KOREAN ACADMC TEXTS
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EE M25OB I MAE M282 I BME M25OB MEMS Design Lecture MEMS Journals and Conferences Prof Jack W Judy u EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 Today s Lecture Review of MEMS Technical Literature Conferences Journals Books Trade Magazines etc Do this by going to the online resources of the library httpwwwcdiborqcollections Check out the INSPEC database m 391 EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Conferences MEMS Microelectromechanical Systems Workshop held every year USA Japan Europe repeat Transducers International SolidState Sensor and Actuator Conference held odd years USA Japan Europe repeat Hilton Head SolidState Sensor and Actuator Workshop held even years Hilton Head Island SC ill I EE M25OB MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Conference January 2226 2006 Liitfi Kirdar Convention and Exhibition Centre in Istanbul Turkey SingleSession Conference large international audience 1000 people Topics Nanodevices amp NEMS Actuators Light amp Bio Manipulation Bio amp Particle Separator Fabrication amp Material Sensors Droplet Control amp Biodevices Wireless Communication amp Power MEMS F httpwwwimtekdeanwendunqenlmem32006l MG I EE M25OB MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Conference T RAMSDLJEERS quot35 June 5396 5 L if I L COEX Seoul Korea MultiSession Conference very large international audience 1000 people Topics Materials Sensors MicroAnalysis Systems Microactuators Microfluidics Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Micropackaging Interface Electronics Modeling and CAD Wireless Sensor Networks w httpwwwtransducers05orq EE M25OB MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Hilton Head 2004 A SolidSlate SensorAttuatnr and ii39licms gpalzems Workshop June 6 10 2004 Crowne Plaza Resort Hilton Head Island SC USA SingleSession Conference large US audience 400 people Cordial environment lots of interaction time Topics Optical MEMS RF MEMS BioMEMS Sensors LabonaChip Packaging commercial MEMS rapidly evolves m httpwwwhh2004orq 7 M EE M25OB MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Journals IEEE JMEMS Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems IEEE Nano IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnoloqv Institute of Physics JMM Institute of Physics Journal of Micromechanics and Microenqineerinq Elsevier SAA and B Sensors and Actuators split into 5 3 g 1 I I At A Physrcal and B Chemical 17140555 m u LUMLR l s l E j l EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 Conference and Journals The list is very long any field that could benefit from miniaturization has a conference session or special journal on MEMS NEMS Particularly Bioengineering Optics but there are many others Ff EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Books and MEMSRelated Books Amazoncom sells 60 and counting Published on Topics ICFabrication Books Jaeger Wolf and Tauber Campbell etc Compendium of Seminal MEMS Papers Microsensors 1991 Micromechanics and MEMS 1996 Microfabrication Fundamentals of Microfabrication Madou MEMS Applications Transducer Source Book Kovacs Beware some books have MEMS in the title but are not relevant check out the authors u EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 MEMS Trade Magazines Small Times MEMS Nanotechnology and Microsystems Business oriented information Funding Successes Failures Latest Patents Quite good and uptodate mailing list httpwwwsmatimescom MicroNano or Micromachined Devices Monthly 16page magazines Products and tools for micro and nano tech Latest and upcoming conferences funding m IM EE M2503 MEMS Design 2 MEMS Conferences and Journals Jack W Judy 2005 Anthropogenic Global Warming Can International Politics Cope Goals This lecture discusses ideas relevant to the assignment for the final essay The assignment is to analyze the effect of politics on the world s response to the problem of climate change What do realism liberalism and the identity perspective say about what the community of states can do Your paper may take the position that the international community should learn that there is no problem to address If so the paper must explain how politics motivates some people or organizations to imagine a nonexistent problem and other people to accept this spurious claim A simple model of world response to climate change It is intended to help you think about the problem I do not claim that the model or its pessimism are true Climate Change Evidence that climate of the earth has warmed slightly in recent years Spring is occurring earlier at the same latitude Migratory birds fly further north earlier in the year Arctic ice packs are smaller Glaciers are shallower and shorter Effect of Carbon Dioxide Solar radiation striking the earth provides heat Other sources of heat such as subterranean heat are less important Warming effect of solar radiation on a physical object the mass of the earth would be slight But the heat is trapped by the atmosphere much as the glass in a greenhouse lets sunlight through but traps heat inside Nitrogen and oxygen the main components of the atmosphere do not trap heat Effect of atmosphere on earth s surface temperature is attributable to presence of water vapor and of carbon dioxide and certain other gases in very low concentrations hence greenhouse gases Carbon Dioxide Increase Cores drilled into glacial ice can be dated Trapped air can be analyzed for proportion of greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide but also methane and certain others Carbon dioxide has been steadily increasing since about 1800 Between 1960 and 2000 alone it increased from 315 to 360 parts per million in the atmosphere or more than 10 percent Concentration remains very low Cause of Global Warming Observany the surface temperature of the earth has increased Observany the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased Heat trapping by carbon dioxide is one source of the earth s warmth But there are many other things going on Whether the observed increase in carbon dioxide is the cause of the observed global warming is unproven despite consensus opinion among scientists that carbon dioxide is an important source Anthropogenic Warming Anthropogenic means humancaused Carbon dioxide is exhaled whenever an animal breathes It is also absorbed by plants and released as oxygen While plant and animal life maintain a rough balance between absorption and emission carbon dioxide is also released whenever fuels are burned that is when the carbon in the fuel oxidizes releasing heat Human use of carbon fuels wood coal oil is responsible for much of the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide lf carbon dioxide increase is the cause of observed global warming then the warming is anthropogenic But because of other things going on whether carbon dioxide increase has caused any of the observed global warming remains uncertain Climate Change in World Politics The tragedy of the commons The capacity of international politics to address a tragedy of the commons The Tragedy of the Commons Tragedy ineluctable impersonal forces drive human agents to their own destruction A commons exists when 1 multiple human agents draw from the same resources 2 each receives the full benefit of what he or she takes 3 all share the cost of what each takes An Example of a Commons Several herders graze livestock on a pasture owned by none of them Each herder adding an animal to his or her own herd receives the whole gain from owning one more animal Each herder s