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by: Jennyfer Skiles


Jennyfer Skiles
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennyfer Skiles on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DESMA 0241 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see /class/177924/desma-0241-university-of-california-los-angeles in Design Media Arts at University of California - Los Angeles.




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Date Created: 09/04/15
Desma Cl0l20l Media Arts an Introduction Meeting 4 Harmonizing Art Engineering Science Life NOTE These simple lecture notes are NOT a substitute for reading the texts in the course reader The Dream for New Harmony Throughout the 20th century a line of development seeking to harmonize art technology science society can be traced The reasons are complex In one sense it may have been a reaction to the radical rupture proclaimed by modernity modernism because it connected although this was not necessarily clear for the observers at the time with Romanticism and the Wagnerian dream of the Gesamtkunstwerk Total work of art For Richard Wagner the Gesamtkunstwerk not only meant the synthesis of all the arts in a way his works were not operas they purported to be something much more encompassing it was also a spiritual unity and eventually got interpreted politically as well associated with German nationalism later embraced by nazism The 20th century Gesamtkunstwerk was understood in many ways from a spiritual to a material unity or a combination of both EXplicitly it tried to harmonize the arts with the requirements of the modern society where media technology and new modes of transportation prevail Keywords the machine industrial revolution new communication technologies design mass production total war totalitarianism It is important to note that the urge to harmonize and the urge to destroy often went hand in hand as in the case of the Italian Futurists An obsolete unity had to be destroyed to make room for a new one Neo or post Romantic utopian tendencies The quest for the synthesis of all the arts particularly of sound and image This manifested itself in the interest in Synesthesia as in Aleksandr Skriabin s Prometheus Poem ofFire I9 I 0 which was a musical composition accompanied by orchestrated coloured lights performed with a special instrument Theories of synesthesia inspired both early abstract film Walter Ruttmann Oskar Fischinger Len Lye and color light music Rimington Alexander Laszlo BaranoffRossine Thomas Wildfred Cosmic mystical tendencies encountered the modern scientific spirit in complex even paradoxical forms Good example is Kasimir Malevich the founder of Suprematism in Russia This kind of thinking can also be found from the art design architecture and writings of the De Stin group in Holland Piet Mondrian Gerrit Rietveld Theo van Doensburg etc Abstraction in art did not mean simply materialism focus on the painted surface instead of representation it meant a quest for a cosmic spiritual harmonies Also Vladimir Kandinsky s art and writings On the Spiritual in Art are related to this as well as many others Kandinsky s relationship with turn of the century esoterism and spiritualism was traced by Sixten Ringbom in his famous book The Sounding Cosmos Kasimir Malevich l878 I935 My paintings don t belong to the Earth alone the Earth was left behind like a house eaten by worms Russian painter and founder of Suprematism a symptomatic figure of the paradoxes of early modernism lnfluenced both by the Russian mystic thinker PDUspenski and Italian Futurism Cosmic consciousness theories of the 4th dimension theory of relativity noneuclidian geometry idea of space travel Suprematic machine a new principle of spatial composition All that is needed is to define the relationship between two elements moving in space Suprematist satellites Malevich was an influence for Yves Klein in the l950s He has also been seen as one of the founding influences for Telematic Art art that investigates virtual spaces by means of telecommunication Materialist Tendencies Gradually the esoteric element of early modernism became often questioned and more materialist interpretations emerged This was influenced by many factors including First World War the Russian Revolution and Fordism with its emphasis on effectivity and production Machineanalogies became common both the Taylorism the Science of Work Frank and Lillian Gilbreth USA and the Bolsheviks treated the human body as a kind of machine that could be trained The rhythm of the machine became an aesthetic ideal often researched in experimental film Fernand Leger s and Dudley Murphy s Ballet mecanique l925 s a good example but so are the montage experiments by Soviet filmmakers like Sergei Eisenstein and Dziga Vertov Machine as the new measure for art and aesthetics also figured in Fernand Leger s paintings Taylorism A scientific theory of work developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor l856 l 9 l 5 Also others contributed EtienneJules Marey in France the Science