen or broaden my understanding of the social world of practice by elucidating and interpreting the poinis of View of the actors wthin it I Does this study give me greater insight into how other people may View the social world of my practice I Does this study give me greater insight into the different rn anings and VEIUE that may be attac ed to the social world of my practice Summ 211 Qualitative Methods focus on natural setting Data is co created with participants Analysis is interpretive Provides depth of understanding of meaning culture context experience perspective
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