Design Culture Introduction
Design Culture Introduction DESMA 10
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Professor Erkki Huhtamo UCLA Dept of Design Media Arts Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Lecture Notebook 7 This notebook does not contain complete slides from the lecture It is only meant as an aid to your memory To get the complete idea you must attend the lectures Illustrations will not be included they are only shown in class gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Meeting 8 Dec l 2006 Design Situationism Punk Situationism and design Origins in radical art practice that originated in France l95060s Main theorist Guy Debord book Society of the Spectacle the situationist bible Origins in the sense of disgust and boredom with bourgeois society longing for a revolution renewal of sensory perception and eventually of the society itself Bourgeois society was seen as alienated dominated by spectacle that reduces the activities and initiatives of the individual Situationist ideas inspired political student movements of the l960s although their origin was not political in a narrow sense A major influence on Situationism was Surrealism that had also organized its city wanderings in Paris and elsewhere trying to break the bourgeois perception of reality Main strategies d rive and d tournement D rive was an exercise in refreshing the perception of customary and noninspiring environment by means of wandering through the city In a sense the the wandererers created a new map by their wanderings psychogeography the led to uncommon places and paid attention to features of the city we don t usually notice in our everyday life D tournement was a strategy focused on appropriating public signs from public announcements and logos to popular cultural products like comic strips manipulating them and turning them in modified form against themselves Culture jamming Use of detournement to attack and question the ideology of branding and the corporate worldview A medium for radical politics fighting for animal rights for the prevention of global warming etc Effort to reveal the real motivations behind the brand by turning the brand against itself often a very little modification of the original design counts Essential to make one s findings public manipulated billboards street graphics favourite channels lnternet difficult because it is so easy to control by the corporations and the authorities Canadian Adbusters magazine famous as a channel for culturejammers wwwadbustersorg Punk social movement fashion and design trend Emerged in the second half of the l970s in England spread to other countries Social and ideological factors youth unemployment frustration an ideological void after the collapse of l960s idealism Fear of nuclear holocaust an ideology of the concrete it is better to do something than be idle grass root level cultural activity Against bourgeois youth culturepersonified as teen pop glam rock progressive rock adopted the idea anyone can play a guitar EXperiment in total design from music to fashion graphics entire lifestylesthe appropriation of dominant media as a channel for spreading its message Influenced by Situationism a radical art movement of the l950s and 60s Penetrating analysis of Punk is the book Lipstick Traces by Greil Marcus Also turned into a successful theatre play The book gives punk a cultural context that strecthes from dadaism in the I9 I 020s to Situationism and beyond The book writes the secret history of the 20 h century Johnny Rotten John Lydon the lead singer of the Sex Pistols is on the cover Rotten became the most famous icon for punk with Jamie Reid s collage of the Queen of England with a safety pin The uses of safety pins in clothing as piercings became an international fashion in the punk community Punk from Ideology to Fashion and Commercialism Symbolic strategies adopted from the Situationism a radicalk art movement of the of l950s and 60s detournement reversal as a strategy turning hegemonic signs against Professor Erkki Huhtamo UCLA Dept of Design Media Arts Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Lecture Notebook I This notebook does not contain complete slides from the lecture It is only meant as an aid to your memory To get the complete idea you must attend the lecture Illustrations will not be included they are only shown in class Meeting l Sep29 2006 What is Design What is Design Culture Viktor Papanek Design is the conscious and intuitive effort to impose meaningful order All men are designers All that we do almost all the time is design for design is basic to all human activity The planning and patterning of any act toward a desired foreseeable end constitutes the design process Any attempt to separate design to make it a thing by itself works counter to the fact that design is the primary underlying matrix of lifequot Victor Papanek Design for the Real World l97l These designs are home altars created by some Mexican people can be characterized as bricolages compositions made out of preeXisting elements so that they express their maker s meanings either consciously or unconsciously Social anthropologist Claude LeviStrauss saw bricoIage as a logic of the concrete a signifying practice different from abstract philosophical or mathematical thought Papanek s definition comes close to equating design with culture we create culture by means of design we design by means of culture But what is culture Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language Raymond Williams Keywords I976 Etymology Latin cultura cultivation tending Culture three main categories of usage according to Raymond Williams I A general process of intellectual spiritual and aesthetic development 2 A particular way of life whether of a people a period a group or humanity in general 3 The works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity Culture relationship between material and symbolic production refers to material production in archaeology cultural anthropology compare with agriculture refers to signifying or symbolic systems in history cultural studies compare with cuItivation of the mind These should be related rather than constrasted Both are part of all cultural processes What is Culture In the widest sense culture is the sum total of all human efforts to survive to create to perceive to signify to communicate It covers both material things and the things of the mind Culture is about learning and passing the acquired knowledge to others Humans create culture but culture also creates humans EHuhtamo What is Design Culture Design culture includes not only the production of useful objects and here we should add processes services and techniques as well but also their distribution and consumption Maurizio Vitta Expanded Definition of Design Culture Design culture does not only comprise concrete designed things it also contains dreams utopias fears disappointments struggles and deadends The discursive dimension of design culture should not be forgotten It has been suggested that design is what separates human activity from nature Definition of Design by Heskett Design stripped to its essence can be defined as the human capacity to shape and make our environment in ways without precedent in nature to serve our needs and give meaning to our lives John Heskett Toothpicks and Logos 2002 But is design really only the privilege of human beings The Greatest Designer God is the great designer of the Universe a freemasonic trope Oxford English Dictionary I649 Compare the notion of Grand Design with the idea ideology of Intelligent Design In the middle ages nature was often considered as a miraculous book written by God When read with a proper method refering to the right code the Bible it could be made to reveal information about the Christian mythology I am like pelican of the wilderness Psalms I 026 The Pelican is a bird for Egypt from which it gets it name for Egypt is known as Canopos It is devoted to its young When it gives birth and the young begin to grow they strike their parents in the face But their parents striking back kill them On the third day however the motherbird with a blow to her flank opens up her side and lies on her young and lets her blood pour over