additional animal reduces the grazing available to all other herds the cost is shared among all herders Incentives to Herders If each herder reaps the full benefit of his or her additional animal but pays only part of the cost the herder decides to add an animal to the herd If all herders make the same decision the herds grow until they eat all the grass All the herds starve and then the herders do too This tragedy actually happened to the American Southwest which was covered with lush stands of grass growing to considerable heights until it was eaten by cattle that are no longer to be seen Commons as Strategic Interaction Don t Add an Animal Herder A Add an Animal Herder B Don t Add an Animal Add an Animal Better for A Better for B Worse for A Best for B Best for A Worse for B Worst for A Worst for B Differences from PD In the commons preferences are not shaped like an N or a reverseZ Preferences are Cshaped for B and inverseU for A Herder B Don39t Add an Animal Add an Animal Don39t Add an Animal 31593 Worse for A n v quotBibi B 41 Herder A Best for A 39ll Add an Animal Worse for B 39l 1 il i Effect of Time Suppose only a few females give birth and each herder can add only a few animals at a time As long as the herds remain small enough the cost to B of A s new animal may be negligible Then for the next period the game is Herder B Don39t Add an Animal Add an Animal Don39t Add an Animal liquot39il39 39 Worst for A Herder A 3 Best for B Best forA quotw 4514 Add an Animal WOI39St fOI39 B 3939 quot2 339 39 Effect of Enough Iterations Eventually though the game reaches a tipping point The cost to A of a new animal for B becomes such that his animals can no longer find grass Then game reverts to tragedy Herder B Don39t Add an Animal Add an Animal Don39t Add an Animal quotu flit Worse for A Herder A 5sr quotIquot 3 Best for B Best for A li its Add an Animal Worse for B Avoiding Tragedy Although commons is not PD the strategy for reaching the green box is the same if played soon enough A tries not adding an animal making sure to inform B A counts B s herd If B doesn t add A continues not adding Herder B Don39t Add an Animal Add an Animal Don39t Add an Animal quot11quot A Worse for A quotII7 Ii 39 Herder A Best for A Add an Animal Worse for B The Climate as a Commons Each person chooses whether to burn an additional unit of carbon fuel drive to campus or walk The benefit of burning the unit of fuel goes to the chooser the person spends less time getting to campus lf global warming is anthropogenic everyone experiences the consequences Exclusive benefit exceeds each individual s cost until it is too late What the World has Done The Kyoto Protocol The AsiaPacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate The Kyoto Protocol In diplomacy a protocol is a supplement or revision to an earlier agreement or treaty The Kyoto Protocol altered the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol was completed in December 1997 The agreement entered into force in February 2005 after Russia ratified it in fall 2004 The Bush administration withdrew the United States from the Protocol in 2001 without ratifying Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol Negotiations divided the world into two groups of countries 39 developed countries that together produce about 63 of global 002 emissions source Earthtrends not counting emissions for air and sea transport about 15 of total Developing countries producing 37 including China Developed countries agreed to restrict their emissions to varying percentages of their 1990 emissions as a baseHne Restrictions would take effect during a fiveyear commitment period 20082012 US committed to a sevenpercent reduction of its emissions relative to the 1990 baseline Justification for US Withdrawal US economy grew by nearly 50 percent between 1992 and 2000 Economic growth increases fuel consumption although the relationship need not be rigid Therefore a sevenpercent cut from 1990 levels represented a much larger cut for the US than was required of other countries whose economies had grown more slowly The effect of the cut would have been to severely slow further economic growth in the US Attitude of Other States Since the US is the buyer of world economic output slowdown in US economic growth would have hurt economies elsewhere It is unclear that other states actually want the US to reduce emissions A minor reason for US withdrawal was the refusal by China to accept any cuts China is the world s secondlargest emitter of greenhouse gases US emits just less than one quarter of global 002 emissions other than those produced by air and sea movement China emits a little more than one seventh Bush Administration Alternative In July 2005 US announced the AsiaPacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate Partners include Australia China India Japan and the Republic of Korea Goal is to promote economic growth while enabling significant reductions in greenhouse gas intensities the amount of 002 emitted per dollar of product GGI This goal is to be accomplished through sharing of cleaner technologies to be applied on a voluntary basis Said to complement rather than replace the Kyoto Protocol Source US Department of State Growth and Intensity If the goals of economic growth and of reducing greenhouse gas intensity GGI were both to be met the result of the Partnership wouldl be to increase 002 emission by countries whose economies make up half of world production President Bush committed to GGI reduction of eighteen percent in ten years Source US Department of State If economic growth maintained its longterm average of two percent a year US would be emitting more greenhouse gases in 2015 than it did in 2005 even if GGI reduction were to succeed a very chancy prospect Role of Science Kyoto Protocol accepts the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change a UN sponsored expert committee with representatives from each country able to send scientists President Bush s strategy will set America on a path to slow the growth of greenhouse gas emissions and as the science justifies to stop and then reverse that growth Source US Department of State Past US position global warming is a problem for the future that may arise someday when the scientists find out Obama Administration As we move from Bali to Poznan to Copenhagen the United States will continue to engage constructively to contribute to an agreed outcome on a post2012 arrangement that is both environmentally effective and economically sustainable httpwwwstateqovqoesclimate Bali meeting has already been held an interim meeting is scheduled for Poznan Poland to work toward an agreement to be signed at a meeting scheduled for Copenhagen In other words the Obama Administration proposes to delay action until Kyoto Protocol expires The Obama Administration gives priority to economic recovery called sustainable What the World Can Do Implications of IR Realism Statecentric behavior and the Irrelevance of SelfHelp Liberalism and the Shortcomings of Cooperation Constructivism the Redefinition of Identity and the Problem of OtherCentricity Realism Realism s claim that states attempt to survive might be thought to motivate over reaction to climate change But in realism states try to survive by their own unaided efforts By arming themselves By using their added armament to make themselves useful as allies to other states State Survival and Greenhouse Gases In realism states survive by growing Capacity to arm the state depends on the size of the economy As state economies grow they burn more carbon fuels