Design Culture Introduction
Design Culture Introduction DESMA 10
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennyfer Skiles on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DESMA 10 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by E. Huhtamo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/177918/desma-10-university-of-california-los-angeles in Design Media Arts at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Desma 10 Design Culture an Introduction Meeting 5 Oct 262007 Design for Public Spaces The Challenge ofthe Modern Around 1900 the world was changing speed new technology urbanization new communications new media changing social formations and gender roles How will design be able to reflect these changes and contribute to them Art Nouveau tried to be the rst truly modern and international design trend a total aesthetic encompassing all forms of creativity and most importantly bridging art and design Claimed to be free from the stylistic trends of the past but in fact was very eclectic Interested in simulating natural phenomena and ornaments for some this seemd paradoxical in the dawning machine age Art Nouveau As a design movement the heyday was from the 1890s to c 1910 Name from L Art Nouveau design shop in Paris 8 Bing 1895 a Pavillion de I Art Nouveau was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle World s Fair Paris 1900 Many names in different places Art Nouveau France Jugendstil Germany Stile Liberty Italy Modernisme Spain Attempt to create an universal style covering all forms of expression an umbrella style Abandoned the historicism of the past the goal was to create a modern form of expression In uences Ruskin turn to nature for inspiration Arts and Crafts folk art Rococo and Baroque nonWestern sources Japanese design Islamic ornaments Many backgrounds Politica young states asserting themselves internationally countries like Finland created signi cant Ars Nouveau traditions Social permeated modern environment from underground to department store Cultural new unity of visual arts embracing both art and design Technologica use of industrial material wrought iron glass use of industrial production methods Against Historicism quotWe wantit to be modern so that any reminiscence of the past is ruthlessy excluded critic Roger Marx about a planned exhibition 1907 In spite of modern tendencies Art Nouveau was often accused to be a decadent fin de siecle phenomenon rejected by modernists A strong in uence on Art Deco 192030s and later on Psychedelia in the 1960s Art Nouveau important figures Aubrey Beardsley 187298 drawings Louis Comfort Tiffany 18481933 glassware Louis Majorelle 18591926 furniture Hector Guimard 18671942 ironwork Paris metro Emile Gall 18461904 glassware Alphonse Mucha 18601939 posters Victor Horta 18611947 architecture Antonio Gaudi y Cornet 18521926 architecture Henry van de Velde 18631957 tableware interiors Charles Rennie Mackintosh 18681928 architecture furniture interiors pioneer of the rectilinear style Audrey Beardsley a graphic artist in particular was a huge influence on Art Nouveau defining its irregular organic lines as a style Henri Van de Velde about reconciling art design industry quotArtist producer and salesman don t coincide anymore with the collapse of the crafts system A new unity must be found by collaboration Machine must be spiritualize d Henri Van de Velde became the leader of the new Deutsche Werkbund in 1907 an attempt to achieve this goal This development ultimately led to the founding ofthe Bauhaus gtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Modernism in Design The need to harmonize design with the modern world the world oftechnology urbanism speed The machine as a central element of modern life and design Form follows function Louis Sullivan as a guideline Ornamentation should be at least controlled or eliminated as unnecessary Barriers between art engineering design science should be removed Defending the machine young Frank Lloyd Wright 18671956 The most famous American architect As a young man worked in the office of Louis Sullivan who popularized the most famous slogan in design history Form Follows Function 1890s quotThe machine has potential to emancipate the modern mind By simplifying it can reveal the true nature of materials Frank Lloyd Wright quotMy god is machinery and the art of the future will be the expression of the individual artist through the thousand powers of the machinequot Frank Lloyd Wright A Modernist Credo quotAs long as our cities our houses our rooms our cupboards our utensils our jewellery as long as our speech and sentiments fail to express in an elegant beautiful and simple fashion the spirit of our own times we will continue to be immeasurably far behind our forefathers and no amount of lies can deceive us about all these weaknessesquot Josef Hoffmann Constructivism as a model for modernist design Born in the Soviet Union after the October revolution 1917 but influenced by Futurism and Suprematism An effort to harmonize art with industrial production to bring intellectuals and workers together remove the barriers between art and design Art and design as production artist as a kind ofengineer or mechanic compare Heart eld as monteurdada quotmodern factory at work is the culminating manifestation of our times surpassing the opera or ballet quot Tatlin Eventually turned into an international trend and style mostly in graphic design which was adopted elsewhere without any reference to the original ideological position Vladimir Tatlin 18851953 Embodiment ofthe idea ofthe