the bodies ofthe dead and so raises them from the dead In a mystic sense the Pelican signi es Christ Egypt the world Anon Physiologus 2nd 4th centuries Galileo Galilei about the book of nature Philosophy is written in this grand book I mean the universe which stands continually open to our gaze but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language in which it is written It is written in the language of mathematics and its characters are triangles circles and other geometric figures without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it without these one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth I623 Nature turns into culture through human actions both material and symbolic To function we have to make sense of our environment which we perceive and signify as signs To be able to form and read these signs we need codes Semiotics is the science that analyzes culture as encoding and decoding of signs It is a useful instrument for both designers and design scholars Nature as Designer Does nature design Is there design in nature Komar amp Melamid s Asian Elephant Art and Conservation Project is at once a serious nonprofit organization that cooperates closely with the World Wildlife Fund and a continuation of themes familiar from the artists previous work Having lost the jobs because of strict antilogging laws in the late l980s Thailand s 3000 domesticated elephants have been forced to move into the crowded cities where they perform circus tricks barely earning enough for their handlers mahouts to feed them By establishing three Elephant Art Academies Komar amp Melamid have empowered these poverty stricken pachyderms to make ends meet by picking up brushes and taking the artworld by storm wwwelephantartcomcatalogsplashphpgtltt Design against nature Being a human being is a design against naturequot Vil m Flusser The Shape of Things A Philosophy ofDesign I999 Design Culture or rather Design Cultures Commercial design pretends to be global and universal but it often reflects Western values How can we create design cultures that respect both local and global central and peripheral values and concerns Design and cultural adaptation amp appropriation South Africa s Zulu people are famous for their tight and colorful ukhamba baskets They have invented a new kind of basket imbenge woven of recycled telephone wire African tin toys and other design objects made of mostly western scrap metal what message do they send CanTin Village Project for AIDS Orphans in Lesotho German initiated project to build a village from littered cans 25 houses four workshops one kindregarden one nursery one clinic one infrastructure Idea of forming childheaded families of Lesotho orphans many by them orphaned by AIDS Financed by private and corporate sponsors Built by the families themselves after being trained by CanProducts experts Inhabitants will form an association to create sustainable income through running the nursery kindergarten and sale of goods from the workshops At the same time councelling and education of HIVAIDS Prototype shown at Hannover Expo 2000 Professor Erkki Huhtamo UCLA Dept of Design Media Arts Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Lecture Notebook 6 This notebook does not contain complete slides from the lecture It is only meant as an aid to your memory To get the complete idea you must attend the lectures lllustrations will not be included 7 they are only shown in class Meeting 6 Nov32006 Design in the l950s and 60s New Design Issues in the l950s and 60s Automation first experienced in industrial production penetrates the home in the form of automated gadgets like automatic washing machines Automation penetrates the home via the kitchen points towards the ideal of the smart house The Wonder kitchen that seems to cook by itself one of the symbols of the age quotDrive in as a new design idea hamburger restaurants drive in movie theatres shopping malls Reflects social changes the new ideal of living in suburbia in a one family house appeals to the post war baby boom generation Private car seen as essential to this lifestyle also a status symbol dream cars both for cruising with friends and transporting children Car design focuses on the surface and often forgets performance and safety issues The emergence of new youth cultures becomes a challenge for design and a promise of a new market The emergence of rock n roll and pop playing pinball taming the rebellion of the youth into a consumer lifestyle the transformation of the public image of Elvis Presley James Dean as an icon Mobile design transistor radiosportable TV sets mopeds and scooters These appeal above all to young consumers The idea of mobility equated with freedom Corporate Identity and Consumerism Important direction in design after the Second World War Reasons harder competition on the growing consumer market interest in brands Formation of industrial giants fight for monololizing the market A corporation has to have a uniform design appearance extending to all its manifestations Pioneered by Behrens at ABC All products by a corporation must have a recognizable identity from micro to macro level Pioneers Braun Olivetti IBM Graphic design came to play an important role in defining corporate identity a classic Paul Rand but basically any forms of design were important A corporation had to have an immediately recognizable identity that was present in everything from letterheads to advertising strategies logos product packages and the products themselves Classics of Corporate Design At Braun Dieter Rams chief designer of Braun AG Germany l960 97 Task to create a recognizable corporate identity Less but better In a way continued the kind of work Peter Behrens had already pioneered at ABC in the early ZOH century At IBM Eliot Noyes worked with Gropius and Marcel Breuer in the l930s director of industrial design at MOMA Became design consultant at IBM in l956 Re designed IBM s corporate identity pervaded everything from buildings to graphic design and products Design linked to technical innovations Selectric Typewriter l96l Invited Paul Rand to work on the graphic identity Olivetti Italian company specialising in office furniture and technology An early pioneer in corporate design star designers in l950s and 60s Ettore Sottsass Mario Bellini quotexercising yoga on design stripping from it every attribute sex appeal deception Came to represent the stylishness of European product design Braun Design Braun company Germany a pioneer in corporate design New aesthetics for domestic kitchen appliances in the 1950s Domestic gadgets must be visually distinct from office or factory eguipment Austere simple style timeless immediately recognizable Design department in l956 Dieter Rams became chief designer in l960 Dieter Rams about design Omit the Unimportant One of the most significant design principles is to omit the unimportant in order to emphasize the important Good design means as little design as possible Every manufactured item sends out signals to the mind or emotions These signals 7 strong or weak wanted or unwanted clear or hidden 7 create feelings But the most important factor is whether the item can communicate its use MUch design today is modish sensation and the rapid change of fashion outdates products quickly For me there is only one way discipline Paul Rand about graphic design Ideas do not need to be esoteric to be original or exciting The key to good design is taking the essence of something that is already there and enhancing its meaning by putting it into a form everyone can identify with Pop Art and Design Pop art emerged in the late l950s first in Britain and then in the USA Response to the post World War II consumer culture mostly associated with the USA Leading artists Richard Hamilton UK Andy Warhol Claes Oldenburg Roy Lichtenstein USA Leading theorists Lawrence Alloway Reyner Banham Lucy Lippard Nicolas and Elena Calas Ambiguous relationship to consumer culture and product design complex combination of irony and reverence Began to blur the traditional boundary between art and design from unique objects to multiples bridging art and the everyday art influences design design influences art difficult to draw a difference between them Pop art