Realism s solution to the problem of state survival makes climate change worse By trying to survive states eliminate themselves Realism and the Kyoto Protocol From a realist point of view the Kyoto Protocol represents balancing by the rest of the world to control American power By completing in 1997 negotiations for a treaty picking 1990 as the baseline date for reduction the states negotiating the protocol obligated the United States to roll back the economic growth of the Clinton era by reducing the emissions that fueled that growth Realist Consequences of Kyoto Ifthe US complied with Kyoto its economy would slow and it would become less powerful relative to the rest of the world Incidentally other states do not want the US to comply because an economic slowdown in the US hurts their exports and employment especially for China Is this why the Chinese balked at Kyoto just as EU and US connived to frustrate the Doha round Accordingly the Bush administration that invaded Iraq also set aside Kyoto Selfhelp Selfhelp is the term used by Nau and other IR theorists to characterize the realist response to the security dilemma Suppose selfhelp took the form of protecting against climate change by ruthless reductions in US 002 emissions US produces a quarter of all emissions other than air and sea traffic and must be responsible for the lion s share of air and sea traffic Wouldn t it help to cut back For example shouldn t I cancel my summer program in Europe which produces substantial emissions for my own and the students air travel The Irrelevance of Selfhelp US cutbacks would sharply reduce consumption of oil coal and natural gas World oil prices would decline sharply Developing countries and many industrial countries now sharply constrained by high prices of carbon fuels would be able to afford more consumption of carbon fuel Emissions of 002 would fall in the US and rise elsewhere Foreign users would probably have lower GGI Climate change would get worse Obama Administration Action Obama was elected with a campaign promise to take action on climate change So farthe administration has proposed measures to reduce greenhouse admissions by improving new car mileage Plan will increase average fuel efficiency of new cars by eight miles per gallon to 357 mpg in 2016 This is selfhelp It reduces US greenhouse gas emissions in 2016 only if total miles driven in 2016 are less than 122 percent of total miles driven in 2009 By making cars more fuel efficient it reduces costs per mile and encourages driving It does nothing to negotiate an international agreement It drives down cost of oil to foreign consumers Greenhouse Gases as Protectionist Trade Policy President Obama saluted support of American automobile makers for the new fuel efficiency target Mentioned Senator Stabenow in his speech Why might US auto companies suddenly agree to improve fuel efficiency All companies selling cars in the US must meet new target forthe average of all cars sold in the US US companies export few cars European and Japanese automakers make highmileage cars that they sell in Europe and Japan where gas costs are very high They export relatively lowmileage cars to the US market New mileage rules will force the Europeans and Japanese car makers to shift their mix of exports toward cars that American buyers do not prefer President Obama s climate change policy acts like protectionism It s like claiming that English wool has fleas or Portuguese wine contains toxins It benefits domestic producers by depriving foreign competitors of the home market Failures of Liberalism Liberal approaches to international problems concern institutions Three aspects of liberalism If other states fail to respond to liberal gestures of cooperation liberalism converges with realism self help is the only means of enforcement Effectiveness of international institutions depends on their procedures for organizing enforcement International institutions are the strategy of substate groups that gain by cooperation and weakening of international institutions is the strategy of substate groups that lose by cooperation Selfhelp as Enforcement Liberalism says a state can organize cooperation against global warming by cutting its emissions If other states also cut the climate is saved If other states don t cut liberalism says the first state must enforce by adding to its emissions Liberal enforcement makes the problem worse State B Cut 002 Add C02 C tCOZ Worse for A u Climate Adjusts State A Best for B Best for A Add COZ Climate Adjusts Worse for B Institutional Enforcement Institutions are effective when they can decide to act against violators League of Nations allowed violators to veto its enforcement actions VVTO shifted from unanimous approval of enforcement in GATT to unanimous right to veto appeals against enforcement Kyoto Protocol entirely lacks enforcement mechanisms European states that did ratify Kyoto were making no progress toward compliance until financial crisis slowed French economy and brought France alone into compliance Economic crisis since fall 2008 has probably helped meet Kyoto goals SubState Groups Action on climate change will reduce international trade To reduce 002 emissions world must burn less oil Reduction in fuel consumption means fewer products will be produced and less transportation will occur The campaign against climate change helps the losers from world trade who are implied by comparative advantage to exist in every state Is this why Democrats argue that global warming is a problem Is this why exportoriented China refuses to join the Kyoto Protocol Transnational Politics Because every state includes both gainers and losers from emission cuts each state s policy will be a compromise between those who want to reduce emissions and those who do not Any compromise is some point intermediate between the preferred policy of the gainers and losers from emission cuts Even gainers do not want to cut emissions more than is needed to prevent climate change Compromise therefore implies that every state reach a compromise between a needed cuts and b much less than needed cuts Effect on Climate Negotiations Each state will therefore propose to reduce its emissions by less than the cut needed to prevent climate change At Kyoto industrialized states agreed to small cuts Developing countries refused to make any cuts 2000 election of candidate supported by losers from cuts led US to abandon even Kyoto cuts 2008 election of candidate supported by US gainers from cuts has led to subordination of new green initiatives to economic recovery called sustainability Any new international agreement can only do less than will be needed to prevent climate change Transnational Politics and Knowledge Knowledge of global warming is produced by experts sitting on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1978 Any international organization can be seen as an alliance among substate groups that expect to gain by their activities The IPCC is alliance among those who gain by emission cuts that slow world trade Those who gain by a problem have an incentive to claim that it exists even if it doesn t President Bush proposed to remove the American who chairs the IPCC for excessive zeal in warning of the danger of 002 emissions Who s right Effects of Funding Science Researchers make more money if the problem they study looks more threatening Sovietologists were ovenvhelmingly convinced that the Soviet Union presented a danger When it disappeared young Sovietologists careers ended Scientists employment depends on research grants Publish or perish on North Campus