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Anatomy Notes week 7

by: Abby Notetaker

Anatomy Notes week 7

Marketplace > University of Washington > B STR 301 > Anatomy Notes week 7
Abby Notetaker


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These are the notes for this weeks lectures in Anatomy. Since we will be having review tomorrow and a test on Friday, I have put all the notes up together. A study guide will be coming soon!
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This 5 page was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Tuesday May 13, 2014. The belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 123 views.


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Date Created: 05/13/14
May 12 2014 Bronchus cartilage rings around it Pulmonary artery carries blood from heart to lung deoxygenated Pulmonary Vein carries blood from lungs to heart oxygenated Hium Part of an organ where structures and blood vessels enter Lungs a Right lung is larger than left b Right has 3 lobes left has 2 c Heart is assymetrical i Bulk of the heart is on the left side which is why the left lung is smaller ii Aorta ofthe heart presses up against lungs can see indentation Visceral and Parietal Pleura a Visceral Pleura is the membrane that lines the surface of the lung i It is a serous membrane ii Thin squamous epithelium with serous fluid b Parietal Pleura i Lines inside of thoracic cavity ii Line diaphragm and tissue around heart c Lungs are always moving out and in i Serous fluid lubricates the surfaces so there is no friction or pain when breathing Media Stinum includes hear descending aorta descending vena cava esophagus Thoracic Cavity and Breathing a Entire Thoracic cavity enlarges every time you breath in i Diaphragm is firmly anchored to bone and cartilage ii Central tendon of diaphragm pulled down when muscle fibers of diaphragm contract 1 Increases thoracic cavity volume 2 Different amounts of contraction based on what you are doing 3 Sitting around you can breathe using only your diaphragm 4 Deep breathsribs get involved a Each rib rotates to give more volume b Think of the bucket on a handle hanging off the side vs rotated for holding VI VII VIII 5 Muscles involved a External intercostal muscles b Sternocleidomastoid when you want to take a really deep breath c Internal intercostal muscles i Pull ribs back down ii Rarely need them iii Ribs normally go down naturally Neural control of Respiration a Respiration center in the medulla b Motor Neurons C2C3 c Inspiration and exhalation neurons take turns firing every 2 seconds or so d Motor Nerves C2 and C3 send their neurons to the diaphragm via the cervical plexus and phrenic nerve i This is why breaking your neck is often fatal ii Also an aneurism can fill medulla up with blood squish medulla and cause you to stop breathing Lower Airway Trachea to Bronchi a Bronchi start branching a lot once they get to the lung b Lung tissue is mostly airfilled space intra pumonary space c Instrapleural Cavity i Space surrounding lung ii Between visceral and parietal pleura iii Not actually a space iv Serous fulid is the only thing in that space v Called quotpotential space if air got in it could be a space Pressure a lntra pulmonary pressure i Pressure goes down as you breath in ii Thoracic cavity expands iii Air gets pulled into lungs iv Thoracic cavity decreases which increases pressure v Expels old air out of lungs b Intrapleural Pressure i Pressure outside of lungs ii Always negative pressure iii Always a lot lower than pressure inside lungs Pneumothorax a Air inside intra peura cavity b 2 ways this could happen i If there is a hole poked in the chest wall 1 Air flows into potential space 2 Increases pressure and causes lungs to collapse pressure outside of lungs is always supposed to be negative pressure 3 The air can be syringed out or the hole plugged up and the body will take care of the extra air ii Hole in the lung 1 Air pulled into the lung flows out into the intra pleural cavity because there is lower pressure there 2 The pressure increases in the cavity and the lung collapses 3 Solution punch a hole through chest wall and insert tube for air to escape a Once lung repairs itself tube can be removed