claimed to have no message pure recycling of the surface imagery and gadgetry of the time but the situation is not so simple Still pop art treated consumer culture as second nature and pointed the way to the culture of simulation and postmodernism lnfluenced by commercial graphic product design lt gt became itself a powerful influence for design posters furniture textiles ln design reflected in the use of new synthetic materials like acrylic plastic and bright pop colors Inflatable plastic furniture a typical manifestation of the pop sensibility Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction 2008 NOTES Meeting I Sep26 2008 What is Design What is Not Design What is Design Culture These notes are NOT meant to replace the experience of attending the lectures They don t contain everything that was discussed in the class They are only an aid to the memory Design defined in the widest possible sense Design is the conscious and intuitive effort to impose meaningful order Viktor Papanek l97l Papanek s controversial All Men are Designers argument All men are designers All that we do almost all the time is design for design is basic to all human activity The planning and patterning of any act toward a desired foreseeable end constitutes the design process Any attempt to separate design to make it a thing by itself works counter to the fact that design is the primary underlying matrix of lifequot Victor Papanek Design for the Real World l97l Bricolage as a way of creating naive design These designs can be characterized as bricolages compositions made out of preexisting elements so that they express their maker s identity either consciously or unconsciously Social anthropologist Claude LeviStrauss saw bricoIage as a logic of the concrete a signifying practice different from abstract philosophical or mathematical thought the example of bricolage discussed in class was the tradition of Mexican home altars created by ordinary people by combining everyday objects such as photographs pieces of furniture and religious objects Design and culture Papanek s definition above comes close to equating design with culture we create culture by designing design is basic to our existence and evolution as humans But what is culture Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language Raymond Williams Keywords I976 Etymology of the word Latin cultura cultivation tending compare with the origins of the word broadcasting which was also an agricultural term meaning a way of throwing seeds on the field so that they cover as wide an area as possible Television or radio broadcasting also try to cover a wide area with the information feeds they disseminate Culture three main categories of usage according to Raymond Williams I A general process of intellectual spiritual and aesthetic development 2 A particular way of life whether of a people a period a group or humanity in general 3 The works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity from Keywords Culture the relationship between material and symbolic production is important refers to material production in archaeology cultural anthropology compare agriculture the creation and use of material objects refers to signifying or symbolic systems in history cultural studies compare cuItivation of the mind the giving and communication of meanings These should be related rather than constrasted Both are always part of all cultural processes including design What is Culture In the widest sense culture is the sum total of all human efforts to survive to create to perceive to signify to communicate It covers both material things and the things of the mind Culture is about learning and passing the acquired knowledge to others Humans create culture but culture also creates humans EHuhtamo What is Design Culture Design culture includes not only the production of useful objects and here we should add processes services and techniques as well but also their distribution and consumption Maurizio Vitta Expanded Definition of Design Culture The following note could be added to Maurizio Vitta s definition to make it more over arching Design culture does not only comprise concrete things it also contains dreams utopias fears disappointments struggles and deadends The discursive dimension of design culture should not be forgotten Still design does not exist only in the mind it should be externalized turned into useful material objects Design culture and nature It has been suggested that design as a cultural activity is what separates human activity from nature According to this idea design has to do with learning a master teaches the design principles to the students and so on Learning also includes the process of givin meaning to the designed objects Such learning does not happen in nature where other kind of principles rule If design is always about learning it could be argued that design as such does not happen in the processes of nature Design the humancentered argument Design stripped to its essence can be defined as the human capacity to shape and make our environment in ways without precedent in nature to serve our needs and give meaning to our lives John Heskett Toothpicks and Logos 2002 But is design really only the privilege of human beings Could sometimes similar exist in nature Could animals also be designers at least sometimes These are provocative and problematic issues for design theory and philosophy Yet as thought experiments at least we should take them into consideration The Greatest Designer argument The idea of god as a kind of supreme designer has been presented over the centuries ln visual traditions the god as a designer is often represented by a hand coming from above interfering with the world of the humans some examples were presented in class God is the great designer of the Universe a freemasonic trope Oxford English Dictionary I649 The notion of Grand Design of the universe has been linked with theological ideas about the origin and nature of the universe The recent controversial debate around Intelligent Design can also be linked to this much longer discussion It may not have concrete relevance to design as professional activity but is interesting as a philosophical and ideological issue The Nature as a Book argument In the Middle ages nature was often considered as a miraculous book written by God When read with a proper method refering to the right code in the Christian tradition the Bible it was believed that it could be made to reveal information about the god s design of the universe In a sense the Bible was interpreted as a kind of design manual An example of an allegorical theological reading of interpreting such a design I am like pelican of the wilderness Psalms I 026 The Pelican is a bird for Egypt from which it gets it name for Egypt is known as Canopos It is devoted to its young When it gives birth and the young begin to grow they strike their parents in the face But their parents striking back kill them On the third day however the motherbird with a blow to her flank opens up her side and lies on her young and lets her blood pour over the bodies of the dead and so raises them from the dead In a mystic sense the Pelican signi es Christ Egypt the world Anon Physiologus 2nd 4th centuries gtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Galileo Galilei the great pioneer of modern science took the older idea of the book of nature but saw mathetics as the code or basic design principle of the universe Philosophy is written in this grand book I mean the universe which stands continually open to our gaze but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language in which it is written It is written in the language of mathematics and its characters are triangles circles and other geometric figures without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it without these one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth Galilei I623 Semiotics Nature and natural phenomena get turned into culture through human actions both material and symbolic This happens even when looking at a cloud as we grow up we learn all kinds of information about clouds A dark cloud may be a natural phenomenon but we need cultural learning codes to identify it as a rain cloud for