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First week

by: Heather Adams

First week Phil 110

Heather Adams
GPA 3.6
Logical and Critical Thinking
Mr. Edward Lenzo

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About this Document

This is everything about Propositions and Conclusions, determining validity and if an argument is sound. The notes end with venndigrams of Categorical Propositions.
Logical and Critical Thinking
Mr. Edward Lenzo
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Adams on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 110 at Colorado State University taught by Mr. Edward Lenzo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Logical and Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Phil Logical Critical Thinking 82515 What is Logic Study of reasoning Aristotelian Category Logic Decisions Thoughts Logic law of the thought Writing Language Words gt Propositions describing a state of affairs the way the world is gt Arguments propositions arranged in a certain way Premisses reason to believe gt Conclusion is true Logic study of reasoning through primarily arguments Sentence contains multiple propositions It is raining or Bob is dead called a disjunction Ex A well regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state Premise The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed Conclusion Premise supports conclusion Find what they want you to believe then why its supported Propositions always have a truth value TF or Uundetermined this is not another truth value but is for something that cant have a truth value without more information Commands are not premises along with questions and exclamations 82715 Arguments consist of conclusions Claim you are arguing for and premises the facts that drove reasons for the conclusion Conclusion follows from premises Inference relationship between conclusion and premises conjectures and both and both must be true disjunction uses or one premise can be true for the whole thing to be true Ex If you put your had in fire then you will get burned both propositions are true Inductive argumentL premises are likely proof for the conclusion bit not definition Ex Sarah is wearing Tennis cloths holding a Tennis racket and looks tired and sweaty Therefore Sarah was recently playing Tennis Deductive argument 82915 Inductiveclaims that if the premise is true the conclusion might be true Ex If a jar has a red marble and two blue marbles You will probably at random will pull out a blue marble Change pulled marble to red it becomes a bad inductive argument Deductive If the premise is true then the conclusion must be true ExOne red one blue one green twelve white marbles gt 115 chance to pull red Ex Socrates is a man gt All men are mortal gt Socrates is mortal This is a valid argument Inductive arguments int be valid Ex Socrates is mortal gt All men are mortal gt Socrates is a man is an invalid argument Ex Some animals are dogs gt Some animals are vicious gt Some dogs are vicious Is there any possibility that it can be false makes it invalid Sound argumentvalid and all true premises and only deductive arguments are sound Good or Bad are for inductive arguments 9115 Enthymeme an argument that leaves out something Ex All hot people are mortal Your mom is mortal Any argument can be evaluated for deductive validity or inductive force Validity if the conclusion is true then the premises are true Sound validal actuallyarguably try premises Ex P1 Jingle Bells was written by Beethoven P2 Jingle Bells is a punk rock song C Beethoven wrote a punk rock song Truth value any combination if Invalid Valid argument almost any except with a false conclusion lgnore truth value to determine validity because only if the conclusion is true really matters If and then are not indicators If the argument can not be reversed then it is invalid known as the Validity Relationship of Propositions 9315 The bar separating principles and conclusion means therefor also known as the conclusion bar Aristotelian Classical Category Logic We are studying BooleanModern Interpretation Categories groups or sets of things and we relate them in four ways Whole lnclusion Containment Ex Category of dogs grouped in category of mammals Partial inclusion Ex there is at least on female athlete in the category of athletes Exclusion Ex Triangles cant be grouped with Circles Categorical propositions Ex P1 No Athletes are Vegetarians P2 All football players are athletes CNo football players are vegetarians Four kinds of categorical propositions A All politicians are liars Politicians is the subject term and liars is the predicate term Ex of total inclusion S P E No Politicians are Liars Ex of total exclusion I Some Politicians are Liars Ex of partial inclusion 0 Some politicians are not liars Ex of partial exclusion Quantity Quality Quantifier Universal Affirmative Universal Negative No Particular Affirmative Some Particular Negative Some QuantifierSubject TermCopulaPredicate term Universal venndiagram s have shading particular use X


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