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World Politics

by: Guiseppe Ledner PhD

World Politics POL SCI 20

Guiseppe Ledner PhD
GPA 3.61

R. Anderson

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R. Anderson
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Guiseppe Ledner PhD on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL SCI 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by R. Anderson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/177896/pol-sci-20-university-of-california-los-angeles in Political Science at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 09/04/15
The Cold War A Identity Account Identity and Conflict Identities in Nau s sense usually concerns ideas how does what states think affect what they do Identity in my sense concerns constructing self and other Who does the thinking for a state How do they imagine their own state How do they form the selfimage of their own states by the image they form of other states Usthem distinctions produce state identities construct international relations Each personor each coectivity must build the self by describing the other Identity and Cold Notice that the Cold War was not a war at all The Cold War wasan armed standoff between the United states and Its allies and the SOVIet Union and Its possessmns and allies The superpowers came close to war a few times but never actually fought Occasionally military personnel from one superpower engaged in combat against the military forces of the other superpower but always in disguise The expression hot war developed to distinguish actual war from nominal war Was the Cold War war or peace The Cold War was like a war Crises Local Wars and Proxy Wars Sometimes the Cold War degenerated into crises supposedly threatening superpower war Berlin 1949 and 1961 Korea 1951 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Egypt 1973 Local wars pitted one superpower against the opposing superpower s local allies using weapons supplied by the opposing superpower Korea 19501953 Vietnam 19491975 Afghanistan 19791989 Proxy wars were fought between states or movements supported by rival superpowers Middle East wars in 1956 1967 and 1973 Angola 197589 Ethiopia 1977 El Salvador 19791992 and Nicaragua 19811990 Salvadoran and Nicaraguan Marxists were supported by Cuba using Soviet weapons but discouraged by the Soviet Union Interventions Military and Covert Soviet interventions suppressed dissident communist or anticommunist movements Germany 1953 Hungary 1956 and Czechoslovakia 1968 Afghanistan 1979 later became local war threat to invade Poland in 1980 and again in 1981 Soviet secretpolice controls in Eastern Europe military coup in Poland 1981 secret subsidies to communist parties around the world US military interventions in Dominican Republic 1965 Grenada 1983 US clandestine support for coups in Iran 1953 Greece 1968 Chile 1973 Bay of Pigs landing 1961 in Cuba secret subsidies to political parties in France and Italy numerous others The Victors in World War II The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the victors in World War II in 1945 The United States actually was a victor US economy was flourishing while other economies were destroyed US influence displaced that of earlier rivals such as Britain The Soviet Union was a survivor The whole western third of Soviet Union had been fought over and was in ruins Later Soviet dictator and democratic reformer Mikhail Gorbachev showed up to enroll at Moscow State University in 1950 having packed his spare shirt Untold deaths Soviets only reported soldiers deaths to their families if the soldiers had joined the Communist Party thus even military casualties are casual estimates The US Image of the Soviet Union Nazi Germany Hitler as Fuehrer NaziPa y Gestapo Concentration camps death camps Banned labor unions Soviet Union Stalin as Gensek Communist Party OGPUN KVDKGB Concentration camps labor camps Controlled unions The Soviet Image of the USA Nazi Germany Privately owned economy Technological superiority Arms buildup Past cooperation ReichswehrRed Army MolotovRibbentrop pact Contest for power between soberminded forces and militarists Aggression USA Privately owned economy Technological superiority Arms buildup Past cooperation Roosevelt Contest for power between soberminded forces and militarists Threat of aggression War Why didn t mutual enemy images produce central war as opposed to proxy and local wars Did the superpowers come close to war over Berlin 1948 and 1961 Korea 1950 Cuba 1962 or Egypt 1973 War avoidance characterizes each crisis Berlin 1948 After 1945 victors divided Germany Soviets unilaterally awarded Poland the eastern third of Germany as compensation for Soviet seizure of eastern Poland Soviets also took Koenigsburg and renamed