example Traffic lights are an example of a designed cultural system we learn to use To survive develop and communicate we have to constantly make sense of our environment which we perceive and signify as signs To be able to form and read these signs we need codes wider culturally developed agreements we all learn keep in our minds and share with others Culture happens by means of sending and interpreting signs Semiotics is a science that analyzes culture as a complex process of giving meaning It takes place by means of encoding and decoding of signs Semiotics is a very useful instrument for both designers and design scholars Design is basically a semiotic activity A designed object presents itself as a complex of signs that the potential user needs to interpret by means of codes Fashion design is a good example designed clothes must be practical but they have other functions as well sending messages about the person who wears them The designed object needs to signify something important often on multiple levels otherwise it will fail See Hawkes in the reader and the leaflet of basic concepts on the class website Turning nature into culture Anthropomorphism We have a tendency of seeing human faces or animal shapes in natural phenomena like clouds in stones etc but also in designed objects whether the designer meant it or not This is an example of the pervasive influence of semiotic processes for our mind and perception As humans we reflect our likenesses onto our surroundings and also use this as a design principle For examples see httpwwwtricksandillusionscom200709faceillusionseverywherearoundushtml thanks to student Evan Kenji Sasaki for the tip Can an elephant be a designer or artist Komar amp Melamid s Asian Elephant Art and Conservation Project is at once a serious nonprofit organization that cooperates closely with the World Wildlife Fund and a continuation of themes familiar from the artists previous work Having lost the jobs because of strict antilogging laws in the late l980s Thailand s 3000 domesticated elephants have been forced to move into the crowded cities where they perform circus tricks barely earning enough for their handlers mahouts to feed them By establishing three Elephant Art Academies Komar amp Melamid have empowered these poverty stricken pachyderms to make ends meet by picking up brushes and taking the artworld by storm wwwelephantartcomcatalogsplashphpxt Design against nature argument Being a human being is a design against naturequot This is a complex and controversial statement by the philosopher Vil m Flusser What does it mean Something to think about Vil m Flusser The Shape of Things A Philosophy ofDesign l 999 Design Culture or rather Design Cultures Commercial design Example Benetton pretends to be global and universal but still it often reflects Western values How can we create design cultures that respect both local and global central and peripheral values and concerns This is a very difficult issue that is becoming more and more important How can nonWestern cultures develop design strategies that reflect their own needs and values and also have potential for economic growth Design and cultural adaptation amp appropriation South Africa s Zulu people are famous for their tight and colorful ukhamba baskets They have invented a new kind of basket imbenge woven of recycled telephone wire A useless item caused by western technological development is given a new use Amazingly beautiful design items are created out of junk But problems remain how does one market them so that the designer and hisher community profits and prospers Another example lngenious African tin toys and other design objects are made of mostly western scrap metal What message do they send For whom Often these are just sold as cheap souvenirs for western tourists An example of Western African design collaboration an experiment in sustainable design CanTin Village Project for AIDS Orphans in Lesotho German initiated project to build a village from littered cans 25 houses four workshops one kindregarden one nursery one clinic one infrastructure Idea of forming childheaded families of Lesotho orphans many by them orphaned by AIDS Financed by private and corporate sponsors Built by the families themselves after being trained by CanProducts experts lnhabitants will form an association to create sustainable income through running the nursery kindergarten and sale of goods from the workshops At the same time councelling and education of HIVAIDS Prototype shown at Hannover Expo 2000 An amtious effort to bring western media technology to the poorest children of the world One Laptop Per Child OLPC Project 2006 The aim is to produce l00 dollar laptop to be distributed to children in developing countries through governmental channels Specifications of the XO laptop lowpowered AMD processor 433Mhz 3 USB ports I Flash Expansion SD card slot 256MB flash memory NO hard drive advanced WiFi connectivity new type swiveling dual mode screen monochrome color Uses less than 2 watts of power regular laptop 2540 watts Handcranked generator Linuxbased OS uses open source software incl web browser built on Firefox engine Production projected 5 l0 million units in 2007 up to ISO million units in 2008 Price will drop down to 50unit by 20l0 NOT FOR SALE Distributed through government initiatives Test areas Brazil Nigeria Thailand Argentina To be followed by China India Egypt Mexico Start of mass production Fall 2007 made by Quanta Korea This is very very ambitious complex and also problematic design project Read more from httplaptoporg or httpwikilaptoporg gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Design issues between people can be complicated enough how about those between humans and extraterrestrials We analyzed a plaque that was designed as a message from the humankind to extraterrestrials It was launched with Pioneer l0 and l l I972 outside the solar system It was designed by Dr Carl Sagan and Dr Frank Drake But maybe they should have studied some semiotics How could some potential extraterrestrials possibly understand any of it Study this issue in more depth from httpenwikipediaorgwikiPioneerplaque Designer Edward Tufte proposed a cunning redesign See httpwwwedwardtuftecomtuftespace Visible and lnvisible design Many designs are meant as attractions to draw attention to themselves to their owner their designer or their manufacturer Sometimes the attraction functions nearly unconsciously like the traffic lights sometime it wants conscious attention Most everyday designs are invisible Above all they are meant as functional to make our daily lives possible They may be good or bad but they are everywhere Paper Clip as an example of invisible design Paperclip is an unknown invention from the 2nd half of the nineteenth century First patent l899 by Norwegian Johan Vaaler but existed earlier Professor Erkki Huhtamo UCLA Dept of Design Media Arts Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Lecture Notebook 8 This notebook does not contain complete slides from the lecture It is only meant as an aid to your memory To get the complete idea you must attend the lectures Illustrations will not be included they are only shown in class Meeting 9 Dec82006 Design in the Postmodern Era Sayings about Design in the Postmodern Era Function is Out Form is In Time Magazine March 2000 quotDesign has taken on its own life and this raises a problem often encountered in consumer culture The energy is pure delight But can we turn it off Herbert Muschamp 2000 Postmodernism Concept that has dominated cultural debate and theory from the l970s postmodernism followed the collapse of heroic modernism modernism break with the past arrogance of the New belief in human capabilities of modernizing society and solving global problems with science and design Postmodernism expresses scepticism and sometimes nihilism towards progress seen as typical of modernism endless recycling of material from cultural archives replaces unique innovation Celebration and enjoyment of the surface reckless hedonism Postmodernism as a cultural current is seen as penetrating all or almost all forms of cultural production and signification Timing Postmodernism When did the move to postmodernism happen Dating