of Work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth etc Taylor s main work was The Principles of Scienti c Management l9l l major influence on Henry Ford Main principles of Taylorism Develop a quotscientific analysisquot of every job including its rules motion standardized work implements and most effective working conditions Select workers with the right abilities for the job Train these workers scientifically based on physical analysis of body functions and motions to do the job and give them proper incentives to cooperate with the job science Support these workers by planning their work and by smoothing the way as they go about their jobs Constructivism Turned against idealism and toward materialism and a notion of art as related to factory work and engineering Deliberater tried to bring art design science and engineering together Constructivist artists often posed as artistengineermechanics as we saw in the selfportrait of the Czech constructivist Zdenek Pesanek from the l920s Constructivism wasw born in the Soviet Union after the October revolution I9 I 7 It was influenced by the revolutionary ideals but also by Futurism and Suprematism It was an effort to harmonize art with industrial production to bring intellectuals and workers together remove the barriers between art design and manual and mechanized work Art was interpreted as production artist seen as a kind of engineer or mechanic compare Heartfield defined himself as monteurdada quotModern factory at work is the culminating manifestation of our times surpassing the opera or balletquot Tatlin Constructivism eventually turned into an international trend and style mostly in graphic design which was adopted elsewhere without any reference to its original ideological position In this sense its influence was felt in Germany by the mid20s and in the US and China by the end of the I920s Constructivism interpretations Constructivism is the wellformed child of industrial culture Alexei Gan Constructivism is the condition of building a house for the as yet unborn man because Constructivism comes from science from precise thoughts from technology Michail Grobman Constructivism doesn t meddle with the inner spirituality of mankind it simply creates the material forms that are of maximum convenience to civilization Grobman The first watchword of Constructivism is Down with speculative activity in artistic work Gan Vladimir Tatlin I885 I 953 Often considered the founder and ideological father of constructivism The embodiment of the idea of the artistengineer Soviet Leonardo da Vinci stagesets a flyingmachine letatlin clothes stove chairs for mass production decors for cafes magazine layouts paintings sculptures Most famous work Monument to the Third International Except for a model was not built nut still became a symbol of the Soviet culture of the I920s It was meant to be a monumental tower one third taller than the Eiffel Tower with three layers cube pyramid cylinder each one meant to spin according to different cycles The position of the tower itself and its measurements were adjusted according to cosmic harmonies In a famous photograph John Heartfield and George Grosz are seen at the International Dada Fair Berlin I920 holding a poster saying Art is dead Long Live Tatlin s new Machine art This is an interesting reminder that the line between dadaism and constructivism may have been vague at this early stage although it may seem clear even dichotomic in our times Dadaism representing the destructive and Constructivism the harmonizing tendencies Dadaists probably saw Tatlin s interest in machines and his anti establishment stance as radical and subversive Rosta propaganda posters c I 920 The state telegraph offices Rosta displayed large coloured propaganda posters during the I920s Some of the most famous of them were designed by the avantgarde artist poet and playwright Vladimir Mayakovsky Rosta was a visual communication medium meant for the masses serving in particular the poorly educated and the illiterate Soviet filmmaker Dziga Vertov tried to use film newsreels Kino Pravda for the same purpose using visual montage to convey the principal message only supported by agitative intertitles gtIltgtIltgtIltgtIltgtIlt Other important Constructivists Aleksandr Rodchenko photography posters revolutionary interior designs for workers clubs etc Liubov Popova model for the play The Magnificent Cuckold mahtava aisankantaja Vsevolod Meyerhold I922 Also designed Constructivist clothing Dziga Vertov the theory of the Kino Eye kinoglaz radical documentary films with selfreflective features The Man with the Movie camera I929 Vsevolod Meyerhold biomechanics in theatre proletarization industrialization of art important influences Fordism and Taylorism with the efforts to rationalize the worker s movements into a body language El Lissitzky bridging art graphic design industrial design engineering Naum Gabo Kinetic Sculptures such as Standing Wave I920 This was one of the first artworks using an electric machine as its element The vibrating rod