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by: Lia Cummerata


Lia Cummerata
GPA 3.87


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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lia Cummerata on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 0001A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see /class/177932/ge-clst-0001a-university-of-california-los-angeles in OTHER at University of California - Los Angeles.




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Date Created: 09/04/15
Food from Land to Sea Quiz Why does feeding a steer corn consume more fossil fuel compared to feeding it other crops Clearing land creates new ecosystem agroecosystem Interactions between living and nonliving components Continual change Agroecosystems differ from natural ecosystems in 6 ways Prevents succession Crop plants grown in monoculture Neat rows with neighbors in contact Food webs are simplified Plowing has no counterpart in nature Biotechnology Crop plants 270000 plant species worldwide 150 cultivated in large scale for food most human food 14 Agriculture changes soil Maximum Sustainable Yield MSY maximum amount of crop per land area unit that can be grown year after year Only 11 of Earth39s land surface is suitable fro crops best land already in use Much good land is lost to erosion and urbanization CA Agriculture 350 different crops Central Valley incredibly rich soil from old seabed Central Valley Project for irrigation requires heavy irrigation Depends on massive system of dams canals and reservoirs Livestock Several major species raised worldwide Can have devastating impact on local habitat Human population limit will likely be set by food production within next several decades GECLSTM1A Final Review First 5 Weeks 1 What is science Climate change a Ecological impacts globally and in California 3 Biomes Ecosystems Communities Groups Species a Niche b Endemic native nonnative invasive naturalized Equot 4 Cycles of different things a Hydrological Nutrients soil Energy in ecological communities food chain 5 Sustainability esp at UCLA 6 Guest Lecture Pollution and Public Health a Risk assessment Superfund sights Week 6 1 Global water inventory 17 a Earth water can be divided in 2 parts salt and freshwater b Freshwater is divided in ice liquid and vapor c Hydrologic cycle and water balance i Conservation of mass nothing gained or lost ii Evaporation over land or sea to water vapor to form clouds iii Clouds pushed by air winds across air continents iv Rain sleet water hits land turns into water turns into surface water v Runs into ocean and becomes salt water again vi Talk about surface water and water balance in surface water 1 All ofwater that falls on land gets further divided into 4 types precipitation evapotranspiration runoff or infiltrate into ground water d Water balance lab water in 1 use means reducing water in another use e Surface water comes from precipitation is most used water sources variations over space and time seasons regional differences f Measure 1 meter per year globally of rain 60 of that evaporates off g How salt is the most common water pollutant i How salt gets into the water supply impact 2 Water demand and scarcity 18 a Understand 3 categories b Because oflarge demand creates stress c 4 levels of stress not periodically chronic high d Precipitation varies over space and time how different places can be stressed or not due to geographic issues but economic and politics as well e Solutions i Conservation is the best way 3 users ii Movement and transportation ofwater structural solutions conveyance and storage iii Reclamation desalination Understand these f Water use varies over space China and USA variance ofprecipitation over eastwest Ogallala Aquifer KNOW THIS g Water in California 39 Water usage and water scarcity Water balance lab Water supply where does it come from 1 Mountains Colorado river know its issues iv Water use urban industrial and municipal agricultural 80 of budget environmental designation v Transfer water because varies over space know structural things San Joaquin Delta Aqueducts in 1910 and 1980 Water transfer is source of con ict north v south agricultural v urban 3 Water and climate change 20 a Guest lecture how climate change was going to impact water availability in our region b Earlier snowmelt due to warming reduced snowpack springtime temperature changes observed impacts c Continuing decline of snowpack is most concerning impact LAis dependent on snowpack water d Potential impacts decreased soil moisture changing rainfall patterns thus increased fire contamination of groundwater because of saltwater intrusion Relate things together see above quot Precipitation will fall as rain but not snow in CA Snow gives time to capture but precipitation runs off and can t be captured as easily g Runoff patterns change harder to capture range h Agricultural demands will increase soil more dry i Agricultural assets at risk increased fires 4 Water markets 21 a Water is a scarce resource but is still undervalued and in many parts of the world b Are water markets a viable solution c Mexico water is scarce and cheap so people don t value water d California