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Chapter 21- Nutrition & Digestive System

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 21- Nutrition & Digestive System 70955 - BIOL 104 - 001

Marketplace > George Mason University > Biology > 70955 - BIOL 104 - 001 > Chapter 21 Nutrition Digestive System
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Introductory Biology II

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Notes taken from last spring
Introductory Biology II
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70955 - BIOL 104 - 001 at George Mason University taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Organization name Student name student email address objective 1 identify 4 stages of food processing connecting main components of human digestive tract and their functions contrast structures and functions of small and large intestines Compare the digestive tracts of carnivores and herbivores Describe the types of information found on food labels What are the four stages of food processing What prevents gastric juices from digesting the walls of the stomach List the liver s major func ons BIOL 104 0 Spring 2015 l l all we ll 7777 39L 7 3 ll le Obtaining and processing food animals ingest their food in a variety of ways 0 3 kinds of diets o herbivores planteaters le cattle snails sea urchins o carnivoresmeateaters o omnivores eats both plants and animals Overview food processing occurs in four stages Human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands digestion begins in oral cavity 0 antibacterial agents kill some bacteria ingested with food 0 the tongue tastes shapes the bolus of food and moves it toward the pharynx after swallowing peristalsis moves food through the esophagus the stomach o the trachea conducts air to the lungs 0 Im CONNECTION Heimlich maneuver can save lives Brain damage will occur within minutes if no airway is open 0 acid 0 ph 2 o parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions which combine to make HCI o pepsinogen and HCI produce pepsin o pepsin production activates more pepsinogen production positive feedback 0 mucus helps protect against HCI and pepsin pepsin is secreted in inactive form MITOSIS new cells lining the stomach are produced about every 3 days gastric juices only secreted when food present and not all of the time CONNECTION Digestive ailments include acid reflux and gastric ulcers 0 O O 0 small intestine is named for smaller diameter One of liver s major functions is processing nutrientladen blood from intestines colon bacteria produce vitamins biotin vitamin K B vitamins The large intestine and travelers diarrhea 2050 of international travelers 10 millionyear bacterial enteropathogens cause appr 80 of cases usually E coli from contaminated drinking water some bacteria release toxins which bind to the intestines others directly damage the intestines EVOLUTION CONNECTION Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems often relate to diet The length of the digestive tract often correlates with diet rumen reticulum omasum abomasum OOOO 13015 Nutrition httpwwmypyramidgov USDA Food guidelines 2010 eat less sodium exercise is good eat more fresh produce eat smaller portion sizes Chemical energy powers the body 0 animals can t produce 8 of 20 amino acids CONNECTION What do food labels tell us food labels indicate 0 serving size Calories per serving Amounts of selected nutrients per serving and as a percentage of daily value Recommendations for daily limits of selected nutrients O O 0 Of eople in the United States 30 are obese 35 are ovenNeight 15 of children and adolescents are ovenNeight quotC O O O CONNECTION What are health risks and benefits of weight loss plans CONNECTION Diet can influence cardiovascular disease and cancer The relationship between food and health is complex Science and Society 0 Eating a healthy nutritional diet seems to be more complicated all the time New studies about food nutrition and health are reported in the media on a regular basis adding to our knowledge but perhaps also adding to the complexity of decisionmaking about our health


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