a matter of debate claimed to have happened since the I950s I960s I970sdepending on critic pointofview country and the field in question Was it the nuclear bomb that started it all Andreas Huyssen Across the Great Divide claimed that postmodernism does not follow modernism it is a historical current alternating with modernisms found periodically since the late I9th century Art Nouveau was postmodern then overshadowed by high modernism again discovered in the I960s with Pop Psychedelia etc Postmodernism Origins Origins open to debate usually seen beginning in the I960s Word appears in Charles Jencks The Language of PostModern Architecture I977 Robert Venturi s Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture I966 argued that modern architecture was meaningless because it lacked the complexity and irony of historical buildings Venturi Denise Scott Brown Steven lzenour Learning from Las Vegas I972 praising the cultural honesty of built commercialism in Las Vegas earlier despised by modernists as decadent and messy We look backward at history and tradition to go forward we can also look downward to go upward typical quote from Learning from Las Vegas Some features of Postmodernism simulation replaces representation representation told us something about reality we were confident that there was a link with the reality out there simulation creates an artificial realm that only pretends to refer to the real we no longer know the ontological status what seems to be represented scepticism about reaching any single truth beyond the surface avoidance veiling masks questioning of the truth of the master narratives of culture religion philosophy scientific worldviews Reality is in flux impossibility of grasping it before it turns into something else emphasis on external style surface visuality skin culture as an endless play of signifiers humor and irony replace modernist seriousness More features of Postmodernism Plundering of cultural archives anything that has ever existed is potential material for creativity Anything can be connected with almost anything else without respect for their historical relationships or truthfulness Eclecticism Anything Goes selfreflexivity irony interteXtuality deliberate ambiquity The obscuring of boundaries between high and low culture but also between fields like art and design already evident in the case of of pop Anxiety and pessimism hidden behind the carefree surface Robert Venturi on Postmodernism I966 Elements which are hybrid rather than pure compromising rather than cIear distorted rather than straightforward ambiguous rather than articuIated perverse as well as impersonal conventional rather than designed accomodating rather than excluding redundant rather than simple vestigial as well as innovating inconsistent and equivocal rather than direct and clear Jean Baudrillard on Postmodernism The visual crisis of culture creates postmodernityquot quotContemporary images are the sites of disappearance of meaning and representation Simulation dominates simulation precedes the real it turns reality into its own image eg the disneyfication of reality Simulation According to critic Gene Youngblood the word quotsimulationquot has two main meanings l 39fake copy eg digital photographs that only pretend to represent something real 2 39model of the possible eg using computersimulated models for cars or airplanes to test their qualities before the prototype has been built Bricolage Mode of adaptation where things are put to uses for which they were not intended and in ways that dislocate them from their normal or expected context Advertisers often use counterbricolage Originally used by social anthropologist Claude LeviStrauss in the l95060s about the logic of the concrete of nonWestern indigeneous cultures opposite to Western abstract reasoning Appropriation Pastiche Appropriation The act of borrowing stealing or taking over others39 meanings to one39s own ends Pastiche miXing things with no reference to their real history or the sense of rules about what is quotrightquot lnterteXtuality The interplay and miXing of different cultural tegtltts Cultural production that constantly refers to other earlier cultural products leads to endless recycling of cultural meanings that lose their specific referents however they can also be used for critical ends gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt Features of Postmodern Design Culture Recycling ideas taken from cultural archives frequent references to earlier design movements in new design products Design identified with glamour quotdesigner as a media starquot high design At the same time the idea of affordable design objects for everyone chains of stores like IKEA Muji Target design as a way of life design everywhere lifestyle shoppingquot brand awareness partly as a result massproduction of fakes fabricated attitude lifestyle oriented chains of stores GAP Urban Outfitters UniGIo More Features of Postmodern Design Culture quotProduct constellationsquot related products as part of a lifestyle RoleXBMWRay Ban branding governs everything including places like casinos even cities Design can help Geary s architecture identified with Bilbao symbolic investment product semantics the product as a symbolic expression as well as an object for use Philippe Starck l949 Form Precedes Function The role of the designer is to create more happiness with less I am very interested in the unconscious because it never lies whilst the conscious is always a lie I work on the commonplace on the collective unconscious Everything is only a game that one has to play with the greatest possible respect the greatest possible sense of responsibility and at the same time with humour and lightness of touch More Philippe Starck s famous sayings A Poor Christmas gift designer like me who is obliged to speak out Design doesn t interest me I don t read about design or go to exhibitions about design I use this vehicle like other people use political discourse songs or books Wake up stand up stop being a consumer I am not an icon a star It s not a superman thing Everyone can do it The Memphis Group Postmodernism as a Design Strategy Founded in Milan by Ettore Sottsass and Michele De Lucchi l98l quotDesign should address the symbolic needs of the customer Mephis manifesto Bringing different elements together in surprising ways wide range of products endless search for new expressions Memphis furniture will soon go out of fashion The Memphis Manifesto Memphis like fashion works on the fabric of contemporaneity and contemporaneity means computers electronics videogames sciencefiction comics Blade Runner Space Shuttle biogenetics laser bombs a new awareness of the body exotic diets and banquets mass exercise and tourism I984 The New International Styles Origins associated with new design groups like Memphis in the l980s Design addressed to the global market defining trends through prestigious exhibitions How to design products that would appeal in a similar fashion to any consumer around the globe The idea of reissuing Master Designs modernist furniture by Le Corbusier Rietveld Wright by Vitra etc Particularly important in new categories of global products like mobile phones how do you recognize a Nokia phone How do you differentiate it from its competitors Development extremely rapid needs enhanced design strategies a science of design Postmodern High Design Design as Art design as a symbolic elite product function to the background limited editions Alessi s Tea and Coffee Piazzas Robert Venturi Charles Jencks Michael Graves Paolo Portoghesi pairing designers and architects with fashion designers to produce exclusive luxury products Michael Graves and Giorgio Armani Richard Meier and Calvin Klein etc Product Semantics Rose into prominence in the l980s Focus on design objects as signs design objects seen as complex and often ambiguous linguistic enunciations statements The meaning of a design is asserted to be more important than any practical purpose gt the emotional relationship to the user is emphasized connection with lifestyles The Philosophy of Product Semantics quotdesigning by associationquot defining the emotional values designers want the consumers to attach to the product partly caused