Biology and Cells notes
Biology and Cells notes BIOL 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by TylerElliot on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Ohio University taught by Kim Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Environmental Science at Ohio University.
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If Tyler isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 09/04/15
The Study of Life and Cells 82415 82815 11 Why Study Biology Biology is relevant 0 Medical science focused on controlling diseases such as viruses bacteria and parasites and made it so that most are curable or avoidable I The shift to physiological diseases is being made more recently The physiology of reproduction will help anticipate the upcoming changes in population Agricultural biology helps answer the question of how we will continue to feed the growing population I Biology helps to explain the promises limitations costs and benefits of the efforts to alleviate hunger Ecology can help growing populations of one species to not stunt the growth or stability of another Understanding biology can help formulate solutions to balancing our conflicting needs The expansion of biology and biotechnology can help establish more careers in our generations Biology Can Be Controversial O O 0 Biology and its technologies are often controversial Controversy sometimes arises strictly among biologists Controversy is a vital part of science because the challenge of skepticism helps continue the collection of data on the subject 12 What is Biology The Study of Life What is a living organism 0 000000000 Highly organized complex entity Composed of one or more cells Contains a genetic program Can acquire and use energy Carries out and controls chemical reactions Grows in size and changes in appearance or ability Maintains homeostasis Produce offspring similar to themselves Responds to changes in the environment May evolve Major Theories in Biology 0 Evolution by natural selection Inheritance Cells Classification Bioenergetics Homeostasis Ecosystems 000000 0 Levels of Organization in Biology Cells Tissues Organisms individuals Populations just one species Communities more than one species 0 13 How is Biology Studied 0 Scientific Method Step 1 Make an observation Step 2 Ask a question Step 3 Create a hypothesis Step 4 Conduct a testexperiment Step 5 Get an explanation Step 6 Is it a theory 000000 41 What is the Cellular Nature of Life 0 Microscopes Made the Possibility of Discovering Cells 0 Cells are 10 times smaller than the visual limits of the human eye 0 The microscope was developed by Robert Hooke in 1662 o In 1675 Anton de Leeuwenhoek observes the first singlecelled organism from a drop of water out of a lake near his home 0 The Cell Theory 0 Scientists Schwann and Schleiden brought together 200 years of scattered observations into the cell theory 0 The Cell Theory states all organisms are made of one or more cells I This made it known that cells are the smallest units of life 42 Where do Cells Come From 0 The Cell Theory Contradicted the Spontaneous Generation Theory 0 Rudolph Virchow believed that cells could only arise from the cells of existing organisms This challenged the theory of spontaneous generation that stated that cells could occasionally appear on their own 0 After an experiment involving boiling water it was discovered that cells could not generate spontaneously they are only derived from preexisting cells 43 What are the Major Types of Cells 0 Prokaryotes 0 One celled organisms o Reproduce in two ways Binary fission Yeast budding 0 Two Groups Archaea and Eubacteria 0 Cell structure is simple and small 0 Eukaryotes Cell membrane Cell wall Ribosomes No nucleus Some have slime layers to help protect against hostile environments and microville to increase the surface area where nutrients are absorbed o Multicellular and complex 0 Organized 0 Complex detailed cell structure 0 Viruses Nucleus Ribosomes Centrioles Cytoskeleton Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi complex Vesicles Mitochondria Chloroplasts plant cells Lysosomes and Peroxisomes o Acellular 0000 Totally dependent on other organisms to reproduce and acquire energy When dried they form crystals Contain enzymes to spark reproduction Contain DNARNA
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