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Contemporary Health Issues

by: Julius Muller

Contemporary Health Issues PUB HLT 150

Julius Muller
GPA 3.65

R. Detels

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R. Detels
Class Notes
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julius Muller on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PUB HLT 150 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by R. Detels in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see /class/177913/pub-hlt-150-university-of-california-los-angeles in Public Health at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
CLASS WEBSI I IE deteISSChed ule htm The bioloie beih of all society THE GOAL 0 PUBLIC HEALTH physical and mental well members of the lobal reardless of ethnicity reliion ender sexual orientation country or political views public health is an exciting field that can improve the health and quality of life of all GLOBAL HEAI I H EPIDEMIC OI FORMULA ASSOCIA I ED INIAN I DEA I I IS Melamir ne ir n ir nfar nt formula causes four deaths 40000 Childrer n flood health care facilities quot12900 currer ntly hospitalized with severe l idr ney damage Chihese milk products recalled ir n Japar l l lor ng Kor ng Sir ngapore arid Southeast Asia 39 1576 3 f hife quot Ii HE39 Eu a 57 5 w High5 242 5 r4 1L rpa Em 27quot Fun I vZFEHAJ39ILQ ra a i FZ i Ynmll nitmlmn m E E 1 E 42 E 3 g 3 3 E gtv 7 7 z q 5 9 V J 339 grb r r d Lg 7 gt 3 i fag pa 1 3 51 7 1 Major Reasons for Increased Longevity Improved sar nitatior n Provisior l Of Clear n water Uhiversal immur nizatior n programs Health educatiOh arid prever ntior n practices Improved treatmer nt Of Chror nic diseases for recer nt advar nces Leading causes of death worldwide ZOO I Permtal conditions 4 7 9 Re Sp iratory 13153 ctions 7 0 thmies 9 0 Respiratoljf amp digest 9 8 mg gauges 7 1 Of Dtgat39l lm 2001 H I1Il 11ut l3i 7el Fxl I1 IiIerl 412 Ccunr e39u elr ping lti 3untries re Develcc rtd Jery LCvx39xr rvnsrtality World D eaths 39n 2000 attr39butable to selected leadn9 r39sk factors Bloccl pressure Tobacco c htolesterol Underveight Unsafe sex Fmix anrd vegetable intake High Body amass In ales Physical inactivity AIcoI uol LIIIsafe water sanitation and hygiene occupational risk factc rs for injury D lthDo 2000 3000 4000 5000 sortaD 7ooo 8000 Number of deaths 0005 Source u s HR 2032 World Health Organization Respiratory HIKfAIDS infections Proportional Mor tality Arrorig Ur lder Fives Worldwide 200quot AIQI IIiar39rl Chea Malaria h easleg HIV IZ39Er39ir uatal Either 5 ZSDLI rcerS z 3 For Cau e Slzlelzi c mml izv ap fwk IJD For m u i om FEE E el D n r at aE AM public H53 mlquot9 393r 83 Z 1130 3 Under five mortality rate 1990 2003 live births Child deaths per 1 OOO 1 990 2003 World 95 8C Developed regiohs 1 1 7 ommohwealth of lhdepehdent States 46 46 Developihg regiohs 1 O5 88 Northerh Africa 87 38 SubiSaharah Africa 1 85 1 72 Latih America ahd the Caribbeah 54 32 Easterh Asia 48 37 Southerh Asia 1 26 9C SouthiEastern Asia 78 46 Westerh Asia 68 60 Oceahia 86 s 5quot Hue Nadaquot EQwSion quotma Signquot O 3TZ3 S mme39m39m m 7 quotam 7 i 39 June 2005 Base on are pmvm39e Dy Ecohomic and Social Affairs Statisti Divisloh Department of lllGroup I Distribution of deaths by broad causes group and region 2001 Deaths thousands