created a visual illusion a virtual sculpture This as well as machinepovered works by Duchamp Tatlin and MoholyNagy influenced kinetic art begun in the I950s Bauhaus I9I9I933 Radical art and design school in Weimar then Dessau Berlin Founding director architect Walter Gropius I883 I969 The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to terms with it I925 Slogan Art and Technology A New Unityquot I 923 Teaching ideology learning by doing the destruction of previous learning the freeing of the mind This was a typically modernist agenda resembling the early writings of the archmodernist architect Le Corbusier Became a stronghold for Constructivism particularly with the hiring of Laszlo Moholy Nagy in I923 Bauhaus important personalities Artists as teachers Johannes ltten Josef Albers Vassily Kandisky Paul Klee Visitors El Lissitzky Theo van Doesburg Founding director Walter Gropius architect industrial designer Laszlo MoholyNagy radical innovator multimedia artist and designer Oskar Schlemmer leader of the Bauhaus stage Triadic Ballet lmportant students Herbert Bayer Marcel Breuer Marianne Brandt many of them became primarily designers Laszlo MoholyNagy I895 I946 Visionary artist theorist teacher Also writer of influential books Painting Photography Film I925 Vision in Motion I946 Born in Hungary educated as artist worked at the Bauhaus l92328 responsible for the important Grundkurs that all entering Bauhaus students had to take Moved to the USA in I937 In Chicago became director of The New Bauhaus American School of Design Then founded Chicago Institute of Design Research MoholyNagy was a pure modernist embraced machine aesthetics looked for a total vision a new unity of art and design instead of Gesamtkunstwerk spoke about Total Work Gesamtwerk the difference is important because MoholyNagy s vision went beyond the traditional sphere of art EXperimented with many tools photography film light projections machines as artworks photomontage abstract paintings synthetic sound abstract metal sculptures Nervous experimentation work exists as brilliant fragments rather than big major work This did not bother MoholyNagy because of his modernist stance Main focus light as a New Medium interest was shared by others including Thomas Wilfred the inventor of the art of Lumia in the USA MoholyNagy LightSpace Modulator LichtRequisit circa I930 His most famous creation now at the BuschReiniger Museum Harvard University A machineas artwork that created a constantly changing abstract light show Could be used in new kind of actorless theatre MoholyNagy also made a film about the device in motion Lichtspiel Schwarz Weiss Grau I930 lnfluenced kinetic art and cybernetic art Thomas Wilfred l889 I968 Not a constructivist but shared interests with them particularly in light as a new medium lnvented Lumia painting with light founded Art institute of light New York Saw Lumia as the art of the future quotMore and more artists of our generation have begun to contemplate light with the eyes of a sculptor gazing upon a block of marble seeing in light a new and basic medium of expression with unlimited possibilitiesquot Wilfred Created light art instruments known as Clavilux Many models for different purposes Table Model Clavilux ClaviluxJunior Clavilux Silent Visual Carillon etc Also largescale moving light compositions with internally programmed operations like the Lumia Suite MOMA l96364 The Legacy of Constructivism lnfluenced many later groups and movements aiming to harmonize art design science technology Belief that engineers and scientists could collaborate with artists for common goals They could even become artists or the other way around Bridging the gap between the two cultures identified byJP Shaw in the early l960s The legacy Kinetic art l950 Cybernetic art l960s Experiments in Art and Technology EAT l967 Center for Advanced Visual Studies MlT founded by MoholyNagYs student Gyorgy Kepes I968 The Art amp Technology Project dir Maurice Tuchman LACMA l9667l Kinetic Art Influenced above all by constructivism but also by abstract art machine art surrealism interest in optical illusions Dali and Magritte and emerging minimalist tendencies developing simultaneously Main theorist and curator Frank Popper According to Jack Burnham based on a simple premise if so much of 20th century art had represented light and motion why not create art that is literally based on light and movement Some works used perceptual illusions created by painting sometimes combined by mirrors Bridget O Riley Yayoi Kusama Viktor Vasarely others actual mechanical motorized motions Began in the I950s Le Mouvement exhibition in Paris I953 Duchamp Soto Tinguely Calder Bury Agam In I96 lthe first international exhibition of art and movement the contradiction between the kinetic constructivists and neodadaists Fluxus became evident This was another manifestation of the existence of the two lines of development the harmonizing and the destructive gtIltgtIltgtIltgtIltgtIlt Cybernetic Art Word coined and theorized by Jack Burnham in Beyond Modern