it Kaliningrad Soviet Union got the middle of Germany called East Germany as its zone Britain got the northwest US got the south and France got two slices of the southwest Berlin was shared among the four powers but located inside the Soviet zone Postwar Germany 19451991 Mm mm mm quot5quot Kwi E C 2 quotmm mm Budapesl CENTRAL EUROPE 1944 N xquot s w I T 2 E R L A N D 1 WM ALLIED OCCUPATION ZONES mum r lik I quot1 I A L w e L V n B Berlin Airlift US and Britain formed the Bizone Responding to Soviet inflation of the mark US and Britain launched a currency reform confined to the Bizone Soviets decided this reform violated the fourpower agreements and closed all land routes across their zone to Berlin US responded by transporting food to Berlin by air Soviets avoided war by not attacking the airlift agreed to reopen and routes US tacitly permitted the land routes to be used for violation of export bans Korea 1950 North Korean offensive in June 1950 approved in advance by Soviet leader Stalin reinforced an existing insurgency to capture the peninsula as far as the Pusan perimeter in the very southeast corner held by S Korean remnants US Army units sent from Japan and British troops acting under UN mandate lnchon landing by US Marines and Army and Koreans at lncheon in west central Korea enabled UN US and allied counteroffensive that threatened Yalu River the border with China In October 1950 Chinese troops masquerading as volunteers in the North Korean forces counterattacked with Soviet pilots flying air support in Soviet aircraft painted with North Korean markings Chinese offensive ultimately recaptured Seoul the South Korean capital but UN counteroffensive drove the Chinese north of the 38th parallel near the original boundary dividing North from South Korea In case the Chinese counteroffensive failed Stalin had prepositioned in Soviet territory bordering Korea a CombinedArms Army commanded by a famous World War II Marshal to conduct a counterattack against advancing US forces but this Soviet force was never used Pusan Perimeter AugSept 10 1950 m mum awe arm a hy mm TAEGU PUSAN AREA mum NAIIONS enema szluuHun m Dpzvm Sepcemuu 950 and mu S nce 27 Angus Inchon Landing Breakout and Linkup 1526 Sept 1950 RE Advance to Yalu River and Chinese Counterattacks Oct 1950 H Chinese winter offensive Jan 1951 m innva mum pm m x cm i m pians many in am A E c D E n Us ad Aniamy Dmsmn 39 quotmanned m mm mama NORTH KOREA UNIIED NAnoNs ADVANCE IO ml H YALU RIVER AND iNITiAL CHINESE p1 gO UI JTERATTACK on as 0mm IBSO and Operaliun mm 2 am 7 0mm r 13 m mm A i A v E k Mmquot sumcnax mu A x a D E SOUTH KOREA SECOND iNVASiON or Soi wannon at January i9 ouemmn Sinai 3i new r 39 i 2 A z A a c a D i Berlin 1961 Denial of freedoms in East Germany motivated about a sixth of the eastern population to flee through Berlin between 1949 and 1961 In 2004 John Kerry spoke about having ridden his bicycle as a boy into the Soviet zone Soviets lined up troops along the zone boundary to prevent the three powers military officers from patrolling into the east US sent tanks to enforce right of military patrols Neither side s tanks opened fire Soviets constructed wall along the zonal boundary to prevent flight of refugees and avoid war Cuba 1962 Initial Soviet intercontinental missile program begun in 1958 failed and was cancelled after very few deployments in 1961 Khrushchev sought to withstand pressure from generals to reexpand conventional army by basing shorterrange missiles in Cuba US found out imposed quarantine on Cuba In return for US agreement to withdraw its missiles from Turkey Khrushchev agreed to withdraw nuclear warheads from Cuba Both Kennedy and Khrushchev refused to go to war Egypt1973 Egyptian army crosses Suez Canal to end Israeli occupation of Sinai since 1967 Israeli counterattack surrounds Egyptian Third Army at the south end of the canal Soviet leadership agrees that defeat of Egyptians does not affect Soviet Union SUEZ CANAL AREA NNNNNNNNNNNNN A 6 WM my US Actions Secretary of State Kissinger orders a National Security Council staff section probably the one led by Thomas K Latimer to rewrite the intelligence to make it appear inside the US government that Soviets are planning to rescue the Egyptian army President Nixon orders Defcon Ill then claims heightened US readiness has prevented Soviet attack on Israel Never intending to rescue the Egyptians Soviets ignore US actions US stages a crisis in the full knowledge that no crisis is occurring and therefore no danger of war exists Why war avoidance Purpose of constructing other Nuclear Weapons Building Political Identity by Constructing the Other By inviting Churchill to portray Soviet Union as Nazi Germany Truman makes himself look like Rooseveltjoining Churchill in defeating Hitler Cold War strategy