artistdesignerengineer Soviet Leonardo da Vinci stagesets a flyingmachine letatlin clothes stove chairs for mass production d cors for caf s magazine layouts paintings sculptures Most famous work Monument to the Third International A huge tower that was also a rotating machine Never built considered a symbol of constructivism and the Soviet culture of the 1920s Important Constructivists Vladimir Tatlin workers clothing Monument to the Third International Aleksandr Rodchenkophotographs poster designs multifunctional furniture for workers clubs Varvara Stepanova radical clothing and textile designs designs E Lissitsky the newtypography Liubov Popova stage design for Meyerhold The Magnificent Cuckold 1922 stage set as an acting machine also textile designs Bauhaus 19191933 Radical art and design school rst in Weimar then Dessau Berlin Eventually closed by the Nazis Many teachers and students emigrated often to the United States Founding director architect Walter Gropius 18831969 quotThe Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to terms with it 1923 Slogan Art and Technology A New Unity 1923 Teaching ideology learning by doing the destruction of previous learning the freeing ofthe mind Became a stronghold for Constructivism particularly after the Hungarian avant garde artist and designer Laszlo MoholyNagy joined the faculty in 1923 De Stijl A modernist movement that developed around the Dutch magazine De Stijl The style founded 1917 Leading members Piet Mondrian Theo van Doensburg JJP Oud Gerrit Rietveld Red Blue and Yellow Chair 1918 Rob van t Hoff Based on idealist philosophy search for a new vision of modern life Towards total geometric abstraction influenced by theosophism and the idea of the mathematical order ofthe universe Back to basics line planecolor horisontal and vertical lines colors and non color seen as universals Equation between geometric forms and machine production Le Corbusier 18871965 Swiss architect mostly active in France an archmodernist With Amad e Ozenfant founded Purism journal Esprit Nouveau 1920 Purism Platonic idealism mechanization and modernity Emphasis on function efficiency precision harmony Book Vers une architecture 1923 radical manifesto for modernist design Pavillion de I Espn39t Nouveau shown at Exposition des Arts D coratives Paris 1925 standardized massproduced units and components A Machine for Living According to Le Corbusier a house should be a machine for living a perfectly functioning organism to provide forthe utilitarian needs of man Factoriesindustria buildings as models for homes functionalityl portholes steel railings Concrete as material smooth undecorated surfaces flat roofs like factories freeflowing interior spaces large expanses of glass Declared that houses should be massproduced made by machines still most designed for rich clients paradox gtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Design Culture in the USA Art Deco Art Deco was a postWorld War phenomenon blossomed in the 1920s exoticism escapism luxury hedonism Influences from Europe from Exposition Internationale des Arts D coratives Paris 1925 the USA did not participate In the USA PreColumbian influences stepped shapes from Aztec temples applied from skyscrapers to radios Attempt to compensate for the backwardness ofAmerican design Jazz Modern famous example Chrysler Building NYC 192830 by William van Alen quotZig zag style luxury extravaganza escapism Major influence on quotatmosphericquot movie palaces and Hollywood musicals Busby Berkeley for Warner Bros Style gradually in uenced more clearly by machine aesthetics towards Machine Age design Skyscraper style A conscious effort to create an American style Skyscraper was seen as the symbol of the American civilization thus it became a model for design vertica forms piles of quotmodulesquot Applied to many kinds of items from textiles to cabinets radios and kitchenware Paul Frankl skyscraper style combination desk and bookcase ca 1927 American Modern Industrial Design Emerged in the late 1920sThe designer defined as an artisttechnologist Motivation the Wall Street Crash 1929 Social and economic crisis re designing objects offered as a solution to make them attractive to consumers Search for machine age aesthetics which could also be considered as American aesthetics concept The Machine Age was influenced by groundbreaking exhibition Machine Art at the Museum of Modern Art NY 1934 Influenced by European modernism but with a difference in the US constant interest in nonfunctional traits machine age ornament design slips from functionality to surface effects which leads to another design debate Pioneers of American Industrial Design Norman Bel Geddes book Hon39zons 1932 streamlining futuristic designs Futurama for the General Motors Pavillion New York World s Fair 1939 Raymond Loewy Gestetner duplicating machine redesign 1929 Coldspot Refrigerator Sears Roebuck 1935 Rocketport ofthe Future NYWF 1939 Water Dorwin Teague redesigns of Kodak cameras office machines Henry Dreyfuss Redesigns of Bell telephones tractor designs for John Deere Democracity inside Perisphere NYWF 1939 Streamlining Concept that symbolizes American design in the 1930s Popularized by Bel Geddes in his important book Hon39zons 1932 Two basic principles 1 ovoid gliding form the teardrop 2 smooth continuous surface Scientific background research on birds fishes teardrops Goal finding the form with the least air resistance First applied to submarines airships aeroplanes rst windtunnel to test automobile models 1921 at Zeppelin works Germany Paul Jaray Streamlined concept cars