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Chapter 34- Biosphere

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 34- Biosphere 70955 - BIOL 104 - 001

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Introductory Biology II

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Start of ecology unit
Introductory Biology II
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 70955 - BIOL 104 - 001 at George Mason University taught by TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/04/15
Organization name Student name student email address lquot mm mm quotill Learning Objectives 1 List chemical and physical factors that affect the Chesapeake Bay 2 Connect role of abiotic and biotic factors in the survival and evolution of populations 3 research and describe 8 major terrestrial biomes based on abiotic factors 4 explain how the water cycle connects aquatic and terrestrial biomes WNrachelcarsonorq The Biosphere Introduction Life from top to bottom 0 Ecology study of interactions of organisms with their environments 0 biosphere composed of living communities and nonliving physical and chemical factors 0 aquatic biomes defined as freshwater and marine terrestrial biomes categorized by climate and plant life 341 Ecologists study how organisms interact with their environment at several levels 0 ecologists study environmental interactions at the level of the o organism 0 population group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area 0 community assemblage of all the populations of organisms of different species living close enough together to interact ecosystem biotic and abiotic components of environment biosphere global ecosystem which is the sum of all Earth s ecosystems o ecosystem interactions involve living biotic communities and nonliving abiotic components 0 biotic components include all organisms o abiotic components include atmo gases energy nutrients water I organisms are affected by both components of their environment I presence and activities often change environment they inhab 342 CONNECTION The science of ecology provides insight into environmental problems 0 human activities affect all parts of the biosphere 0 cities farms and highways change landscape 0 widespread use of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides poses problems to people and other organisms 0 Rachel Carson was one of the first to perceive the global dangers of pesticide abuse 0 documented her concerns in 1962 book Silent Spring 0 book played a key role in awakening of environmental awareness o Chesapeake Bay largest estuary salt and fresh water meet in US 0 3600 species of plants and animals httpwwchesapeakebay net What are the abiotic factors of the Chesapeake Bay What s the role of environment in adaptive evolution Natural Selection as a Giant Filter System See PPT 0 bay produces about 500 million pounds of seafood per year 0 threats I nutrient pollution e nitrogenrich fertilizers I chemical contaminants ie pesticides fungicides I air pollution ie car fumes factory smoke I erosion ie runoff landslide I overharvesting of fish and shellfish most important abiotic factors that determine an ecosystem s structure and dynamics include 0 solar energy 0 temperature 0 water 0 nutrients 0 other aquatic factors dissolved 02 salinity currents 344 EVOLUTION CONNECTION Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection pronghorn is a highly successful herbivorous running mammal of open country fastest land animal in North America 0 pronghorn s habitat is arid windswept and subject to extreme temperature fluctuations o pronghorns able to survive and reproduce under these conditions left offspring that carried their alleles into subsequent generations individuals whose phenotypes are best suited to the environment abiotic and biotic factors will pass their alleles to next generation 345 Regional climate influences the distribution of terrestrial communities Climate often determines the distribution of communities Earth s global climate patterns are largely dominated by the input of solar energy and planet s movement in space solar radiation varies w latitude 0 most climatic variations are due to the uneven heating of Earth s surface Earth s tilt causes the seasons 0 seasons of the year result from the permanent tilt of the planet on its axis as it orbits the sun uneven heating causes rain and winds 0 direct intense solar radiation near equator has an impact on global patterns of rainfall and winds 0 tropics experience the greatest annual input and least seasonal variation in solar radiation as air rises it cools and releases much of its water after losing moisture over equatorial zones high altitude air masses spread away from equator prevailing wind patterns 0 in tropics Earth s rapidly moving surface deflects vertically circulating air making winds blow from east to west 0 in temperate zones the slowermoving surface produces the westerlies winds that blow from west to east ocean currents affect regional climates by warming or cooling coastal areas and are created by o winds o planet rotation o uneven heating of surface waters 0 locations and shapes of continent mountains affect rainfall o rainfall is affected by location of mountains prevailing winds and ocean current patterns 4315 photic zone light region aphotic zone dark region very diverse Sustainable fisheries restaurant in DC corals form from calcium carbonate and requires substrate to attach to mutual relationship wl unicellular algae solar radiation and shelter for marine organisms