Get funded or get lost on South Campus The threat of climate change generates research grants for climate solentlsts find the arguments for climate change convincing but scientific findings rest on the consensus opinion of solentlsts and no one s opInIon IS Immune to his or her jOb prospects Identity Identity perspective says that international politics depends on the identities of the agents Identity is an inference The agent infers who to be from meaningful cues that agent encounters Language is far from the only but nevertheless a very significant collection of meaningful cues Identity and Climate Change In every language more is better More is better corresponds to the desire to become an adult People infer that it is better to use more Using more fuel produces more emissions of 002 Told that emissions will damage the global climate people might redefine themselves from an identity that equates more with better to some new identity Undoing More is Better State B Cut CO2 Add CO2 Cut CO2 State A Worse for A Add CO2 Betterfor B Is the Undone Self Stable If people redefine the self from more is better to more is worse the anthropogenic contribution to climate change disappears Then talk of climate change disappears Then the underlying cue of growth reshapes a new generation to believe more is better Then the threat of climate change reappears Do we understand issues of identity Identity as a threat to our existing conceptions of self Identity politics is bad OtherCentric Politics Realism and liberalism concern the self Identity concerns the other Gandhi said We must become the change we want to see Indians call him Gandhiji adding the marker of respect They also call him Mahatma maha great atma soul originally breath What if we alone become the change The identity perspective answers we have done all we can do Conflict After the Cold War The Advent of Unipolarity Realism Liberalism and Polarity Realists and liberals look at polarity of the international system European state system was multipolar Six Great Powers before WWI plus Ottoman Empire Four Great Powers before WWII plus US Japan Cold War was bipolar with two superpowers World politics since end of Cold War in 1989 1991 has been unipolar with US as hegemon How Unipolar Is the World Elements of power Military and economic power and diplomatic influence Geographic isolation continues to favor the USA Oceans make USA more difficult for potential attackers to reach and ease the problem of screening them Ocean transportation makes it cheap to move imports and expons Territory and population favor USA The state with the most territory is Russia The states with the most people are China and India Still the US ranks high in both twice as many people as Russia and more territory than China or India Unipolarity Military Power Han Outlays FY 06 in Billion Source DOD Poland North Korea Power as Expressed by Total Defense Expenditures per Country 2006 132235 Troops 1 163 Taiwan 52 Ops amp Maint 1926 South Korea enm RampD 707 Japan Umted Kxngdom Russwa 1 3 5 China 9 r 39 Unwed States US expenditures inc ude special aHocauons for raq and Afghanistan 1 00 200 300 400 500 6C quot ix3 5 Procurement 888 Measurement of Military Power Measured by total spending US dwarfs the world Measured by procurement of weapons US is probably about the size of Russia and China combined Very high personnel costs reduce US lead Large Navy and Air Force impose high operations costs plus effect of active warfare in Iraq Some strength benefit to high operations costs of Navy and Air Force US military dominance is not nearly as great as Nau makes it appear Economic Power US standard of living is high by global standards US GDP per capita in 2007 lt46k Most West European states and Japan 3040k Ireland Luxembourg and Norway exceed US per capita income Russia lt15K but severely skewed between few rich and many poor Mexico gt12K but also severely skewed Iran lt12K again severely skewed China lt5K although inland population is much poorer Affluent African country without resources such as Kenya 17K US is wealthy but not disproportionately so compared to military preponderance Source CIA World Factbook Diplomatic Influence Compared to any other single country US influence is overwhelming There are nearly 200 other countries UN EU and other institutions such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries prevent US from dealing with other countries one at a time Consequently US diplomatic influence rises and falls Unipolarity Crudely US is a hegemon But while it is clearly the leading and dominant power it may not be the only power StateonState Warfare Given US dominance both realists and liberals would expect stateonstate warfare to become rare By definition no one can balance against a hegemon lf wars occur because balance is changing and balance cannot change wars will not occur lfthere is no purposing to arming states should disarm without need for institutions or negotiations Identity theorists would expect either US aggression or a USled peace depending on how the US imagines itself Incidence of Warfare since 1990 In fact not much stateonstate warfare has occurred since 1990 Two USIed wars against Iraq NATO s air war against Serbia in 1997 Russia s war with Georgia in 2008 a few others Iraq 1991 1991 war with Iraq resulted from Saddam Hussein s decision to assert Iraq s claim to Kuwait Borders in Persian Gulf are products of British colonialism dividing populations whose members do not distinguish among themselves Kuwait s population was slightly less than half Kuwaiti slightly more than half Palestinian and Asian guest workers working temporarily in oilfields and forced to leave when their productive lives ended August 2 1990 Iraqi army invaded US Response via the UN At the insistence of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher the first President Bush agreed to mobilize US forces and expel the Iraqis from Kuwait By authority of UN Security Council US and its coalition partners invaded Iraq and destroyed most of the Iraqi army in a twostage operation Aerial bombardment beginning in January 91 reduced capabilities of Iraqi forces Ground assault beginning 24 February consisted of a US Army Ied encirclement coupled with a US Marine offensive toward Kuwait City that was intended to draw an Iraqi counterattack but instead advanced nearly into the city itself British French various Arab and even Syrian ground forces took part as well as naval forces from various countries Limited Warfare Nau writes that US forces stopped at the Iraq border 210 which is obviously false On first day of the attack First Brigade of US 101St Airborne Division Air Assault performed a helicopter assault to seize ground near the Euphrates River west of AnNasiriyah Iraq the ground advance linked up within four days The first President Bush refused to advance to Baghdad and remove Saddam Hussein declaring that the UN had not agreed as Nau reports Iraq 2003 Saddam Hussein refused to honor the ceasefire agreement requiring Iraq to accept allied air patrols over nofly zones in northern and southern Iraq intended to protect Kurds and Shi a He also deceived foreign intelligence services and the UN into suspecting that he might be reviving programs to develop chemical and biological weapons that had been destroyed after the 1991 war The second President Bush tried to repeat his father s triumph by starting a new war against Iraq this time to achieve disarmament and regime change The second war did not receive UN approval When Was War Decided Senate debate in October 2002 produced grant