by developments in microchip technology miniaturization of internal workings gave designers more opportunities to experiment with the form It did not need to be tightly determined by internal requirements Risk the emotions and meanings intended by the designer may not always be recognized and accepted by the consumer Mood Boards quotmapsquot that try to respond to the range of demands by the consumer The arrangement and presentation of related products logotypes environments or other design material onto blank sheets in order to construct an artefactual and associational context for the thing being designed Emotional Design quotMy personal philosophy in fact is that form and function are not any more a sufficient response to satisfy customers Design has also to take care of the emotional aspects the signi cance of an object should overcome the mere shape of it The design of a product its shape the colour the signs and marks should be able to establish a non verbal communication between man and objectquot industrial designer Roberto Pezzatta Zanussi I995 Professor Erkki Huhtamo UCLA Dept of Design Media Arts Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Lecture Notebook 4 This notebook does not contain complete slides from the lecture It is only meant as an aid to your memory To get the complete idea you must attend the lectures lllustrations will not be included 7 they are only shown in class Meeting 4 Oct202006 Design for Public Spaces REMINDER Please bring your alarm clock or whatever you use as your alarm clock to the next meeting Design and the mechanization of office work With increasing competition speed of life and demands for effectivity also office workers had to be taylorized see lecture 3 Beside office buildings furniture and machines also office workers became objects of design Perfect office workers were developed and tested scientifically to discover the right movements and work routines This was often claimed to profit the office worker to avoid exhaustion and physical problems caused by monotonous work but its real motive was to increase effectiveness and to eliminate or at least minimize the worker s quotdown time Mechanization design and aesthetics The mechanization of production was a challenge for design and aesthetic sensibilities Engineering design gained importance the need to develop and test new mechanisms and materials Machines and gadgets needed to be durable although interchangeability made it possible to replace broken parts oneself the idea of frequently replacing the device itself was not current The big issue can engineering design as such sell anything and for whom Machines were often seen as alien frightening Mary Shelley s novel Frankenstein became a cultural icon the need to make machines more approachable by designing their surface as well Designers often used current stylistic trends from neo classicism to neo gothic to embellish the machines this led to fierce debates Graphic design began to gain an important role in affecting the imago of the designed product Design debate in the Victorian era second half of the l9th century Aesthetes vs utilitarians Aesthetes like John Ruskin rejected new industrial products as tasteless Engineers should not encourage any play of imagination they are producers of useful ugliness Zarah Colburn 1871 lndustrial Ornament was one proposed compromise Critic Henry Cole l808 82 tried to mediate Design has a twofold relation having in the first place a strict reference to utility in the thing designed and secondarily to the beautifying or ornamenting that utility Ornamentation and the role of the machine Is ornamentation in design objects necessary What purposes does it serve Can a machine massproduce anything beautiful on equal level with human made art How does machine production differ from manual human production John Ruskin l8l9 l900 believed that the machine is incapable of quotreproducing the irregularity and variety the Organic Form of nature Ruskin was an influential writer and critic supporting the Gothic revival and Arts amp Crafts Problematic relationship to industrial production and modern technology The reaction Arts and Crafts Founded by William Morris l834 96 an idealist and socialist Advocated a return to workshop like small scale design production Wanted to free natural organic impulses from the psychic restraints created by mechanization and mechanistic thought The vast improvements in machinery spread the division of labor by enabling a small group of designers to furnish the pattern to be repeated endlessly by machines watched over by unskilled workersquot Morris l900 The Challenge of the Modern Around l900 the world was changing speed new technology urbanization new communications new media changing social formations and gender roles The big question was how will design be able to reflect these changes and contribute to them Art Nouveau tried to be the first truly modern and international design trend a total aesthetic encompassing all forms of creativity and most importantly bridging art and design Claimed to be free from the stylistic trends of the past but in fact was very eclectic Main characteristic interest in simulating natural phenomena and ornaments was this something paradoxical in the dawning machine age Art Nouveau as a design movement active c l890s c l9l0 Name from quotL Art Nouveau design shop in Paris S Bing l895 quotPavillion de l Art Nouveau Exposition Universelle Paris l900 Different names in different places Art Nouveau France Jugendstil Germany quotStile Liberty ltaly Modernisme Spain Jugend Finland Attempted to create an universal style covering all forms of expression quotan umbrella style Abandoned the historicism of the past attempt to create a modern form of expression lnfluences Ruskin quotturn to nature for inspiration Arts and Crafts folk art Rococo and Baroque non Western sources Japanese design lslamic ornamentsm The creation of Art Nouveau was influenced by many issues Political young states asserting themselves internationally Social permeated modern environment from underground to department store Cultural new unity of visual arts embracing both art and design Technological use of industrial material wrought iron glass use of industrial production methods Art Nouveau was Against Historicism quotWe want it to be modern so that any reminiscence of the past is ruthlessly excluded critic Roger Marx about a planned exhibition l907 ln spite of modern tendencies Art Nouveau was often seen as a decadent fin de siecle phenomenon it was rejected by later modernists like Le Corbusier A strong influence on Art Deco l920 30s and later on the Psychedelia of the l960s In spite of the claims by its supporters Art Nouveau was stylistically extremely eclectic lnfluences Arts and Crafts The Aesthetic Movement French Symbolism Rococo and Baroque lslam JapanEast Asia Folk Art nature Classics of Art Nouveau Aubrey Beardsley l872 98 drawings Louis Comfort Tiffany l848 l933 glassware Louis Majorelle l859 l926 furniture Hector Guimard l867 l942 ironwork Paris metro Emile Galle l846 l904 glassware Alphonse Mucha l860 l939 posters Victor Horta l86l l947 architecture Antonio Gaudi y Cornet l852 l926 architecture Henry van de Velde l863 l957 tableware interiors Charles Rennie Mackintosh l868 l928 architecture furniture interiors pioneer of the rectilinear style Henri Van de Velde about reconciling art design industry Artist producer and salesman don t coincide anymore with the collapse of the crafts system A new unity must be found by collaboration Nbchine must be spiritualized Henri Van de Velde became the leader of the new Deutsche Werkbund in l907 an attempt to achieve this goal This development ultimately led to Bauhaus the most famous design school of all times more in the next lecture Defending the machine young Frank Lloyd Wright l867 l956 The most famous American architect As a young man worked in the office of Louis Sullivan who popularized the most famous slogan in design history Form Follows Function l890s quotThe machine has potential to emancipate the modern mind By simplifying it can reveal the true nature of materials Frank Lloyd Wright W y god is machinery and the art of the future will be the expression of the individual