repeatedly elects postwar presidents Eisenhower victor over Germans in Europe elected president 1952 War hero Kennedy elected president 1960 Kennedy s vicepresident elected 1964 fights communists in Asia as Kennedy fought Japanese Eisenhower s vicepresident elected 1968 ends first round of Cold War in d tente of 1972 Reagan uses Afghanistan Soviet missile programs to resurrect Cold War after 1980 By portraying US as Nazi Germany Soviet leaders Khrushchev Brezhnev and Andropov make themselves look like Stalin defeating Hitler Gorbachev ends depiction of US as Nazi Germany in order to de Stalinize Political Theater and War Maybe both sides knew they were making it up Kissinger certainly knew the intelligence had been rewritten in 1973 since he ordered it rewritten Why does a great man like Winston Churchill travel to a hamlet like Fulton Missouri to give the speech that announced the Cold War Missouri reminds of voters of Truman Fulton is site of Westminster College Its name reminds voters of the Palace of Westminster where House of Commons heard Churchill s famous speeches in World War II The speech helped both Truman and Churchill make electoral comebacks by replicating the wartime alliance that had defeated Hitler President Reagan even joked My fellow Americans I39m pleased to tell you today that I39ve signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever We begin bombing in five minutes Said to be During a microphone check unaware that he was being broadcast August 11 1984 Is it even imaginable that a veteran movie star didn t know the microphone was on Since both sides are staging the Cold War as theater for domestic audiences neither wants it to become a hot war Moral Equivalence US Presidents and their European allies stage the Cold War to win elections Soviet rulers stage the Cold War to convince the Soviet people that the alternative to Communist tyranny is foreign oppression Winning elections is morally superior to tyranny Nuclear Weapons lf international conflict uniformly results from national leaders constructing themselves as protectors by constructing aliens as threatening enemies why does the Cold War not turn into shooting war when other armed standoffs do Identity accounts do not imply that national leaders have lost touch with reality National leaders understand that nuclear weapons make wars too dangerous to fight This effect is why states want nuclear arms Pervez Musharraf military dictator of Pakistan during 2002 Indo Pakistani crisis called a nuclear war unthinkable saying no sane individual would even think of fighting one If each side knows that the other side knows that war has become too dangerous to fight both sides can stage crises whenever they like in perfect confidence that no war will ensue Staging crises demands colluding to conduct the Cold War A Realist Interpretation The Cold War occurs because both the US and the Soviet Union try to get bigger The Soviet Union adds the Baltic states eastern Poland and parts of Romania and Czechoslovakia to its territory subordinates eastern Europe as far as the Elbe to its rule Forms coalition with China Vietnam and N Korea Tries to overturn colonialism and then seeks allies and subordinate states in ex colonial world The USA joins European states in NATO and supports European integration Extends security guarantee to Japan and S Korea Forms SEATO in effort to reproduce NATO for the purpose of blocking China Woos China to change sides a er1971 Supports anticommunist dictators in excolonial world to prevent decolonization from enlarging Soviet Union Danger of War A Realist View Competition outside Europe matched by potential for war inside Europe Weaker NATO must try to block Soviet conventional offensive into central Germany Soviet conventional superiority adds effectiveness to diplomacy designed to separate US from its European allies Why War Didn t Happen Realism Nuclear deterrence Soviets refrained from attacking because they recognized that Europe was a Vital American Interest and attack would Incur nuclear devastation A minority agreed with me that possession of nuclear weapons excluded the possibility of attack by foreign states on vital interests minimal deterrence A plurality wondered whether there were degrees to which nuclear weapons and options about their deployment and employment might affect the likelihood of foreign attack extended deterrence A small minority argued that nuclear weapons could still be used for warfighting I suppose war never happened because Soviets collapsed before they completed their preparations Bipolarity both superpowers became big enough that neitherwas in danger from the other s further growth or from the other s acqunsntlon of additional allies Contrast with multipolarity preceding both world wars Contrast with