of authority to attack President Bush approached UN and was refused approval by Security Council February 2003 ultimatum gave Saddam Hussein and his two sons 48 hours to leave Iraq In July 2002 UCLA students were briefed at NATO headquarters in Brussels by the press officer of US Embassy to NATO His briefing prompted me to ask privately aftenvards whether war had already been decided I didn t say that the press officer said startled In fact it turned out later that a secret report from the head of the British Secret Intelligence Service had already informed British Prime Minister Tony Blair that President Bush had already decided for war Both the intelligence debate over Iraqi weapons and the Senate and UN debates took place afterthe decision for war Progress of Combat March 20 2003 US forces and allies crossed the Kuwait border Iraqi forces moved south from Baghdad region to take up defensive positions while other Iraqi units resisted efforts of US forces to cross the Euphrates Air and artillery attacks succeeded in destroying the Iraqi forces attempting to defend Baghdad US forces controlled Baghdad by April 9 less than three weeks after launching the attack Implications of Iraq Wars Two wars against Iraq indicate why stateonstate combat has become a rarity No minor armies can resist contemporary US military superiority Nucleararmed states such as China and Russia cannot be attacked Everyone else is vulnerable Why Iran and North Korea want nuclear weapons US does not presently maintain military forces sufficiently large to conduct more than one offensive war at a time even against a small power such as Iraq Terrorism Because stateonstate wars have become impractical terrorism has taken center stage What does terrorism mean What are the sources of terrorism Definitions of Terrorism The Depainnent of Detense appl39med de nition of tenonsin quotThe calculated use of lulldw ll violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fem intended to coeice or to intimidate governments oi societies in the puisnit at goals that are generally political religious or ideological42 For the purposes of this docul 39 nil be the standard on Howeve Ihis is not the last or only word on the subject Areseaichei did are ew of writings on terioiisiu and found 109 ditteieiit de nitions Hale is a sampling otdetinitions to illustrate the dif culties of categon zing and analyzing ielm sm The FBI uses piopetty Io intinndate or coerce a thereofiiinutheianceotpoliticalor cial objectives The U Department of State uses the de nition contained in Title 22 USC Section 2656fd According to this section tenorism means quotpremeditated politicallyiuotivated Violence perpetrated against non coinhatant targets by sunnational groups or clandestine agents usually intended to in uence an audience These de nitions stress the respective institutional conceins of tie oi ganiz tions using them The FBI concentrates on die ullaw llquot aspect in keepii 39 law enforcement ILi 5iKIIL The Depaitinent of State concerns itself wilh roliical iiiotiyatedquot actions y subnation or t andestiiiequot actors a locus appropriate to the Department s finictions of international relations and diplomacy Tenoiisiii is the unlawful use of force and V lolence ngalnsl persons or DVeI lunem the jivilidn population ll any seeineiit 4 a ntside the United Stales Govennnent there are g YEMEl validions in what features of tenoiisin are emphasized in de nitions The United Xnnons produced tlns definition in 1992 quotAn anxiety inspiring method of repeated violent action employed by semil alcildestine individual group or state actors for idiosynciatic citiniiial or political reasons whereby in 39 led ct i 39 39 39 39 quot A conunoiily accepted academic definition stans with the UN definition quoted above and ad s W sentences totaling another t7 word containing such concepts as message generators and violence based communication processes 6 A more concise British Govenunent definition of 1974 is u the use ot violence for political ends and includes any use of violence oi the purpose of putting the public or any section nfthe public in fearfm Source A Military Guide to Terrorism in the 21 st Century US Army Training and Doctrine Command 15 August 2005 section 1 page 3 Elements of Terrorism Act of violence perpetrated against innocent persons staged for an audience whose reaction of fear and terror is the desired result Cindy C Combs Terrorism in the 21St Century 5th ed New York Pearson 2009 11 Scope of Definition By this definition weren t attacks on Nagasaki and Hiroshima with atom bombs terrorism Certainly acts of violence Both cities contained military or naval targets but most deaths were innocent civilians Sought political objective of Japanese surrender To be achieved by intimidating the Japanese by display of American power Only if we accept unlawfulness or clandestinity as criteria can we distinguish the US attacks from acts of terrorism I refuse to regard US Air Force pilots as terrorists Motives Definitions of terrorism attribute motives to the those doing the action to inculcate fear to coerce or to intimidate usually intended to influence an audience direct targets of violence are not the main targets any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public in fear Do these definitions presume what should be a question about the purpose of the agent Do they substitute a the effect on the victim for b the purpose of the agent Vagueness Because terrorism is illdefined I prefer not to use the term I would rather discuss political violence conducted by individuals or groups other than officials of states acting in the name of their state Some violence is sponsored by state officials pretending that they are not sponsoring it US support for Afghan opposition to the Soviet occupation Soviet support for foreign communists Alleged Pakistani intelligence support for Taliban and for attacks on India Kashmir Lok Sabha or parliament Mumbai Sources of Political Violence When understood this way political violence has an evident source The desire to become a new state Osama bin Laden wants to restore the caliphate whose political authority lapsed with the removal of the Ottoman Sultan IRA Basque ETA the German Red Army Faction have all wanted to replace the state respectively UK Spain West Germany PLO Hamas Hezbollah all want to establish an Arab state in territory now controlled by the State of Israel in the case of Hamas from the river to the sea Warfare as Political Violence Realists liberals and identity theorists agree that wars exist to preserve states Realists say there is no alternative in security dilemma if balancing fails Liberals say there is no alternative if institutions and negotiation fail Identity theorists say there is no alternative if other states are conceived as aggressors Preserving the state can be understood as renewing the state into the future Warfare and political violence have in common the desire to ensure the future of some state whether extant or potential Why People Want a State We hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness That to secure these rights Governments are instituted among Men deriving theirjust powers from the consent of the governed That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new Government laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness Seeking Statehood Various truths are selfevident Their applicability is universal Applicability to women is not contradicted although regrettably also not asserted States exist to protect rights and are just if they enjoy consent Among