artist through the thousand powers of the machinequot Frank Lloyd Wright Avant garde modernism and design The avant garde art movements of the early 20th century offered revolutionary ideas for design bridging art and design high and low culture embracing machine aesthetics Movements like Futurism Constructivism de Stijl and Purism invented new artistic languages in dynamic harmony with the phenomena of the modern world lnfluenced many forms of design graphic design fashion design furniture design kitchenware design exhibition design architectural design quotAs long as our cities our houses our rooms our cupboards our utensils our jewellery as long as our speech and sentiments fail to express in an elegant beautiful and simple fashion the spirit of our own times we will continue to be immeasurably far behind our Desma l0 Design Culture an Introduction Meeting 3 Octl0 2008 Design Work Technology Design the Etymology of the Word From disegno Italian drawing During the Italian Renaissance in the l6th century disegno was used about the sketches for largescale paintings Therefore it served as a set of instructions for the master painter s helpers It could also be used about the designs for inventions like those skecthed by Leonardo da Vinci in his notebook most of Leonardo s inventions could not be realized in his own time Pattern books disseminated designs in the form of technical drawings Pattern books were models for production of objects like dishes textiles etc The designs were taken from patern books eiither directly or modifiedto suit the purpose Pattern books served design education storing the knowledge of existing designs and passing it from master to student from generation to generation Pattern books were the visual memory of the emerging design culture The Intelligence thought or idea Design is what all forms of production for use have in common It provides the intelligence the thought or idea that organizes all levels of production whether in graphic design engineering and industrial design architecture or the largest integrated systems found in urban planning Richard Buchanan The beginnings of the design culture in the West The birth of industrial design in the late l8th century plays an important role marking a transition from artisanal to industrial production In artisanal production no clear separation between design and manufacture exists Designs are traditional passed from master to disciple or copied from pattern books The birth of the designer s profession is related with this transition The designer s role gets separated from the manufacturing and marketing of designed items Designer becomes a specialist with a professional identity gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtllt The background for the emergence of the design culture For centuries beside everyday objects prestigious curiosities were created for the Rich and the Powerful by master craftsmen These were unique objects that often had little real use value Rather they were signs of power and prestige Their uniqueness was an essential aspect of these princely treasures Although they required many forms of design they are usually not considered part of the design culture proper where mass production and clear separation between designing and producing things takes place Automata between crafts and design Automata were a typical form of such curiosities unique showpieces made by clockmakers and mechanical engineers An automaton was a mechanical device often in the form of a human or an animal that performed certain tasks automatically normally powered by a clockwork mechanism Their purpose was to astonish get fame for the maker and demonstrate his skills Automata were complex and specialized artisanal products they were unique only one was made and the designer and the maker were the same Among the most famous automata are the androids automata that look and behave like humans Charles Marianne and Henry created by the JaquetDroz family firm l770s Unlike most other historical automata they have survived and are kept today at Mus e d art et d histoire Neuchatel Switzerland The JaquetDroz company still exists and produces exclusive wristwatches it is now part of the Swatch group From Automata to Mass Production Thomas Edison s talking and singing doll was a continuation of the tradition of the automata but it was massproduced for a while in the l890s It had a miniature phonograph mechanism inside and could sign a song like Mary had a Little Lamb Edison had invented the phonograph the first talking machine in l877 He was constantly looking for new applications for his invention the novelty doll was one of them Production stopped soon because the phonograph mechanism was too fragile and the doll relativer expensive as well The mechanized Department Store window In the second half of the l9th centuty department store began evolving They were a great boost for the design culture An essential element of the Department Store was the window display where passersby could practice window shopping Window displays also became a special attractions for example in the Christmas spectacle at Macy s New York offering dioramas realized with moving automata figures on a kind of stage Thus the old tradition of the automata found a new home from mechanized shop windows in the late l9th century It was enclosed behind glass beyond the reach of the spectators Its aim was to create desire for shopping go inside the department store and buy things you can touch Tamagotchi and Furby are also descendants of the automata tradition but the are also different They are interactive portable and tactile to be touched The old automata were for your eyes only not for your fingers How did industrial design begin In the l7th and l8th century statefinanced manufacturies were established in Europe for products like gobelins and porcelain figurines They usually offered prestige products for the upper classes Designs came from appointed court artists or from pattern books This happened under the economic policy of mercantilism resources skills and products were controlled by the interests of the state embodied in the ruler Jacques de Vaucanson l709 l 782 became famous as a master automata maker ln I738 presented The Flute Player and in I739 The Tambourine Player and The Duck his most famous creation could flap its wingseat and digest grain ln l74l became inspector of silk manufacture Farreaching reorganization of production and delivery lmproved existing looms and invented the idea of punchcards to automate production Hostile reaction from weavers Technique later perfected byJacquard the father of the modern loom Use of punch cards anticipated the computer The Jacquard loom Joseph Marie Jacquard l80l was an important step toward mass production Like the Jaquet Droz androids the Jacquard loom was a programmable device but for a practical purpose Punched cards controlled hooks and needles This introduced the idea of a machine following an algorithm Designers and Craftsmen A craftsman makes and sometimes also designs a designer does not make but designs often for industrial production With the introduction of industrial design many craftsmen who had earlier worked at home as contractors were now forced to turn into factory workers They were also forced to work with the new production machines Ludditism This new social situation led to a reaction known as ludditism Ludditism was a social movement against the use of machines like power looms for mass production Luddites were machine breakers concerned with their jobs and lifestyles They were named after their mythical leader Ned Ludd In our time the word neoluddite has been used about thinkers who oppose the excessive use of new media technology For more read Kirkpatrick Sale Rebels Against the Future I995 Rationalization of production in England In England in the l8th century efforts began to systematize rationalize and standardize production centered in factories often powered by steam Search for cheaper materials Sheffield plate etc Pioneering industrialists Thomas Chippendale Josiah Wedgwood Matthew Boulton Products furniture dishes toys buttons and other small everyday objects textiles Industrialist Josiah Wedgwood I730 95 wanted quotto make