niches adaptation to turbid waters hydrothermal vents were originally volcanic saltiness of estuaries varies with the tides human development and pollution are primary reasons for decrease in salt marshes and mangroves Aquatic Biomes ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions 346 Sunlight and substrate are key factors in the distribution of marine organisms Oceans cover about 75 of Earth s surface light and availability of nutrients are major factors that shape aquatic communities The pelagic zone is the open ocean o it supports highly motile animals such as fishes squids and marine mammals o phytoplankton and zooplankton drift in pelagic zone benthic zone is the ocean bottom coral reefs are found in warm tropical waters above continental shelf 0 support highest biodiversity of organisms in marine habitats abyssal zone deepsea hydrothermal vents part of aphotic zone 0 chemoautotrophs synthesizing nutrients from chemosynthetic bacteria making inorganic hydrogen into nutrients o continuously cold and extremely high pressure in aphotic zone Estuaries are productive areas where rivers meet the ocean o saltiness of estuaries ranges from less than 1 to 3 0 provide nursery areas for oysters crabs and many fishes 0 often bordered by extensive coastal wetlands the intertidal zone is the wetland at the edge of estuary or ocean where water meets land 0 salt marshes manoroves sand rocky beaches and tide pools are part of intertidal zone 0 often flooded by high tides and then left dry during low tides Conservation connection salt marshes and mangroves provide many ecosystem services to humans such as 0 water filtration filter pollutants such as herbicides pesticides and heavy metals out of the water as well as excess sediments and nutrients o habitat protection stabilize shorelines and protect coastal areas inland habitats and human communities from floods and storm surges from hurricanes when flooding occurs estuaries often act like huge sponges soaking up excess water salt marshes and mangroves provide many ecosystem services to humans yet 0 if current rates of habitat loss continue then functional mangroves forests could be gone within 100 years The photic zone is the portion of the ocean into which light penetrates o photosynthesis occurs here o the aphotic zone is a vast dark region of the ocean 0 it s the most extensive part of the biosphere 0 although there s no light a diverse and dense population inhabits this zone 347 Current sunlight and nutrients are important abiotic factors in freshwater ecosystems o freshwater biomes include lakes ponds rivers streams and wetlands o they re intimately connected with terrestrial habitats that surround them 4315 Temperature and rainfall are primary factors in determining a biome Research a biome and research the abiotic and biotic components of it factors contributing to high biodiversity in forests include rainfall sunlight and oxygen deserts vs desertification desertification contributes to atmospheric carbon Terrestrial Biomes 348 Terrestrial biomes reflect regional variations in climate 0 terrestrial ecosystems are grouped into eight major types of biomes o biomes are distinguished primarily by their predominant vegetation o if the climate in two geographically separate areas is similar the same type of biome may occur in both places 349 Tropical forests cluster near the equator 0 several types of tropical forests occur in the warm moist belt along equator o tropical rain forest is the most diverse ecosystem on Earth 0 largescale human destruction of tropical rain forests continues to endanger many species 0 warm moist stable climate providing growing conditions for plants yearround which in turn provides diverse habitats for other species 3410 Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees 0 drier tropical areas and some non tropical areas are characterized by the savanna 0 poor soil andor lack of moisture as well as frequent fires inhibit tree growth 3411 Deserts are defined by their dryness o deserts are the driest of all terrestrial biomes 0 characterized by low and unpredictable rainfall o desertification is a significant environmental problem 3412 Spiny shrubs dominate chaparral o chaparral biome is a shrubland with cool rainy winters and dry hot summers mediterranean climate 0 prone to wildfires o chaparral vegetation is adapted to periodic fires 3413 Temperate grasslands include the North American prairie o temperate grasslands are found in the interiors of continents where winters are cold 0 drought fires and grazing animals prevent trees from growing 0 farms have replaced most of N American temperate grasslands 3414 Broadleaf trees dominate temperate forests o temperate broadleaf forests have sufficient moisture rain and humidity o typical growing season of 56 months then trees drop leaves and become dormant until the following spring 3415 Coniferous forests are often dominated by a few species of trees 0 northern coniferous forest taiga is largest terrestrial biome on Earth 0 characterized by long cold winters and short wet summers 3416 Long bittercold winters characterize the tundra o arctic tundra lies bt taiga and permanently frozen polar regions 0 treeless biome characterized by extreme cold wind and permafrost o permafrost is continuously frozen subsoil 3417 The global water cycle connects aquatic and terrestrial biomes 0 Water flowing from the land to the ocean carries soil and chemicals from the land via rivers and ground water


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