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# Chemistry chapter 1 & 2 notes CHEM1104

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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Darian Notetaker on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM1104 at University of Arkansas taught by Ashley Bradley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see University Chemistry I in Health and Human Services at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 09/04/15

Chemistry 1 mm Temperature Scales Fahrenheit gtilt Freezes at 32 degrees gtilt Boils at 212 degrees Celsius gtilt Freezes at 0 degrees gtilt Boils at 100 degrees Kelvin gtilt Freezes at 273 k Boils at 373 k Kelvin Degrees in Celsius 27315 Fahrenheit 95 Celsius 32 Celsius Fahrenheit 32 59 Scienti c Notation During scienti c notation if the decimal point is moved to the left then quotnquot is positive quotnquot is the exponent If the decimal point is moved to the right quotnquot is negative N 10 N has to be inbetween 110 n exponent Changing numbers into Scienti c Notation Example 568762 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved 2 times to the left to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal to the left 2 times your n positive 2 So you get 56 x 102 Example 2 000000772 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved over 6 times to the right to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal 6 times to the right n 6 So you get 772 x 10396 Signi cant Figure Rules Any nonzero digit is signi cant Zeros between nonzero digits are signi cant Zeros to the left of the rst nonzero digit is NOT signi cant If the number is greater than 1 then they are all signi cant If the number is less than one then only the zeros that are at the end are signi cant Example 504g 3 signi cant gures Example 0112m 3 sig gs Example 0021g 2 sig gs Adding or Subtracting 1 Write each quantity with the same quotnquot 2 Combine N1amp N2 3 The exponent quotnquot remains the same Multiplying LMultiply N1amp N2 n1amp n2 Division 1 Divide N1amp N2 2 Subtract n1amp n2 The difference in accuracv and precision Accuracy Accuracy is how close one measurement is to the desired or true value Precision How close a set or group of measurements is to each other Dimensional Analvsis Method 1 Determine which unit conversion factors are needed 2 Calculate 3 All units need to cancel out EXCEPT the desired unit Example 003442Ib 4561g1Ib 1000mg1g cancel out Ib39s amp grams Chapter 2 Dalton s atomic theory Elements are composed of small particles called All atoms are identical Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element Chemical reaction involves only separation combination or rearrangement of atoms Law of Multiple Proportions If two elements can combine to form more than one compound then the masses of one element that can combine with a xed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers Robert Millikan Discovered the charge of an electron 16022 10 3919 The mass of an electron 910 10 39ng William Roentgen gave us xrays Antione Becquerel Discovered radioactivity Pierre amp Marie Currie Discovered which elements were radioactive Ernest Rutherford Transmutation and the splitting of an atom James Chadwick Gave us neutrons with a mass slightly greater than protons 1932 Gamma high energy no charge Alpha Positively charged particles that are repelled by a positive plate Beta Negatively charged particles that are repelled by a negative plate Atoms positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus Proton has an opposite charge of an electron The mass of P is 1840 mass of e 167 10 3924 Atomic Number Mass Number amp Isotooes Atomic Number 2 number of protons Mass Number A number of protons amp neutrons lsotopes Atoms of the same element with different neutrons NEUTRONS Mass Number Atomic number A Z Periodic Table Metals Majority of elements on periodic table biggest conductor of heat amp electricity NonMetals poor conductor of electricity far right side of periodic table Left to right PERIOD Up amp Down GROUP Group 1A Alkaline Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group 8A Noble Gas An is an atoms or group with a positive or negative charge Cation Positive Anion Negative The number of electrons in an ion is to the number of protons minus the charge on the ion Change a Molecular formula to Empirical a C2H2 CH b C6H1206 CH20 A combination of cations amp anions the sum of charges must equal zero The subscript of the cation is equal to the charge on the anion and the subscript of the anion is equal to the charge on the cation If the charges are already equal nothing needs to be done When the charges don39t match you just switch the charges to subscripts Chemistry 1 mm Temperature Scales Fahrenheit gtilt Freezes at 32 degrees gtilt Boils at 212 degrees Celsius gtilt Freezes at 0 degrees gtilt Boils at 100 degrees Kelvin gtilt Freezes at 273 k Boils at 373 k Kelvin Degrees in Celsius 27315 Fahrenheit 95 Celsius 32 Celsius Fahrenheit 32 59 Scienti c Notation During scienti c notation if the decimal point is moved to the left then quotnquot is positive quotnquot is the exponent If the decimal point is moved to the right quotnquot is negative N 10 N has to be inbetween 110 n exponent Changing numbers into Scienti c Notation Example 568762 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved 2 times to the left to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal to the left 2 times your n positive 2 So you get 56 x 102 Example 2 000000772 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved over 6 times to the right to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal 6 times to the right n 6 So you get 772 x 10396 Signi cant Figure Rules Any nonzero digit is signi cant Zeros between nonzero digits are signi cant Zeros to the left of the rst nonzero digit is NOT signi cant If the number is greater than 1 then they are all signi cant If the number is less than one then only the zeros that are at the end are signi cant Example 504g 3 signi cant gures Example 0112m 3 sig gs Example 0021g 2 sig gs Adding or Subtracting 1 Write each quantity with the same quotnquot 2 Combine N1amp N2 3 The exponent quotnquot remains the same Multiplying LMultiply N1amp N2 n1amp n2 Division 1 Divide N1amp N2 2 Subtract n1amp n2 The difference in accuracv and precision Accuracy Accuracy is how close one measurement is to the desired or true value Precision How close a set or group of measurements is to each other Dimensional Analvsis Method 1 Determine which unit conversion factors are needed 2 Calculate 3 All units need to cancel out EXCEPT the desired