such machines ofthe men that cannot Errquot prophetic statement about future developments anticipating Taylorism The Birth of the Industrial Designer John Flaxman I755 I826 neoclassical sculptor said to have been the first industrial designer Provided neoclassical tableware designs for Wedgwood s Etruria factory which was in StokeonTrent far from London Worked from London far from Wedgwood s Etruria factory as a designer at a distance He was a contractor and could work for several clients at the same time Like Flaxman many early designers were professional artists Designs always focused on standardization the elimination of chance and variation all products had to be identical Still different models for different purposes were needed as Wedgwood s catalogues demonstrate Marketing designed products Wedgwood s London showroom in a way the world s first design shop was a novelty Orders could be made by viewing samples From the I820s specialized design shops were opened in big cities They were often situated in arcades passages that first developed in Paris and spread to other cities as well In the arcades the city people could walk under a glass roof and look at things on shop windows They could also stop by at a caf The shop window became a way of promoting products The American System of mass production American industry became a model for effective and largescale mass production Origins around I800 in gun manufacture Eli Whitney Samuel Colt then clocks agricultural machinessewing machines typewriters de nition large scale manufacture of standardized products with interchangeable parts using powered machinetools in a sequence of simplified mechanical operations In the USA many new kinds of products were created in England rather new ways of producing old kinds of products fabrics tableware International breakthrough of the American Method the Crystal Palace Exhibition London I85I Crystal Palace exhibition was held in London I85 I This was the first World s Fair displaying the achievements of nations Joseph Paxton s giant glass house the venue for the exhibition used a massproduced iron grid which was a novelty as well also applied to bridges Eiffel Tower American products were considered practical but less ornamental beautiful than European ones Still American Method was adopted gradually in all industrialized nations Its greatest prophet was the car manufacturer Henry Ford I863 I947 he was admired and imitated also in the Soviet Union in the I920s and I930s Design debate in the Victorian era second half of the I9th century Aesthetes vs utilitarians Aesthetes rejected new industrial products as tasteless Engineers should not encourage any play of imagination they are producers of useful ugliness Zarah Colburn I87l Industrial Ornament one proposed compromise Critic Henry Cole I808 82 tried to mediate between the two extremes by saying Design has a twofold relation having in the first place a strict reference to utility in the thing designed and secondarily to the beautifying or ornamenting that utility Ornament and Crime The modern ornamentalist is either a cultural Iaggard or a pathological case He himself is forced to disown his work after three years His productions are unbearable to cultured persons now and will become so to others in a little while Adolf Loos Ornament and Crime I908 Ornamentation design and the machine ls ornamentation in designed objects necessary What purposes does it serve Can a machine be used to massproduce anything beautiful on equal level with human made art How does machine production differ from manual human production John Ruskin l8l9 I900 believed that the machine is incapable of quotreproducing the irregularity and variety the Organic Form of nature Ruskin was a writer and critic supporting the Gothic revival and Arts amp Crafts Problematic relationship to industrial production and modern technology The reaction Arts and Crafts Founded by William Morris l83496 an idealist and socialist Advocated a return to workshoplike small scale design production Wanted to free natural organic impulses from the psychic restraints created by mechanization and mechanistic thought The vast improvements in machinery spread the division of labor by enabling a small group of designers to furnish the pattern to be repeated endlessly by machines watched over by unskilled workersquot Innovative Designers in the late l9th century New simplicity and purity of form Christopher Dresser l834l904 Foreign influences in the service of new simplicity reduction of ornamentation EW Godwin l83386 Sideboardcl867 AngloJapanese furniture The Industrial Ornament an example The design evolution of the sewing machine We saw a picture of a woman using the first Singer sewing machine meant for home use l85 I It was unadorned and crudelooking like a machine for the factoryThe aesthetically crude storage box was used as a stand The machine created an aesthetic mismatch with the environment of the Victorian home Marketing redesigned sewing machines for the home l850s began emphasizing ornamentation as a way of matching they with the interior Sometimes this went too far as in some tasteless novelty sewing machines like the Squirrel and Cherub machines circa l858 Graphic design was recruited to promote Singer sewing machines to develop the compans brand identity Full Mechanization definition I hierarchy of standardized segmented and subsegmented parts and subparts all interchangeable 2 continuous sequential assembly line 3 fully Taylorized workforce performing standardized repeated actions The Origins of the Assembly Line Real assembly line was first introduced in the food processing industry in particular the slaughter houses of Cincinnati and Chicago l860s The assembly line was perfected in the car industry pioneered by Henry Ford s Highland Park Factory Detroit opened l9l3 At Highland Park unskilled or underskilled workers worked long hours and handled repetitive simple tasks They were often felt to be becoming parts of the machine themselves Early Car Production The production of Oldsmobile rose l90l05 from 600 to 6500 Tmodel Ford production 20 000 l9l0 600 000 l9l6 By I927 nearly fifteen million had been produced Production system perfected at Highland Park factory I9 I 3 l4 opened l9 l0 Commitment to a single design made it easy to use singlepurpose machine tools Only slight changes until I927 Finally strategy destroyed by competition General Motors From Fordism to Sloanism lmpulse for change came from General Motors under Alfred Sloan who hired Harley T Earl as head of new Art and Color Section in I928 ln I938 Styling Section had 300 people Basic issue cheapness vs novelty Led to styling frequent changes to external appearance less in technical components Styling closely associated with advertising design The idea of builtin obsolescence trading the old model in partial exchange for the new one production Marketing came to dominate car manufacture Some further explanations for the birth of the American car culture Model for economical high volume production Embodiment of the American Dream individualism mobility Speed became a symbol for design culture of the l920s Also linked with modernism Buying on credit introduced by car industry spread to many other fields stimulated consumer demand Materials cheap sheet metal and synthetic finishes inspired other products colorchrome plating Taylorism A scientific theory of work developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor l856 l 9 l 5 Also others contributed EtienneJules Marey in France the Science of Work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth etc Taylor s main work was The Principles ofScientific Management l9l l major influence on Henry Ford Main principles of Taylorism Develop a quotscientific analysisquot of every job including its rules motion standardized work implements and most effective working conditions Select workers with the right abilities for the job Train these workers scientifically based on physical analysis of body functions and motions to do the job and give them proper incentives to cooperate with the job science Support these workers by planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs
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