no resupply ofwater to agricultural industry large users only pay small share ofwater cost water too cheap so water intensive crops used e Iakarta water market created impacts big difference between well water and tap water v water sold by vendors equity issues not best outcome f Inverse relationship between cost and utilization of water g Users are going to value water if they pay what it is really worth h Political and equity issues surrounding this problem 5 Water and food 22 a How much water does a person need b Diet is a huge factor in an the amount ofwater a people use c Wheat and meat diets meat diets need so much more water animals consume water and animal food requires food H i ii39 v39 THO d Soil erosion industrialization salt compromise water supply e Who will feed China 39 What are the challenges that China has in feeding itself i What is the potential of China to meet its needs in the future ii39 Challenges population sizegrowth meeting US consumption habits iv China has leadership that is excellent at technological problem solving V Population trends changing changes in agricultural production V Put together argument as to whether China can or can t feed itself HH Week 8 6 Surface water quality 23 a First slide most important i List 8 categories of water pollutants Pathogens oxygen consuming material nutrients suspended solids temperature heat or thermal pollution dissolved salts metals organic compounds ii Be able to define list exemplify and so forth b 4 ways in which disease is associated with water waterborne diseases waterwashed diseases waterbased diseases waterrelated diseases i Be able to define list exemplify and so forth c Top 4 water related disease and vectors that transmit thyreal diseases pathogens shistosomiasis water snails malaria mosquitos river blindness black ies be able to list and describe d Milestones in water safety theory of disease separation ofwater supply from waste disposal disinfection by chlorination indicator bacteria as a monitoring tool for water safety solids removal in conventional water treatment primary treatment be able to list and describe e Explain cholera in 1849 be able to describe and relate f Be able to draw eutrophication be able to explain and relationship between water pollutions and eutrophication and why its in the category of water pollution g Dead zone define and explain life can t exist due to odd oxygen levels h Salt water intrusion how it works and why it s a problem for ground water quality i Arsenic explain why its important in water pollution study where professor s case study was in relation to field work j Distinguish between point source and nonpoint source pollution k Runoff in south Florida list 5 examples ofnonpoint source runoffs 7 Groundwater quantity and quality 24 a Hydrological cycle how groundwater fits into cycle b Challenges in cleaning groundwater after contamination leaky tank example how hard it is to clean c Simple definition ofaquifer d List 3 categories of key contaminants of groundwater industrial contaminants agricultural contaminants domestic contaminants e Activated carbon is used to absorb or stick to pollutants in water column acts as a cleaning agent in cleaning up pollutants in groundwater f Types of contaminants in animal breeding and slaughtering i Primary contaminants nitrogen pathogens potassium ii Secondary contaminants hormones and antibiotics g Groundwater cleaning is very expensive h Preventing future damage advanced sensingmonitoring 8 Water and disease 25 a Know sources of fecal contaminants local wildlife sewage spills septic tanks storm drains b Describe slide in which further swimmers are away from a storm drain the less likely they are to fall sick with illness c Recall what was important in arsenic study where did it take place why was she studying it took place in Bangladesh i Relationship between arsenic and water pollution ii Effects when consumed by humans Week 9 9 Water treatment and disposal 26 a First slide most important i Point source and nonpoint source waste water ii California waste disposal lab point source b 2 main regulations ofpoint source discharges stream water quality standard of 1965 federal clean water act federal ef uent standards 1972 c Primary treatment v secondary treatment of sewage i Basic steps in each describe d Nonpoint source wastewater management why is it so difficult 10 Solid and hazardous waste management 27 a Breakdown in solid wastes b Most prevalent source is mining and agricultural waste c 5 ofindustrial waste is industrial waste 90 is mining waste 5 is municipal waste or trash d Major components ofUS municipal solid waste composition top 3 paper or cardboard yard trimmings food scraps e Solid waste hierarchy 5 components reduce reuse recycle incineration landfill know pros and cons f What is a hazardous waste What are its defining components g General categories of treatments 3 categories h Radioactive waste what is it Week 10 11 Garbage in developing countries 27 a Do we discourage or promote trash scavenging in developing countries b Health impacts or fiscal impacts conceptual issue c Drinking water issues


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