Group I8 89 I2 nutriticr el deficiencies conditions and World Developed Developing Commuhicable diseases Noncommuhicable Conditions maternal and perinatal I Injuries WHO 2002 WORLD Deaths by br oacl group deaths I otal 2002 5 7 027 O Ovo N oncommunicab le conditions 334 milliori Communicable rdiseases maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritionail r In ur es 39 7 52 million deficierIcies 184 million Malves Farr males Source 39W39HR 2003 Worrld Health Organization D39eaths by broad cause group arid WHO Region 2001 30m rrluru icablle diseases Noncommurmmcable Injurues maternal arid pernatal condltnons e conditions and nutritional de ciencl 753901 1 50 944E 2 5 ol39El Africa Americas Europe Med iterranean Asia Pa cific Scuroe 39l IR zoo2 World Health Organizatiorn PROJECIED DEAII IS Evy CAUSE F39OR HIGH vMIDDI E AND LOW INgtCOME COLIN REES 35 in Im atentia ai iu wjuu j g 39Otl mer II4ll Inte l rt icx rhea1 39 i juries 3 0 n Rom 39Izra39 ic amidennts OBI I I dis33 HIV TE aI Id rrla lal ia I S E I D E E E 5 W V w W 0 203904 2 0 l 5 203390 20 04 20 l 5 2030 Mi d dIe irunzome Low income Iow and middle ihc ome countries suffer the greatest imipact on noncommiunicable diseases 770A of the total number of deaths 8500 of the global NCD disease attrib utable to NvCDs bvurden is borne by low and occlurreczll in devemoping countries middli e incornre countries W39ORI D HEAI I H ORGANIZA I ION Disability Adjusted Life Years DAI YS DANS by broad cause group 1990 202039 in developing count ries baseline scenario DAI n Disability Adjusted Ii Fe Year Commu nicable diseases matern al and prerinatal conditions and nutritional deficrierlces 22 49 7 r 7 quotii r 7 77 7 7 Noncomun iilzarblle condit ms 1990 2021 Source mil IO Eviderr lce Ir I For matior ahd Policy ZODCII Global burden of disease in disability adjust ed life years DALYs 20390 1 Perinatal conditions Nutritional deficienzcies Otll39lzer MCDs Malignant n eoplasrrls Diabetes Maternal cond itions Respiratory infections Malaria Childhoo d diseases Diarrhoeal diseases HIVIAJ39DS N europsychiatric disorclers Tuberculosis C other CD caVIJses Sense organ disorders Cardiovascular diseases Injuries Congenital abvnorma R espiratory di5 eases Digestive diseases Muscu39 39 quot 4 Diseases of the genitourinary system Source i u r IR 21332 Wor d Heallth Organization Leslil lg causes of of Ii i11 of DAALSLS 1 11 1119 SEAA Regiol 3111 due 2 ol l1 2000 183 837000 610 353 000 136930000 679 433000 How Nmb ers may not acid up due to ramSing 061 Some WHO Geneva rid Health Wort 2001 Increasing burdenquot of noncommuni cable diseases and injurie s chaange iiiTI rank order of DAI Ys for the 1539 leading causes baseline scenario 139999 Disease or Injury 20 20 Disease or Injury 1 Acute lowver respiratory infections q schaemic heart disease 2 HIVAIDS 2 Unipolar major depresson 3 Perinatal conditiOhS 3 Road traffic injuries 4 Diarrho39eal diseases 4 Cerebrovascular disease 5 unipo39ar major depreSSlon 5 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 6 lschaemic heart disease 6 LoNNer respiratory infections 7 Cerebrovascular disease 7 Tub erculosis 8 Malaria 8 War 9 Road traffic irljuries 9 Diarrh oeal diseases 10 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 10 HJV 1 1 Congenital abnormalities 1 1 gterihatal Conditions 1 2 Tuberculosis 