Norman Bel Geddes rear engined car 1932 Buckminster Fuller s Dymaxion car threewheeled teardrop design The Stout car the first rearengined design to appear on the market The evolution is shown naturally leading toward streamlining Chrysler Airflow 1934 was one of the first streamlined cars that came into production You have only to look at a dolphin a gull or a greyhound to appreciate the rightness of the tapering owing contour of the new Air ow Chrysler advertising text 1934 Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Meeting 9 Nov302007 Design inn the Postmodern Era l quotDesign has taken on its own life and this raises a problem often encountered in consumer culture The energy is pure delight But can we turn it off Herbert Muschamp 2000 quotls good design the perfection of an object for commercial success For the glory of the designer For beauty For glamour For usequot Philip Nobel 2000 Function is Out Form is In Time Magazine March 2000 We don t sell a product we sell a style of life The Diesel concept is everything It s the way to live it s the way to wear it s the way to do something Diesel Jeans owner Renzo Rosso Brand Brand Brand That s the messagefor the late 90 s and beyond Tom Peters advertising guru Postmodernism Origins Origins open to debate usually seen beginning in the l960s Word appears in Charles Jencks The Language of PostiModern Architecture l977 Robert Venturi s Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture l966 argued that modern architecture was meaningless because it lacked the complexity and irony of historical buildings Venturi Denise Scott Brown Steven lzenour Learning from Las Vegas l972 praising the cultural honesty of built commercialism in Las Vegas earlier despised by modernists as decadent and messy Postmodernism features Plundering of cultural archives anything that has ever existed is potential material for creativity in almost any combinations Focus on the exterior surface skin culture as an endless play of signifiers Humor play and irony replace modernist seriousness still there may be anxiety hidden behind the facade The obscuring of boundaries between high and low culture but also between fields like art and design Simulation replaces representation representation told us something about reality simulation only pretends to refer to the real Simulation According to critic Gene Youngblood the word quotsimulationquot has two main meanings l fake copy eg digital photographs that only pretend to represent something real 2 model of the possible eg using computer simulated models for cars or airplanes to test their qualities before the prototype has been built Postmodernism as Anti Modernism We look backward at history and tradition to go forward we can also look downward to go upward Learning from Las Vegas Universal City Walk Los Angeles branded city simulated city or a world as a city city as a world as a Theatrum Mundiquot conglomeration of cultural traditions as deliberate simulations One of the ultimate urban realizations of postmodernism Features of Postmodern Design Culture Branding is everything in postmodern design culture Companies don t produce objects they create brands Recycling of ideas taken from cultural archivesquot freguent references to earlier design movements in new design products Design identified with glamour quotdesigner as a media starquot high design Designer as a Brand The idea of affordable design objects for everyone chains of stores like IKEA Muji Target design as a way of life design everywhere Again branding controls the design process quotlifestyle shoppingquot brand awareness partly as a result mass production of fakes fabricated attitude life style oriented chains of stores GAP Urban Outfitters UniGlo lntertextuality The interplay and mixing of different cultural quottextsquot Cultural production that constantly refers to other earlier cultural products leads to endless recycling of cultural meanings that lose their specific referents however they can also be used for critical ends More Features of Postmodern Design Culture quotProduct constellationsquot related products as part of a life style RolexBMWRay Ban quotbranding governs everything including places like casinos even cities Design can help Geary s architecture identified with Bilbao symbolic investment product semantics the product as a symbolic expression as well as an object for use For years we thought of ourselves as a production oriented company meaning we put all our emphasis on designing and manufacturing the product But now we understand that the most important thing we do is market the product We ve come around to saying that Nike is a marketing oriented company and the product is our most important marketing tool Nike CEO Phil Knight Compare with the statement below What has changed Answer companies now concentrate on creating brands not products Products can be ordered from other manufacturers running their sweatshops in Third World countries This is a moral dilemma contemporary design culture faces This is the proposition that the basic and irreversible function of an industrial economy is the making of things Fortune magazine l938 Designer as Brand I am not an icon a star It s not a superman thing Everyone can do it Philippe Starck Philippe Starck l949 quotForm Precedes Function quotThe role of the designer is to create more happiness with less quotI am very interested in the unconscious because it never lies whilst the conscious is always a lie I work on the commonplace on the collective unconscious
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