b This is a lot harder to fix than a hole in the chest wall IX Tissue Inside Lung a Trachea and bronchi have cartilage rings b Small bronchis have cartilage plates c Bronchioles have NO cartilage d Cartilage keeps airway open so it doesn39t collapse X Alveoli a At the end of every bronchiole is a quotgrapelike cluster which is the alveolar sac i Each alveolus is a sphere that is open at one end ii Expands when you breath in iii Contracts when you breath out iv Capillary network deoxygenated blood surrounds alveoli 1 Turn red as they are oxygenated and head back to the heart 2 Veins and arteries are backwards when referring to the lungs b Inside Alveolus i Layer of liquid inside surfactant 1 Keeps alveoli from collapsing 2 Surfactant secreted by great alveolar cell ii Dust cells 1 Macrophages 2 Gobble up unwanted particles in alveolus 3 When the macrophage is full it is carried up through bronchial tree to top of esophagus where is it swallowed iii Thin wall between alveolus endothelial cell and capillary about 03 microns 1 CO2 diffuses out of capillary into alveolus 2 O2 diffuses into capillary iv We have about 300 million alveoli 1 This increases surface are 2 SA is about 1056 square feet XI Total Volume Inside Lungs a Variable b Depends on depth of breath c For a healthy young man i Quiet breaths fluctuate between 2500 mL and 3000 mL ii Deep breaths are about 6000 mL in and down to 1000 mL when breathing out XII Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a Emphysema i Walls between alveoli are broken down 1 Reduces Surface Area for gas exchange 2 Hard to get enough air ii Lung tissue is destroyed iii Loss of elasticity in alveolus and lungs 1 Patient can39t expel air out of lungs a This leads to expanded lungs b Alveoli can39t be healed iv Causes 1 Smoking 2 9095 of patients with emphysema are smokers 3 About 50 of people who smoke have emphysema v Treatment 1 Give supplemental oxygen vi Smoker s cough normally comes along with emphysema XIII Upper Airway a Nasal Cavity Pharynx and Larynx b Oropharynxzpart of pharynx that opens up at mouth allowing food to go to esophagus XIV Larynx a Above trachea b Attached to hyoid bone via muscles c Made of several large pieces of cartilage names aren t important d Epiglottis is part of larynx XV Functions of Larynx a Protect airway when swallowing i Soft palate moved back by tongue to close off gap so no air flow can go into the esophagus ii Epiglottis closes airway during swallowing 1 Food pushes it closed 2 Larynx helps by pulling up b Speaking i Vocal Cords are in larynx ii To form sounds tension is put on vocal cords and air is expelled iii The vocal cords vibrate to formsound iv Length of vocal cord determines pitch 1 Men have longer vocal cords 2 We have some control over length like when singing v Glottis 1 Space between vocal cords a Quiet respiration glottis is slightly open b Forced respiration glottis is wide open c Speaking Just a small crack is open d Whispering Very tiny crack looks like it is closed XVI Trachea a Cartilage rings of trachea are not complete rings i Gaps at the back of rings ii Gaps allow esophagus to bulge into trachea when swallowing food iii Food won t get stuck on rings of trachea b Simple epithelium cells and mucosal cells line the Trachea i Mucus traps particles not wanted in lungs ii Cilia on epithelium cells push loaded m ucus up the larynx and pharynx to be swallowed iii Goblet cells secrete mucus XVII Bronchioles and Asthma a Bronchioles have no cartilage around them b Free to collapse or change diameter via smooth muscle c When you are running you want to expand bronchioles as much as possible i Sympathetic nervous system allows smooth muscle to relax and expand ii Parasympathetic is responsible for quiet breathing 1 Want to be efficient with air 2 Minimize dead air in bronchioles d Asthma is a diseas of the bronchioles i If particulate in in bronchiole stimulus is over exaggerated 1 Extra mucus is secreted 2 Bronchiole is contracted excessively 3 This makes it hard for patient to breath and take in enough air ii Causes 1 60 patients in response to smoke air pollution particulates 2 40 patients immune response triggered by allergens


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