1 2 Vlolerlc 1 3 Falls 1 3 Congenital abnormalities 14 MeaSleS 14 Self inflicted injurle 15 Anaemias 15 Tracheal bronchus and lung cancers DAl Y Disability adjusted life year Source J H I IO EJidercev Inforn latio rl and onaacy 2300 W ORI D HEAI I H ORGANIZA I ION H 1951 I fe Expectancy Years Lowest I fe Expectancy Years San Mar no vicin ty Of Italy Mozal tDic 3 u ut Welcome to Downey don t drink the water Bacteria four 1d ir I Downeyquote water supply Public health officials tell resid ehts to boil th eir ta wat el for the quotnegct three clays after the detection n of califon n beeteria 7 HZr 39rn E v r 773925 2 l mer e he Public heeltrh oFFiCiele ere tellihc DOxMr Ie39y reeidehte to boil their tap quotswater for tIF Ie next three days a 39er colifor bacteria Vw er e four Id ih tl e I i l r Welter supplyquot Ciw State Eur 1d Couhty public I l ealtlr l Officials issued a boilewelter Order about 43 pr r I ll Iur edey eeid fe erry Greer he e prihcipel Civil ehgil Ieer xvitl I the DDxWI Iey Dub Forks eper tr r Ier It Reeide te maryr Corr tihue to ehoxmrer Or barf 1e ir nweter from I tl 1e tape but they alre their g e1er F1eg Cauti ol ed to boil it be F Ol e dril lKil i lg irICIUdIr Ig x39alatelr for pets City O FFiCiaIS COUICZI r not be react led this r139 Im39rr lil I h but a Statrer r er lt Or l tIF Ie City 139qre lei1e eeye Dowr Ieyr teete ite weter WeeKly I eetir Ig Or ueeczlelyv eI I Oxwerd a positive reedir Ig For the Cnliforr r I eeterie at three of the ityv39s 25 sampling IOCetiQr Ie Coliforr T I bacteria are hatlgrel ese t iI39 39I tlr le er IvirOI IIFT IEEI It er lczl are Listed as a imcjieetor caF otl Ier j potentially tl ler r r IFUI beeter ie But E ltruli er czl Fecal C Oli39FOrrTi terie erlicl39 helmquote tlrfle to pose e eeri oue heeltlr l prObler r IF Ieve r Iczut be p beret i detected nr I the Cithw39e 14v rwmnmam Al woo omnmww 0 am III in camlnma minm nmw ImmOI Immql NOOlI V mac luminmm Iwoo Ummmmmm 0 quot Immllln Imq gulmmlllmlll n lllmOUlmmlll llm omllmUIIOI Nmoclmll ammmmmm OJIIIOIJIHO oum lllllo nml m lllllllm Q mmmmm ISO HOII ltmIim0lm I Iwhu lUlJmclll IIOIllmm Ilia I ll llllmllle IIIIlt lllli mO HHOIJl wcm umam IOEHOHQm Illa lwmwl ml mzmlll nmo wnblmm mnubLMHWQ 1 OANNE 000 gn m3 3mm marAMI mommm WWme Elam i n USA I I he I 5 cost lest treatments Total spending for people with the condition como rbidities and omer mAedical39 carve included 1 80 for the condition Costs of treafment USS billions 7D 60 ndimres may be associa ed wi 39u mare any one corn and ar no maelstrom 31313 Summing Wel cmd ons urn dwble ur m 39339 Ecpe Jrduplicated h the 4 World Health Organizatiorl FIG u 1 E leevalre ncze Of wohbeSItyir g ad u lts gt11 VE rsa iJoeI fia lll i lip a SlurI Ve UE Sy A L 23901237 Persons W th a body men8 imde X IaMI O 30v0 weight air ad height were used to 4e cu afte BM we Egg ht f he gh t LEE raj J uuqonalliu molllul noqlinll lug mo Iuo IUuwuuHI jL m 30 Kid Iv IW I d H mm MI lewmt ImhuiiuT UNITAMI HIG AWVAMI m0310m0m1u zmfh z MW e hlL FluLil ns Hnl IHII nuulw manEH3 miniJerJzlmuu li minI nlullnlilnnnlnx l mlI41an Elli nlluln lnmJL miu u39I szI meVAJNVHJNNHwI N00 expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age in the United States 391 90 391 95 391 997 2001 2004 At birth At 473 682 765 772 778 MWOON anT n wJ HmOIiI Iiow wlhmmgt IVI wlhmmgt 01w