the selfevident truths is the right of any people to establish a new state This right is subjective as to them shall seem most likely Moral Equivalence Is one man s terrorist another man s freedom fighter Not in my opinion Morality of Violence Depends partly on whether the state that the doer of violence wants to establish would secure the rights of men and women Depends partly on how many of the people over whom the state would rule want the state to be established Depends partly on how destructive of these ends the existing state has become Motives of Violence Does the morality of violence affect the motives of people who practice violence Violence results from identity People have both personal identity and group identity People may sacrifice their personal identity to affirm their group identity An example is accepting the cost of voting the voter votes Democratic not to effect a Democratic electoral victory but to be a Democrat A A Schuessler Identity and Violence Suicide bombing as an example ls suicide bombing peculiar to believers in Islam VT8 at Midway Captain Richard F Fleming after Midway Winston Churchill and the sticky bomb Muslim suicide bombers have strong feelings of identity that motivate them to make large sacrifices to the personal self This is why suicide bombers come from the Islamic middle class Contemporary US soldiers serving in Iraq tend to be married homeowners Marines cultivate identity Marine for life Semper Fidels the rIerman advancmg toward the enemy Marines win the Medal of Honor most often by throwing themselves on live grenades Suicide Bombing and Realism Suicide bombing is the weapon of groups which lack size A group that doesn t have a state can be thought of as a state of size zero Size is the word that I use where realists use power or capability Power as the English pronunciation of pouvoir French can Thus power is capability If Hamas had the US Air Force would they use it to attack civilians Suicide Bombing and Liberalism Liberaism is about institutions and negotiations diplomacy Does the UN admit Hamas Does the United States allow its citizens to send funds to terrorist organizations Will the State of Israel negotiate with Hamas before Hamas agrees to recognize the right of the State of Israel to exist If Palestinians elect Hamas to control the Palestinian Authority Israel and its allies refuse to release funds to the Authority How can negotiations occurwithin institutions if the representatives of one Side are barred Justifying Violence The common law of the United States affirms the right of the individual to commit violence when he or she is in danger or when others are in danger The violence must be proportionate The danger must be imminent The violence must be directed at those who are presenting the danger But the United States also asserts its right to do violence that meets none of these criteria Whether violence is justified depends on its purpose Global War on Terrorism The Bush administration engaged the United States in something for which the official acronym was GWOT Operation Iraqi Freedom was originally called Operation Iraqi Liberation until someone in the White House noticed the acronym Can a GWOT Be Won Fighting is a factive verb for something to be fought it must be presupposed to exist If we cannot define terrorism how can we decide whether it exists If political violence exists to achieve statehood winning the GWOT would mean preventing the rise of any new states But that would not end the GWOT unless the desire for statehood is limited by the feasibility of achieving statehood President Obama no longer mentions GWOT UCLA April 2008 From a Cold War to a Cold Peace WHY DOES DISARMAMENT MATTER By Hans Blix Chairman of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission April 2008 At the peak of the Cold War there were some 55000 nuclear weapons in the world and an intense struggle between the superpowers for global control A duel between them could have led not only to mutually assured destruction MAD but perhaps even to the wiping out human civilization People were marching in the streets for nuclear disarmament At that time eight states P5 India Pakistan and Israel had nuclear weapons After the Cold War the number of nuclear weapon states has increased by one ithe DPRK 7 while the number of weapons is calculated to have gone down to some 27000 The governments of the US and the other P5 states give the impression of no longer having concerns about the nuclear arsenals in their own good hands but only about the risk that would be posed by nuclear weapons in what they term unsafe hands i rogue states and nonstate actors People are no longer marching in the streets to show anxiety about the threat of nuclear weapons So are the dangers over No Regrettably the inconvenient truth presented by Al Gore 7 that of global warming threatening us with slow suicide is not the only one A second inconvenient truth is that currently remaining and contemplated new nuclear weapons new nuclear strategies and new tensions could again push the world to deadly dangers The Cold War has been followed by a Cold Peace We need a wind of change ito improve relations between the big powers and to revive disarmament Let me discuss why despite many signs of hope other signs of alarm lead me to this conclusion The hopeful signs The United Nations has now lasted over 60 years providing our global village a universal forum and an instrument for joint action The istwoddorganiza onthe League ofNations lasted only between W W land W W Ewe 20 years There are today fewer interstate wars than there used to be the aneasof peace onthe globehave been expanding WarbeMemmanbeIsof leEhuopeanUnimbos39 quot 39 39 quot M J I I 39 between leEUandD39Wi 39 39 39 quot 39 J 4 looking outside Eulope we ndthat for instance war betweenthe US and Mexicoisml linkabletodaythough inthe past these two states sometimes waged war 391 the risk nf awar Fwther in large parts of the world Let me mention Many Hawin four Wals of independence are largely over as colonialism has been dismantled Stiugles for selfdetermination remain in some places 2 o Wmsabmt39 39 39 quot 39inmmtpmtsnfthe worldasaresultofgeopoliticalsettlementsSomecon icts doremairrespecia yasaresultofarb rary nesdrawnincolq al mesWith eerintemationaltradeandtraf cmanyborders have also lost some of theirpast signi cance 0 Wars forthe conquest of territoryhaldly occur anymore Perhaps Saddam Hussein was one of the last ntlers to wage such war inthe Shatt el ArabandinKuwait o The ambitionto spread religion or ideologi ledto Christian crusades Islamic jihads and Communist expansion Todaythere maybe desperate suicide bombers buttherewill benowals of o quotquot 39 39 4 quota quot quoterr awmaterialsitwouldseanreasonahletoexpect latsudl competitionshouldpla outinpricesra lerthanlmllets Lastly The end of the Cold War gave anumber of important dividends While during the Cold War Security Council action was largely blocked by the veto given to each of the 5 permanent members the situation changed drastically after the Cold War when consensus decisions became common and allowed important joint decisions and actions In the speci c areas of arms control and disarmament several positive results were obtained 0 In 1998 the Convention againstGlemicalWeapons was concluded a ersome 20 years of negotiation o In 1995 the NonProliferation Treaty was extended without any nal date o Inl996aTrcaty l 39 39 prulribitir alirrmicar T J r J Now tothe signs ofalatm quotquot J J J theCold v var 39 j 1 diviJ J iuthe rsthalfofthe 1990stheperiodtherea erhasbeen