Sculpture I968 The shift from object to process from static art to kinetic art tradition to anthropomorphic representation replaced by robotic art the promise of actually creating life not just representing it Cybernetic theory Wiener Ashby Grey Walter etc as a model for artmaking Art that uses feedback mechanisms selfregulating systems Responsive artworks often responding to light sound movement Art has to incorporate the principles of modern machine culture including those of computing and robotics The quest to overcome the rift between the two cultures as argued by CP Snow in his famous book with the same title I96 I A symptomatic cybernetic artist Nicolas Schoffer Hungarian lived and worked in Paris Created many cybernetic towers symbolic constructions for the cybernetic society These were often responsive reacting to environmental stimuli like light sound wind Schoffer s vision was typically totalistic Shirong Gao October 5 2004 DESMA 150 Research The Nature of Money ORIGIN Near East 3000 BC Starting 600 BC 2000 years of coin FUNCTION medium of exchange Adam Smith wealth of nations store of value means of unilateral payment measure of value ECONOMISTS Adam Smith Karl Marx Simmel Aristotle KEYNES ADVANTAGES TO WORLD CURRENCY 1 the world trades about 12 trillion worth of currencies a day lfthat market disappeared it would save companies and individuals hundreds of billions of dollars a year in foreign exchange and hedging costs 2 no more national currency crisis DISADVANTAGES TO WORLD CURRENCY No single nation could adjust its domestic monetary policy to remedy a specific economic situation TERMS Inflation A general increase in the price level of goods and services Unexpected inflation tends to be detrimental to security prices primarily because it forces interest rates higher Dept of Treasury s Bureau of Engraving and Printing BEP has designed engraved and produced US banknotes since 1862 The United Nations started 1945 preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security httpwwwunorgenglish The World Bank Group fight poverty and improve the standards of living for people in developing nations Provides loans policy advice technical assistance and knowledge sharing services to low and middle income countries to reduce poverty The Bank promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage ofthese opportunities 1 world s largest external funder of education 2 world s largest funder in fight against AIDS 3 leader in fight against corruption worldwide 4 big on funding biodiversity projects clean water electricity and transport to poor httpwwwworldbankorg World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization WTO is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations At its heart are the VVTO agreements negotiated and signed by Desma Cl0l20l Media Arts an Introduction Fall 2007 Professor Huhtamo Meeting I What is are the Media Arts Confronting Media with Media These notes are not meant as a replacement for attending the lectures They don t cover everything discussed in the meetings They are just meant as an aid to the memory Media Arts not a great label but better than Media Art At least it emphasizes the plurality and multiplicity of the phenomenon digital art eIectronic art information art eventually media arts What do we actually mean by these words Do they mean the same thing Or something different New Media and New Media Arts even worse ln popular usage these often mean digital arts creative things made with the computer Any medium has once been new New is a discursive concept a topos evoked over and over again Better cross it out CompareLev Manovich Language for New Media Mark NK Hansen New Philosophy for New Media Media Arts exclusive and inclusive de nitions Exclusive art that uses media technology as a tool to investigate critique the roles and functions of media social systems of communication in the ideal case it uses the media themselves as its gallerY Inclusive art that uses media technology for almost any creative purpose personal critical poetic abstract formalistic This is very vague what role do the audience and the exhibition context play in the signification Media Arts and Media Design The borderline often elusive shared tools and techniques Postmodernity blurred the distinctions further where do Chris Cunningham s music videos belong In popular everyday use computer arts or media arts simply refers to thye creative use of graphics programs video cameras etc Sunday media art like Sunday painting A truism media design serves a practical often commercial purpose media arts more critical selfrefentialconceptual experimental is such a division still valid rigid or fluctuating Media design creates unambiguous messages it reduces its potential readings as much as possible Media art seems to do the opposite is this simple dichotomy always valid Media definitions From medium L something inbetween mediates between distinct entities compare medium person serving as a mediator between the physical reality and the beyond To the Sight three things are