unit Example 003442Ib 4561g1Ib 1000mg1g cancel out Ib39s amp grams Chapter 2 Dalton s atomic theory Elements are composed of small particles called All atoms are identical Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element Chemical reaction involves only separation combination or rearrangement of atoms Law of Multiple Proportions If two elements can combine to form more than one compound then the masses of one element that can combine with a xed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers Robert Millikan Discovered the charge of an electron 16022 10 3919 The mass of an electron 910 10 39ng William Roentgen gave us xrays Antione Becquerel Discovered radioactivity Pierre amp Marie Currie Discovered which elements were radioactive Ernest Rutherford Transmutation and the splitting of an atom James Chadwick Gave us neutrons with a mass slightly greater than protons 1932 Gamma high energy no charge Alpha Positively charged particles that are repelled by a positive plate Beta Negatively charged particles that are repelled by a negative plate Atoms positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus Proton has an opposite charge of an electron The mass of P is 1840 mass of e 167 10 3924 Atomic Number Mass Number amp Isotooes Atomic Number 2 number of protons Mass Number A number of protons amp neutrons lsotopes Atoms of the same element with different neutrons NEUTRONS Mass Number Atomic number A Z Periodic Table Metals Majority of elements on periodic table biggest conductor of heat amp electricity NonMetals poor conductor of electricity far right side of periodic table Left to right PERIOD Up amp Down GROUP Group 1A Alkaline Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group 8A Noble Gas An is an atoms or group with a positive or negative charge Cation Positive Anion Negative The number of electrons in an ion is to the number of protons minus the charge on the ion Change a Molecular formula to Empirical a C2H2 CH b C6H1206 CH20 A combination of cations amp anions the sum of charges must equal zero The subscript of the cation is equal to the charge on the anion and the subscript of the anion is equal to the charge on the cation If the charges are already equal nothing needs to be done When the charges don39t match you just switch the charges to subscripts Chemistry 1 mm Temperature Scales Fahrenheit gtilt Freezes at 32 degrees gtilt Boils at 212 degrees Celsius gtilt Freezes at 0 degrees gtilt Boils at 100 degrees Kelvin gtilt Freezes at 273 k Boils at 373 k Kelvin Degrees in Celsius 27315 Fahrenheit 95 Celsius 32 Celsius Fahrenheit 32 59 Scienti c Notation During scienti c notation if the decimal point is moved to the left then quotnquot is positive quotnquot is the exponent If the decimal point is moved to the right quotnquot is negative N 10 N has to be inbetween 110 n exponent Changing numbers into Scienti c Notation Example 568762 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved 2 times to the left to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal to the left 2 times your n positive 2 So you get 56 x 102 Example 2 000000772 To change this number into scienti c notation the decimal point needs to be moved over 6 times to the right to have an N of inbetween 110 Because we moved the decimal 6 times to the right n 6 So you get 772 x 10396 Signi cant Figure Rules Any nonzero digit is signi cant Zeros between nonzero digits are signi cant Zeros to the left of the rst nonzero digit is NOT signi cant If the number is greater than 1 then they are all signi cant If the number is less than one then only the zeros that are at the end are signi cant Example 504g 3 signi cant gures Example 0112m 3 sig gs Example 0021g 2 sig gs Adding or Subtracting 1 Write each quantity with the same quotnquot 2 Combine N1amp N2 3 The exponent quotnquot remains the same Multiplying LMultiply N1amp N2 n1amp n2 Division 1 Divide N1amp N2 2 Subtract n1amp n2 The difference in accuracv and precision Accuracy Accuracy is how close one measurement is to the desired or true value Precision How close a set or group of measurements is to each other Dimensional Analvsis Method 1 Determine which unit conversion factors are needed 2 Calculate 3 All units need to cancel out EXCEPT the desired unit Example 003442Ib 4561g1Ib 1000mg1g cancel out Ib39s amp grams Chapter 2 Dalton s atomic theory Elements are composed of small particles called All atoms are identical Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element Chemical reaction involves only separation combination or rearrangement of atoms Law of Multiple Proportions If two elements can combine to form more than one compound then the masses of one element that can combine with a xed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers Robert Millikan Discovered the charge of an electron 16022 10 3919 The mass of an electron 910 10 39ng William Roentgen gave us xrays Antione Becquerel Discovered radioactivity Pierre amp Marie Currie Discovered which elements were radioactive Ernest Rutherford Transmutation and the splitting of an atom James Chadwick Gave us neutrons with a mass slightly greater than protons 1932 Gamma high energy no charge Alpha Positively charged particles that are repelled by a positive plate Beta Negatively charged particles that are repelled by a negative plate Atoms positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus Proton has an opposite charge of an electron The mass of P is 1840 mass of e 167 10 3924 Atomic Number Mass Number amp Isotooes Atomic Number 2 number of protons Mass Number A number of protons amp neutrons lsotopes Atoms of the same element with different neutrons NEUTRONS Mass Number Atomic number A Z Periodic Table Metals Majority of elements on periodic table biggest conductor of heat amp electricity NonMetals poor conductor of electricity far right side of periodic table Left to right PERIOD Up amp Down GROUP Group 1A Alkaline Metals Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7A Halogens Group 8A Noble Gas An is an atoms or group with a positive or negative charge Cation Positive Anion Negative The number of electrons in an ion is to the number of protons minus the charge on the ion Change a Molecular formula to Empirical a C2H2 CH b C6H1206 CH20 A combination of cations amp anions the sum of charges must equal zero The subscript of the cation is equal to the charge on the anion and the subscript of the anion is equal to the charge on the cation If the charges are already equal nothing needs to be done When the charges don39t match you just switch the charges to subscripts

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