for even alarming o The d39salmament processtagnated The UN disarmament conference CDhas failedto adopt aworkprogram for overten years The Comprehemive Test Ban Treatythatwas signedbythe Clinton administration in 1996 was rejected bythe US Senate and the moratorium onnmlearteststhathas beenrespectedbythe P 5 was ignoredbyIndia PakistanandNorthKorea The 2005 Review conference of the Non Proliferation Treaty ended in bitterness and without result Two years ago Ko Anmn righth noted that the world was skep wa a39ng into new arms races By now we have had my wake L90 calls o TheUK 39 39 39 that39 r 39 pquot r t acontinuationofthenuclearTridentsubmalineprogram o TheU 39 39 39 quot 39 r r quot J 39 r simidarduue mm wwwrmRMandseekstoemandthem39ssile shieldbyplacing elements of itinPolandandthe CzechRepublic Plaimino quot J r J 39 Hm thatmiohtl sesent omIraninthe mtre o Chinaismodemizingitsarmedfqeesandhassl rotcbwnaweatl rersatelliteofitsomdemonstratingacapabilityformilitary actioninspaceand spreadingdebrisinspace o Russiahasresmnedroutine39 quot quotquot lung 39 39 Ji quot 39 39 uruiuqu arialmsoo llol agleetnentsCFEanleF 0 Iran is developing auraniurn enrichment capabilitythat couldbe usedto produce material fornuclearweapons and the US hasthree aircra carriers inthe Persian Gulf T 44 4 I I r r u l 101 IUILIIUI EIIUIJMIL To this list about the development of arms we must add that the invasion of Iraq in 2003 the war in Lebanon and the military threats against Iran suggest that the authors of these actions and threats have felt a readiness to use the arms available to them regardless of UN authorization We must also add a serious political development the renewed souring of relations between the big powers The mutual con dence between Russia and China on the one hand and the US and major Western powers on the other is not deep The United States is showing concern about China s modernizing her navy and is reported to strengthen its own military base in Guam The US has been seeking a nuclear cooperation agreement with India A welcome result should be that India could import the most modern nuclear power technology for efficient C02 free electricity generation However the nuclear agreement could also facilitate for India to make more enriched uranium for nuclear weapons and could lead China and Pakistan to do the same Many see in the US initiative for nuclear cooperation an effort to bring India into a chain of states that if need beicould contain China These measures look like traditional balance of power politics So do efforts to further expand NATO to the Ukraine Georgia and perhaps to Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan Is anyone surprised that Russia fails to welcome the North Atlantic Treaty Organization naval exercises in the Black Sea The fear one might have is that traditional balance of power politics will prompt traditional responses and that new tensions will grow SomeCddWwisoverbutwhavemlya ColdPetwe Ctmwehtpe lhtt a stepwise aisarmament afthe members q the international wmmunz39gz and the development a ntermztz39onal law M712 39 39039 39 quotrwmeias 39 39 r J 39 afthealz39zeniy andthedewlopnentaf law have helped to bring peace 7 THE GLOBALIZ4T ION of LAW One of the premises of a peaceful community is the existence of law and institutions for the settlement of differences I am not suggesting that law invariably leads to social or international peace Unfair or unjust rules may indeed lead to con ict However law generally reduces the potential for con ict between states as well as individuals and it gives guidance for the settlement of con icts when they arise The rules of international law grew over the centuries and during the last hundred years they have expanded exponentially through treaties International tribunals and various mechanisms for supervision and dispute settlement have grown in number but most rules are respected routinely and without access to court Restrictions on the use of armed force We must note however that in the crucial area of rules regulating the use of armed force in the international community development has been tardy and remains shaky 4 Clearcut legal restrictions on the use of armed force in the international community have been asserted only from the 201 century The Covenant of the League of Nations only obliged states to seek peaceful settlements of controversies before resorting to force In 1945 through the Charter of the United Nations a leap forward was taken in the development of legal restrictions on the use of armed force between states Tm Wilma 4 butthey dink kmw quot 39 f war In Art24they laid downa general prohibition ofthethreatoruse of l foree between members They made two exceptions however 0 Firststateshavetherighttouseforce39 39 39 quot if A 39 mm lmtiltl reSecmityComcilhastalenthenecessary measures Thisrighthas erallybecn39 l 39 T 39 39 quotforeewhenanattackis imminent Statesdonothaveto wait forthe bombs to fall ontheirterritory but canmeetthe bombers even outside the territory 0 Secondquot 3395 quot J 39J A 39 39 fforceinabroadercategoryofcasesnamelywhenit determinesthatthere is a threattothepeacebreachofthepeace oractofagression During the Cold War Security Council action was largely blocked by the veto given to each of the 5 permanent members However the situation changed drastically after the Cold War when consensus decisions became common in the Security Council Most importantly in 1991 the Council authorized the broad alliance created by President George H Bush to use force to stop Iraq s naked aggression against an occupation of Kuwait President Bush spoke at the time about a new world order Regrettably this order did not last long In March 2003 the Alliance of Willing States invaded Iraq without there being any armed attack by Iraq and in the full awareness that the Security Council would not authorize the action The political justi cation given for the Iraq war was above all the contention that Iraq retained and developed weapons of mass destruction in violation of Security Council resolutions It is unlikely that any other argument would have persuaded the US Congress or the UK parliament to authorize armed action The US National Security Strategy published in September 2002 had stated atly that a limitation of the right to use armed force in selfdefense to cases where armed attacks were occurring or were imminen would be insufficient in the era of missiles and terrorists As I see it the 2002 strategy and the 2003 war show that the US administration said good bye to the legal restrictions that the US had helped to formulate in 1945 at any rate as regards actions to stop the development of weapons of mass destruction How damaging to the UN legal restrictions on the use of armed force is the unauthorized 2003 invasion of Iraq The restrictions have been disregarded by others However such actions have not been preceded by national doctrines amounting to a renunciation of the Charter restrictions Itisnothardtoseethatrecognitionofafreedomforeverystatetm atera ytolalmdlprevmtivewalsagainstanystatetl reyclaimisathreat wouldbeto dismantle the legal barriererectedin San Fransisco Perhaps it as f 39 J J tha be British government was unlilwlyto support arightto preventive warthat led the US Administration in declarations to the world at large to stress that prior Security Council resolutions on Iraqprovided a legal basis forthe armed action A problem with all preemptive or preventive military actions 7 apart from the legality 7 is that they must rely on intelligence Before an attack has taken place or is visible and imminent