wlhmmgt OION wlhmmgt mm 4 wlhmmgt OIN wlhmmgt Nlm wlhmmgt Nib wlhmmgt mm 6 I IMWOMIIan Hm IAIN I11 11 I x k JI HL l k x k u f k k x wlhmmgt wlhmmgt wlhmmgt FlnIhm mocmlhmn an momLmEltlcm0mLHlt EmmmeUjmo wlhmmgt wlhmmgt wlhmmgt mocmlhmn an momLmEltlcm0mLHlt EmmwmAUjmo Imgt cmOmllmE l IVOON gtocm omw0lxm mnIMI lej Potentlal years of llfe lost before age 75 for selected causes of mortality In the United States 1980 1997 2000 Years of potential life Causes of Mortality 1980 I 8quot 5 I 877 I 0quot I lost 2000 I452 I 076 t quotI 59 intervehtior l 46 I 244 304 3013 I Chi Ohio obstructive luhg disease I4 l I Diabetes mellitus l I 5 I Chror lic liver disease and Cirrhosis 259 1 4 03 Cerebrovascu Iar c isease iris Igniil 299 V on under 75 years Q age age adjusted 2oo2 39 Ms E V 7 7 quot PUBLIC HEALTH IS The process of mobilizing stateprovincial international conditions national healthy and resources to assure the In which all people can be BreslowDetels PUBLIC HEAI I H I he science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society Acheson Report London 1988 L1 1 i MAJOR PREVENTABI E RISK FACTORS Substance abuse Tobacco Alcohol Drugs Unhealthy diet Physical inactivity Ehvironmentaloeeupational haze rds A 4576 3 f OOOIWAUIOH Hmmelnw mocwimnlw callIo hlllmlllnvl lllo hlIOOIUI lmlm mlnmLmCI3gt mini 0 sup 0T wilmlollommlo COMMmli lllz Hlmmlll lm lllmlz loam hilmocmo hwllmlvllommlnv Owlonw mE hmwwmwml v twmlll wmmmmwmu OHCOIIIuio mmmmmwmu mJOHHokaI Arv IIIIIIIIltWI ellman 0 mn39oow NILI THE SCOPE OI PUBLIC HEALTH 2 AccidentsViolenceli quotjuries Health equity Occupational health Environmental health STRATEGIES OI PUBI IC HEALTH 1 Assess the current health Situation Surveys Surveillance Morbidity and mortality reporting Identify the problem STRATEGIES OI PUBLIC HEALTH 2 Research correlates of occurrence Develop and evaluate interventions Disseminate results Influence policy to incorporate results science based policy Heal39Kl Topics A z Weekly 2 2 005 1quot 543412841 842 bul dcll of C1Liseasc W Ol lc lixa icle 39GIoba ap nDl Oxinlately 450 erdel s 1 axed 0116 130111111 0 tlle K AFOIIL IL S le at ell avill cle1 at Sch1116 lgoillt d111 i11g theil limres r 4e11ta1 c 39501 c1 1 5 accomgaunt title leiteCt Stat5 1121 39 11 regtelj 11370 e a C1 8 e a 111 111e Ullited States alelgl oxi111ate13x 223 tlle US ac Lkl 11111139511 cliSCgt1C1L 5 ca xPcll year 5 cstillla ed lifetilmlc alllellg 111 11111 lDOlelat1011 ale appl oxinjtlat 1y 9 fog 2339 i 1 45 21 C 3 01 39 r 15 9quot SLIbStaIICE IIS39I 39isol clen s 14 111 aciditioll an es llxiatecl D 111 1039 cllrlch e39n 1 t1 tllat caLlScS e011 exrel of lllaah llle 1 7 Tile effects lllclltal 2111011g J1 etlnlie 1 aeia llcl e1l1t111 al g oulgrs all 9111011g 1 c1 State3 a a 6 Mel eoxrel 111ental llllless caste 17111 U mt g title cltosts of resaazclj estilmlatecl S 1 50 billioz a1n1112711y excllein 35 4 TAB LE I I Sam1 xnleek LT 39D u n may L L S 2 L2 12 rru 22 r 2 Cu mm 2 2 1 a 3 2 lt 1 s 1 lt a a s 2 a 2D 4 1 a 63 2 44 2 2 4 37 S N 4 4 52 5 77 2 7 2227 7 2 26 200 OD 722 1 4654 4 27 N 55 27 2 242 220 4 22 52 2x 7 4 277 a a 4a2 a a 2 N 31 2a o 9 hr 94 27 N a 94 INIERVEN IION SIRAIEGIES 1 Immunization prorams Health education Behavioral modification strateies Community iquottervehtiortlmobilization


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