required the Object the Organ and the Medium Burton I62I expressed by the Medium of Wordes Bacon I605 Through the medium of your curious publication I795 Media plural related with mass communications in plural from circa I850 R Williams Keywords Distinction should be made between media technology and media as institutionalized and socially established systems of communication newspaper broadcasting For our purposes media refer to social and institutional systems of communication that often utilize new media technology for their production and dissemination Are such media necessarily mass media gtIltgtIltgtIltgtIltgtIlt Technology and Cultural Form Technology provides potential that is realized when it is turned into a cultural form within society Raymond Williams Television Technology and Cultural Form I974 Television camera monitor transmitter etc are not identical with broadcasting other uses cultural forms exist and new can be imagined Technology is never pure even as a thought project proposal it is already a cultural fact a discursive entity Media function on multiple levels from public to intimate can be used to communicate but also to persuade manipulate is media always about communication Media Arts Issues ls art about communication Does it always communicate How does art as communication differ from other forms of communication newspaper television Internet in media art emphasis on ambiquity and noise the dysfunctioning of the medium itself the play with codes deliberate mismatches between the sender and the receiver Art makes strange ostranenie Viktor Sklovski Russian Formalism it breaks and renews cliched everyday language and communication thus it engages in dis communication causing deliberate chaos noise disruption Art creates personal communication systems that often refuse to disclose their codes to outsiders posing as hermetic universes or riddles to be unsolved Marcel Duchamp Matt Mullican Superdefinition of Media Arts The ldealistic Version Media art uses media to deal with media in the media what does this really mean media arts are occupied with commenting on criticizing analyzing reconfiguring the established media To achieve this they use the same tools media technology and even distribution channels as the established media If possible the media artist tries to show one s work in the world of media not in the galleries or museums of the art world Superdefinition of Media Arts The Realistic Version In reality very few works fulfill all the criteria of the idealistic version Media technology is often used in art works that are not explicitly focused on the media themselves There are artworks made with traditional tools that nevertheless deal with media are these part of the Media Arts There are works that deal with media and have been made using media technology but which are shown in traditional venues galleries and museums compare Video Skulptur The Beginning of the Media Arts The Futurist Manifesto Le Figaro Paris February 20 I909 A plea for the reneval of the arts made public in mass media not in the art world written by F T Marinetti I876 I944 Yves Klein used selfproduced newspaper as an art medium I960 Reenacting Marinetti s gesture front page contains a manifesto and other interventions Nam June Paik and Charlotte Moorman Op ra Sextronique I967 Arrest reported in a newspaper media provided the closure to an openended event happening perhaps this was the intention gtIltgtIltgtIltgtIltgtIlt The first true Media Artist John Heartfield I89II968 Radical German artist and graphic designer active in Weimar Germany in exile and later in life in the DDR The first artist outside film of the mass media and to date the most significant Douglas Kahn gtIltgtIltgtIltgtIltgtIlt Heartfield turned political photomontage into a form of radical media art avant Ia Iettre Adopted the principle of collage already used by the cubists Picasso Braque and the dadaists Schwitters but turned it upside down instead of placing everyday objects within the frame took the practices of art outside the frame Operated not in galleries but in mass media magazines books posters on the walls in public spaces Appropriated material from media rightwing publications reworked it and put it back into the media leftist publications or into the public space Thus pioneered the strategy later known as Talking back to the Media Main communication channel AIZ Arbeiter IIIustrierte Zeitung gtiltgtiltgtiltgtilt In I9l6 founded radical publishing house Malik Verlag with brother Wieland Herifelde and Georg Grosz Grosz practiced social montage by sending to soldiers gift packages containing useless items shirt fronts pairs of cuffs bags of tea samples to quotarouse patience sweet dreams respect for authority and fidelity to the thronequot Grosz and Heartfield began to send antiwar postcards to the front The message was a montage of words and photos because they felt that a quotcomposite pictorial form would not be intercepted by the visually illiterate sensorsquot


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