unipolarity or hegemony since collapse of the Soviet Union and between Napoleonic wars and rise of Germany Why War Didn t Happen Liberalism In contrast to prewar and interwar Europe postwar world was institutionrich United Nations founded at San Francisco in 1945 Increased decisiveness of UN Security Council with vetoes reserved to only five metmbers including the two superpowers made UN more effective than League of a Ions Allied Control Commission plus personal contacts between Soviet and US commanders in Germany Summit meetings between US and Soviet leaders building on WWII Big Three conferences at Tehran Yalta and Potsdam After 1963 White HouseKremlin hotline to defuse crises 19735 Helsinki Conference Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT l amp ll Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction later MuRFAAMCE eventually CFE NATO and US encouragement of European integration that became the European Union substituted within Europe for the deficient contacts between Soviet Union and US to preclude success of Soviet attempts to divide Europe from US Churchill Jawjaw is better than warwar World Politics in History From Empires to States Topics What has happened to the political organization of the world How has changing political organization affected interactions between the organizational units Empire and Equlibrium Nau equilibrium has replaced empire Before the 17th century a series of empires control much or most of Eurasia Empires also appeared in central and southwest America and in parts of Africa Nau argues that emergence of the European state system after 1648 replaces concept of empire with that of an equilibrium stable balance among rival states that do not try to conquer each other An Alternative Transformation I argue that equilibrium never replaced empire Instead European empires replaced Asian African and American ones Europe succeeded to empire because of a transformation of the state the political organization that lacks a formal superior The bounded state replaced the focal state European colonialism spread the bounded state with the result that empires disintegrated Some Pre European Empires Middle Eastern Empires The Indian Empire 2000 EOE 612 BCE Under Asoka 250 BCE Emp e qusaka 250 BCE The Mayan and Aztec EmpiresE 50 CE 152I CE E Mayan Empire zswsoo CE Aztec Empire 130k1521 CE Chinese Dynasties The Islamic Empire 613 CE 1365 CE 632 CEm750 CE The Roman Empire 213 BOB 116 CE V Islamic Empire after Death of Muhammad 532 CE T ang Dynasty 618 906 C E Yuan Dynasty 1280 1365 CE E Roman EmDiiE Outbreak of Second Punin War 218 BCE Islamic Empire after Conquest Roman Emphe under nf Umayyad Caliphs Ibo CE Yrajan 116 CE Focal States These maps show very vague boundaries Only Roman Empire has definite boundaries and then only in Europe Hadrian s Wall across the narrow neck of Britain Rhine and Danube Rivers although Roman control often extends across the rivers Each state extends its power as far as it can from a capital City Asoka from Magadha Triple Alliance not Aztecs from Tenochtitlan Maya from successively dominant centers Tang from Chang an Yuan from Beijing Muslims from Mecca then from Damascus later from Baghdad I call these empires focal states Reorganization The European State System after 1648 At the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 various European rulers agree to respect each other s boundaries The Peace ended three decades of warfare in which Habsburg princes ruling from Vienna and Madrid attempted to establish control of German territory The Peace consisted of two treaties signed separately in the nearby Westphalian cities of Osnabrueck and Muenster By Treaty of Osnabrueck Habsburg dynasts of Spain agreed to the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands By Treaty of Muenster Habsburg dynasts of Austria agreed to recognize right of German princes to make own foreign policy as long as they refrained from war against Austria Treaty of Muenster held up until 1740 Borders established at Peace of Westphalia 1648 p cm pawl12quot 393 WM mm Wm m m mug m 1mm 5 a mquot my m anuz nwzmm Bounded States From 1648 each European state whether monarchy or republic has definite and often quite complex boundaries From 1648 to 1949 European states tried to expand by subduing each other s territories In the rest of the world the old idea of focal states controlling adjacent territory continued to prevail until it proved too vulnerable to European expansion Europe organized into bounded states territorial states Colonialism Organization within boundaries is more efficient than organization from focal cities Focal states regarded surrounding territory as source of loot it was the home of II hem Bounded states regard territory within their boundaries as suitable for investment