how do you know it will come and justify action in selfdefence In the case of Iraq much of the evidence invoked in 2002 and 2003 was what has been termed faith based Indeed some of it was even fakebased The inspection reports of the UN inspectors that I headed UNMOVIC and the IAEA were ignored My inspectors carried out some 700 inspections of some 500 5 different sites dozens of them proposed by the intelligence agencies We had reported no nds of wmds Quite to the contrary we had expressed doubts about some of the evidence that had been presented One of the lessons of the Iraq war is that information gained by independent international inspection should not be ignored We never claimed our inspectors were smarter than the agents of national intelligence But we could sincerely say we were in nobody s pocket Had the inspections continued another two months it would have been much more difficult to launch an armed intervention Disarmament If the legal barrier against the use of armed force is fragile and will need further time and international backing to become more reliable what about disarmament Is this an avenue only dreamt about by blueeyed idealists Arms races are mostlythe result and symptom of tensions However they may also bethe cause of tensiom Today paradoxically some of the mostworrisorne tensions appearnottobe linlwdto issues of substance Rather they appeartobe aboutthe possession of military 4quot 39 p 39 39 dnnnt quot 17 aboutquot r 39 f themmtmrvlpm J 39 wwm aboutthe development of amissile shield orthe placement of weapons in space 0 F 39 quot thepnlitical J 39 39 39 39 J J J at rerthe end ofthe Cold Warshol dfacilitate disarmamerlThecmrentincipientarmsracesdonotseemin m quot 39 39 39 39 quot 39 l 39 Jimrvmtinn 0 Will taxpayers be contentto footthe gigantic bills inthe absence of differences betweenthe bigpowers on signi cantissues of substance Currentlytheworldspends about 1300billiondollarsperyearonmilitaryemensesiandabomhalfofitfa s onthe US Theneedto guardagaimt tenorists oreven rogue states willhardlyrequire aircra carriers ornew generations ofnuclear weapons 0 AseriousColdWarendednearlytwentyyearsagoThebigr 39 39A39 I A 393 u n Rathertlmn 39 quot 39 39 ullcwdm U thqu Ad I whim J 44 I utmke w 2m resmnedetenteanddisarmament Perhapsthe shortcomings ofthemilitaryapproaches inlraqand Lebanon will speakinfavour of a greateruse of diplomacy joint actionthroughthe UN and nonmilitary leverages This is vitally important intwo acute cases In the case of N01th Korea a move to such means has evidently taken place through the 6 power talks in Beijing in the last few years They offer better chances of success and less danger than military threats In the case of Iran in my view positive results would also be more likely to emerge from negotiations without preconditions than from the threat of armed force The latter might well harden the stance of the country Itisofmeat39 1 39 J quot 39 39 quot befr md inthetalk withNorthKoreaandIran Failure andthedevekpmentofnuclear I I 39 I A I 1 l 39 n A It is encouragingthat in anonpartisan initiative a group ofU S elder statesmen including former Secretaries of State Shultz and Kissinger Former Secretary of Defense Perry and former Senatoer have urgedthe US to tal the lead withthe other nuclear weapon states stepwiseto getto nuclear disarmament They have been joined by alarge number of the foreign policy elite inthe US to formwhat one might hope will be an importantnon partisanmovemerl Duringthe Cold Warthese statesmensayuwiear weapum J for deieueui Today APTPHPHT i In II 39 H 39 39 I Jquot J 39 be an incentive for others includingtenoriststo acquire such weapons This is anirnportantand hope Jl discussion ayear before anew administrationtal s over inthe US M X M 1 d r What then should the agenda for disarmament look like Two years ago the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission that was sponsored by the Swedish Government and that I chaired presented a report entitled Weapons of Terror Freeing the World of Nuclear Biological and Chemical Weapons wwwwmdoomm39ssi0n0g 6 The Commission recogrizedthe NON PROLIFERATION TREATY as the central instrumentfor global disarmament The treaty committed A A A A A A A A A A A A A lemn A A A A quotquot A a nudeardisarmament Ifallstatesin t ne 39 H 39 n 39 39 J andiftheyhadali p mquot 1 39 I I 39quot quot H the treaty arruciear weapurriiecworld tour 39 4 than in 1970 andstilltens ofthousands of nuclearw the would haveresulted As r J eapons treatyhas evidentlynot yet achievedits aims Pointingto the violation of the treaty by Iraq DPRK and Libya and the suspicions that Iran and others might intendto disregardthe treaty some warn about apossible collapse of the treaty and a cascade of states developing nuclear weapons Inmy viewthis is muchtoo alarmist a View Mdemedy swamingthat dozens ofstates mioht 39 39 J 39 WWHS hm mt39 39L D I I quot414W by India Israel and Pakhistan and the violations by Iraq DPRK and Libya it should be recognizedthat the vast number of states parties remain committedto the treaty and respect it The world is notmillingwith wouldbe nuclear weapon states Thetreatyhas even attractedthe adherence of South A icathat dismantled its nuclearst Ukraine Byelorussiaand Kazaklstan tmjoinedthetreatya er r 39 39 weapurh iiuur their teni tor y in Russia The nonnuclear weapon states parties to the NPT agree thatthe treaty should be strengthened 7 for instance by implementatim of more intrusive IAEA inspections However some twenty years a erthe end of the Cold Warmany ofthese states insistthat it is time forthe nuclearweapon statesto begin negotiatingtheir eXit omthe nuclearweapons era as promisedin 1970 They nd it is not enoughthatthe numbers of nuclear a39head has A 39 Cold War Irt their view the nuclear J 4 should drawup time tables forthe phasing out oftheir arsenals ratherthanworking ontirne tables forthe modernization oftheir weapons By2010whenthenextreview conference oftheNPTw39 39 I quot 39 39 39 t and J J Fordisarmament in particularnuclear disarmament Perhaps we need aUN summit in which the new political leaders inthe world have the opportmityto tell usthatthe ColdPeacewillbereplacedby Cooperative Security In what order the world lists items on the disarmament agenda is less important than the early establishment of this agenda However there is wide recognition about the high priority of some items IE539 A A l AA A chrBT A B 5 AmU M A anquot kmnu lmrlz L L39 a J IftheU m quot quot J39quot pthetreatyandra edit the prospects are goodthat other states wouldfollow suit 0 TheUSandRug39a L39 quot 39 Qtrx ksnf nuclearwealmm shariaquot 39 quot A Inl39linfilmalldn0tjust redeployment of nuclear weapons Tu I IJI 4 AJ 39 r Nuclear weapons should be talen olfhair trigger alertto avoid war by accidents or Nuclear weapons shouldbe removed from Westem Europe and Westem Russia Their presence is arelic ofthe Cold War and their removal would help reduce temions that have been building up o Thelongproposedtreatyprovidingaveri edbanon theproductiono quot quotfor J 39 39 39 rw39 4 Jto preventthat 39 39 39 39 and pl ltnninm L l 39 39 f nrweapong Mmeconcluda The WMDF I I 39 I 39 39 39 Illll Wircu WU Waui I 4 A away UIIlOI dDaWay with nuclearst the best approach is thatwhich mal sthe states feel they dc r n t 39 39 weapons for their security Cooperative fordgryswnityaml 39 39 bethemmtimpmtmtmean 39 39 md 2111 r r ThewirulowthatwenedattheendoftheColdWarhasbeenallowedtohang appingintl rewindItishightimethatitbe tlly openedandlead I quot J quot 39 J 439 order
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