it belongs to us Europeans also develop ships able to sail against the wind and carry cannon Combination of greater efficiency with ships able to sail against the wind enabled European states gradually to conquer the rest of the world Focal states either suffered conquest or reorganized Japan Thailand to some degree Ethiopia and later Turkey managed to re organize as bounded states modeled on European originals Every other territory in the world fell to some European empire at least temporarily Sea transport enabled Europeans to form noncontiguous empires in contrast to earlier empires controlling only adjacent territories Ottoman Turkey AustriaHungary and to some degree Russia remained focal states controlling contiguous empires but each became vulnerable Effects of Colonialism Being boundarymakers European states divided nonEuropean populations into territorial zones called colonies without paying any attention to local conceptions of identity Local people who thought they belonged to the same group might find themselves on opposite sides of a boundary established by European rulers to respect each others zones of control These arbitrary boundaries are a major source of contemporary conflicts such as Iraq s invasion of Kuwait in 1991 Colonialism s Effects The Yoruba Colonial Powers Togo Germany Benin France Nigeria United Kingdom Did Equilibrium Replace Empire Did European states stop conquering each other Did they direct their conquests toward those parts of the world still dominated by focal states because focal states are easier to conquer than bounded states Empires inside Europe after 1648 Bounded states are harderto conquer but that doesn t mean euuilibrium Drevails Decolonization Colonialism survived World War l but not World War II Because the war impoverished Britain France the Netherlands and Belgium armies strong enough to control colonies became too costly United States opposed colonialism as a barrier to American firms opportunities to trade and invest while Soviet Union tried to weaken European states by supplying arms to anticolonial insurgencies Combination of a colonial powers weakness with b increased efficiency of bounded state enabled the former colonies to secure independence beginning with India in 1947 Postcolonial bounded states have arisen generally within the boundaries established by the European colonial administrations European state system spread around the world displacing the old focalstate organization The Soviet Union Succeeding the Russian Empire after the latter s collapse in 1917 the Soviet Union was neither a focal state nor a bounded state it was an odd mixture of both Local rulers throughout the Soviet Union were appointed by Politburo normally consisting of 1015 men meeting weekly in Moscow After World War II this rule also applied throughout Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia Albania and Romania after 1962 Within the larger international community the SOVIet Union functioned as a single bounded state Dismemberment of the Soviet Union Local rulers inside Soviet Union rued bounded and nominally sovereign territories called republics In 1989 East European subordinate states became true states except Yugoslavia fragmented and East Germany was absorbed by West Germany In 1991 failure of a military coup against Gorbachev organized by his civilian subordinates led to dismemberment called collapse of the Soviet Union along the borders of the former Soviet republics Some further fragmentation is still going on within some of the former republics along borders of subdivisions established by the Soviet authorities War in August between Georgia and Russia over a territory called South Ossetia is the latest example of this continuing fragmentation The Soviet Union Before 1991 Russia Since mm Uninn memnmm nwlsmnmm I Su x mnl39u 5 I I I I 7Mamm 5 Kammrxhy v Y r T39Tmm 74w 1 quot mm r r Alumuni gt w IWW J European Integration After World War II a West German politician realized his occupied country could recover full independence only by joining a larger European entity A French politician realized his country s industry could compete with German firms only by acquiring regulatory powers over German firms These politicians colluded to set up the beginnings of what has become the European Union The European Union Now consists of 27 member states and others including Turkey under consideration Not a state not a superstate but does exercise pooled sovereignty with laws that override those adopted by national governments European states no longer qualify as not subordinate to any other authority European Union is on the way to becoming a state although whether it will arrive at statehood seems doubtful The European Union an 39


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